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NuMBEK 1 — Januaky 1915 

Early History of Lead Mining in the Iowa Country 

Jacob Van der Zee 3 

Text-book Legislation in Iowa 0. E. Klingaman 53 

Some Publications 114 

Western Americana 118 

lowana 121 

Historical Societies 130 

Notes and Comment 143 

Contributors 147 

Number 2 — April 1915 

The Half-breed Tract Jacob Van der Zee 151 

The Career of Jacob Rich George Evan Roberts 165 

Some Episodes in the Early History of Des Moines 

Dan Elbert Clark 175 

The Oldest Land Titles in the State of Iowa 

Jacob Van der Zee 238 

The Indians of Iowa in 1842 250 

Some Publications 264 

Western Americana 273 

lowana 275 

Historical Societies 288 

Notes and Comment 302 

Contributors 307 




Number 3 — July 1915 

The Neutral Ground Jacob Van dee Zee 311 

The Grasshopper Plagues in Iowa John B. Briggs 349 

John A. Nash and the Early History of Des Moines College 392 

The Black Hawk War and the Treaty of 1832 

Jacob Van der Zee 416 

Some Publications 429 

Western Americana 436 

lowana 440 

Historical Societies 450 

Notes and Comment 466 

Contributors 471 

Number 4 — October 1915 

The Legislation of the Thirty-sixth General Assembly of Iowa 

Frank Edward Horack 475 

History of Presbyterianism in Iowa City 

Jacob Van der Zee 529 

Some Publications 581 

Western Americana 588 

lowana 590 

Historical Societies 600 

Notes and Comment 612 

Contributors 615 

Index 617 



Iowa Journal 




Published Quarterly by 


lowai City Iowa. 

■altni I>ee«mbtr 90 1902 •! Iowa City low* m itcoad-daw mftUer under ael of OsnsTtss «J Jaiy id 

Vol XIII JANUARY 1915 No 1 

Assistant Editor, DAN E. CLARK 


Early History of Lead Mining in the Iowa Country 

Jacob Van der Zee 3 

Text-book Legislation in Iowa . O. E. Klingaman 53 

Some Publications 114 

Western Americana ...... . 218 

lowana ......... ^21 

Historical Societies 130 

Notes and Comment 143 

Contributors . 147 



AT IOWA dtnr 

SuBSOhM'jioN Pbiox: $2.00 SiMOLi NuMBZB: 50 Cknts 

Copyright 1915 hy The State Historical Society of Iowa 



AT IOWA dtnr 

SuBSOhM'jioN Pbiox: $2.00 Simoli Numbzb: 

Addre$B all ConrnunioaUam to 
Thb Btati Histobioal Boqzitt Iowa Cnr Iowa 



VOL. XIII — 1 



One of the first results of the intercourse between French 
traders and native tribesmen in the Middle West was the 
Indian hunter's loss of independence. To obtain the mer- 
chandise of the European the simple native had to pay the 
price in furs, and to get a sufficient quantity of this form of 
money he had to procure a gun and ammunition. Thus it 
happened that the Indians became dependent upon the 
French for their supply of goods and guns, powder and shot. 


Among the earliest traders in the Upper Mississippi Val- 
ley was an experienced bush-ranger, Nicholas Perrot, 
French Commandant of the West. Some time during the 
year 1690 a party of Miami Indians came to him with a 
request that he set up a trading-post in their country south 
of the Wisconsin River, and they made presents of beaver 
skins and * * a piece of ore which came from a very rich Lead 
Mine .... on the bank of a stream which empties 
into the Mississippi Perrot promised to comply with 
their wishes within twenty days. 

Deposits of lead then existed on both sides of the Great 
River. Opinion differs on the question whether Perrot built 
a post upon Catfish Creek in the Iowa country or upon the 
Galena River in Illinois. One fact, however, seems certain 
in the absence of available records to the contrary: Perrot 
was the first European who mined lead in this region. On 
his journey up the Mississippi from the Gulf of Mexico in 
1700 with about twenty-five companions Le Sueur took note 
of lead mines upon both sides of the river: *Hhe Mines of 




Nicolas Perrot, which is the name of the man who discov- 
ered them.'' The name, Perrot 's Mines", lingered long 
after the discoverer's departure from the West. Such was 
the beginning of lead mining in the Upper Mississippi Val- 
ley. Whether dug by the Indians or the French lead not 
only came to be another medium of exchange for French 
goods, but also returned to the Indian huntsmen in the 
shape of bullets or shot for their guns.^ 


The existence of the lead mines became common knowl- 
edge among French traders: it was even recorded upon 
French maps in Europe. But during the first half of the 
eighteenth century actual mining operations by Frenchmen 
in this region could not have been considerable on account 
of the Fox wars : the allied Sacs and Foxes were a menace 
to all French traders and the enemy of all the Indian tribes 
of the upper country. In 1760 the French regime west of 
the Mississippi ended and two years later Spain obtained 
nominal possession of the Iowa wilderness and its lead 
mines ; while England wrung from France all the vast terri- 
tory east of the Mississippi. Such were the fruits of a 
mighty victory for English trade, another milestone in the 
expansion of English territory. 

From that date began the second phase of the struggle 
for the control of the Indian trade upon the American con- 
tinent, and Spain and England were the combatants. Span- 
ish subjects in Louisiana (mostly Frenchmen) were now to 
be pitted against English subjects who came from Canada 

1 See the writer 's article in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 
Vol. XII, pp. 336-338; Thwaites's account of lead-mining in the Wisconsin 
Historical Collections, Vol. XIII, pp. 271-292; Keyes's article in the Annals 
of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. X, pp. 539-546. 

For an account of fur trade operations in the Iowa country from the earliest 
time until 1833, the reader is referred to The Iowa Journal of History and 
Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 323-372, 479-567. 


and the Atlantic seaboard colonies. All of them were inter- 
ested in the vast American wilderness which offered abun- 
dant commercial opportunities. The commercial rivalry 
among the nations of this day and age is no keener than it 
was a century or two ago. The Mississippi River region 
and its native inhabitants appealed to the speculative busi- 
ness men of that day as a field worthy of vigorous exploita- 
tion. And so life in the upper portion of the Great Valley 
became little more than a contest between traders, some of 
whom conveyed furs eastward to Montreal and New York, 
while others floated their packs southward to St. Louis and 
New Orleans before final shipment for manufacture and sale 
in the markets of Europe. 

Then followed the rebellion of the thirteen American col- 
onies against economic restrictions imposed by the mother 
country. At the conclusion of hostilities England surren- 
dered all claims to land east of the Mississippi, but carefully 
stipulated that although English trading-posts were to be 
abandoned, trade privileges in American territory were not 
to be denied to English subjects. Thus under the protection 
of the terms of the treaty English and French-Canadians 
continued the fur traffic on an equal footing with American 
citizens who cared to embark upon the same business. West 
of the Great River, including the Iowa country, Spain 
adopted the policy of keeping the trade in furs and peltries 
in the hands of her own subjects. 

Such were the main features of western economic life in 
the last quarter of the eighteenth century. The great Cen- 
tral West was little less than a huge market-place to which 
came French-Canadians with their wares from the valley of 
the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes, a few Anglo-Amer- 
ican traders from the Atlantic seacoast, and French and 
Spanish merchants from the South and West. The spirit 
of commercial enterprise was in the air: the furs and the 



skins of the wild game animals of forest, river, and prairie 
meant big profits for those who were bold and energetic 
enough to visit the haunts of the Indians. The native inhab- 
itants of the Great Valley, once content to hunt with bows 
and flint-tipped arrows and thus procure such food and 
skins as they needed for personal comfort and adornment, 
had gradually become the white man's tools, helping to 
satisfy the white man's lust for wealth and getting in return 
such articles as appealed to their childlike fancy. To aid 
in this general transformation of the Indian character the 
traders had long supplied the Indians with guns and am- 
munition, all sorts of merchandise, and last but not least, 
with liquor. 


During the latter third of the eighteenth century, lead 
from the mines in Spanish Missouri ranked next to peltries 
as the most important and profitable export of the Valley, 
^'for without bullets the firearms of the white men were of 
small avail" in Indian hands.^ The lead mines of the Ga- 
lena Eiver in what is now northern Illinois were also well 
known. In the year 1780, when Spain and the American 
colonies were both at war with England, a British officer 
wrote that the Indians had brought from the mines ^ ^ seven- 
teen Spanish & Eebel Prisoners, & Stopp'd Fifty Tonus of 
Lead ore and from both they obtained a good supply of 
Provisions''; and that several Indians of various tribes 
were going to watch the lead mines and give no quarter to 
persons who could not produce a British passport. An 
Anglo-Indian expedition against St. Louis in the summer of 
1780 failed, largely because two French-Canadian traders, 
Calve and Ducharme, caused the desertion of the Sac In- 

2 Thwaites'B Wisconsin, p. 157. 



dians from whose lead mines they had for some time derived 
great profit.^ 

It seems, therefore, that although the lead mines of Nich- 
olas Perrot in the Iowa wilderness may have lain forgotten 
or unused for a long time, they were operated by the 
Spanish in 1780. Indeed, in that year a rich mine was 
discovered and opened by the Fox Indians who had but 
recently transferred their village life from Wisconsin to the 
Iowa country. Then, on the twenty-second day of Septem- 
ber, 1788, there occurred at the frontier trading village of 
Prairie du Chien an incident of unusual significance : in the 
presence of several witnesses, Julien Dubuque, a French- 
Canadian, at a full council of ten Fox chiefs and braves re- 
ceived written permission to operate the lead mines in their 

3 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XI, pp. 151, 152, 154, 156, Vol. XIII, 
p. 280; The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XII, p. 362. 

4 A literal translation of the French document in American State Papers, 
Public Lands, Vol. Ill, p. 678, deserves a place here: 

* * Transaction of the council, held by the Foxes, that is to saj the chiefs and 
the braves of the five villages, with the approbation of the rest of their tribe 
interpreted by Mr. Quinantotaye, delegated by them, in their presence and in 
ours undersigned, namely, that the Foxes permit Julien Dubuque, called by 
them The Little Night, to work the mine until it should please them to retire 
from it and then without any restriction. Besides they sell to him, and release 
to him the whole bluff, and the contents of the mine discovered by the wife of 
Peosta to which no white man nor savages can lay claim without the consent of 
M. Julien Dubuque, and in case he finds nothing in it, he shall be empowered to 
seek wherever he may like and work quietly without anyone's being able to 
harm him nor to cause him damage in his work. Thus we the chiefs and the 
braves by the votes of all our villages, have agreed with Julien Dubuque, selling 
and delivering to him from this day on as it is mentioned above in the presence 
of Frenchmen who are listening to us and are the witnesses of this act. 
At Prairie du Chien, in full council, September 1788. 

Bapt. Pierre, his X mark. 

A La Austin, his X mark. 

Blondeau De Quienan, his X mark. 


Joseph Fontigny, witness. 
This document can also be found in the United States Supreme Court Reports, 
16 Howard, 222. 


Dubuque was not more than twenty-six years of age at 
this time, having come to the West from Canada about five 
years before.^ Like most French frontiersmen of his day he 
traveled and traded among the wild inhabitants of forest 
and prairie. How well he succeeded can not be determined 
with certainty, but be that as it may, he so won his way into 
the hearts of the simple natives as to obtain their everlast- 
ing admiration and good-will. He made himself familiar 
with all their superstitions and ''by means of ingenious 
artifices and magic conjurations he became to them a ver- 
itable idol". From his appearance the Foxes called him 
''La Petite Nuif' (The Little Night).^ \ 

In winning the friendship of the savages, however, Du- 
buque gained more than this remarkable ascendancy over 

It is a noteworthy fact that the only real aboriginal Americans in Iowa to-day 
are a remnant of the once mighty Fox and Sac tribes. In accordance with the 
treaty of 1842 they crossed the Missouri Eiver to a reservation in Kansas. 
Poor crops, however, and a feverish climate made them unhappy in their new 
home: they trailed back to Iowa. *'The story of how they outwitted secre- 
taries and turned the policy of the Government from active hostility to tolera- 
tion and finally to favor, and reestablished themselves in Iowa on a patch of 
the very soil they ceded to the Government in 1842, is unique in the annals of 
our Indian history." — Iowa Historical Eecord, Vol. XVII, p. 330. 

5 Dubuque was of Norman descent and first saw the light of day on January 
10, 1762, in the village of St. Pierre les Becquets in the district of Three 
Elvers. See Tasse's Les Canadiens de L'Ouest, Vol. I, p. 240. He is men- 
tioned as the founder of the present city of Prairie du Chien, sharing the honor 
with Basil Giard and Pierre Antaya. See Coues's The Expeditions of Zehulon 
M. Pike, Vol. I, p. 303. 

In Senate Documents, 1st Session, 29th Congress, No. 256, p. 3, the statement 
is made that Dubuque, ^'a mineralogist", settled among the Sacs and Foxes 
"somotirae in the year 1774", but this is obviously an error. 

Most of the history of the Dubuque mines is to be found in documents sub- 
mitted to Congress and the United States Supreme Court by St. Louis persons 
who sought to establish their title to the lead-mining region after Dubuque's 
death in 1810. Under such circumstances the claimants could not be expected 
to make any admissions against their interest. 

« Once, tradition tells us, when the Foxes were unwilling to accede to his de- 
mands, Dubuque threatened to set fire to the creek which flowed by their wig- 
wams. Shortly after tlin departure of some of his companions up the stream, 
he carried out his threat, and the Indians, struck dumb with amazement, saw 



their minds. He came into possession of certain facts which 
were destined to shape his whole career : he learned of the 
lead mines in the territory of the Fox Indians. The possi- 
bilities of exploiting so vast a tract of mineral land, com- 
prising the bluffs and ravines near the city which bears his 
name to-day, must have appealed strongly to Dubuque's 
desire for adventure and personal aggrandizement. The 
Indians had guarded the secrecy of their lead discoveries 
and had obstinately resisted the white invasion. Why then 
did the Foxes see fit to make an exception in Dubuque's 
favor! Chiefly because Frenchmen were more popular 
among them than Englishmen or Americans. The French 
had settled among them ^^for the purposes of trade and 
sociability, and their interests, like those of the Indians, lay 
in the direction of keeping the fur preserves intact'', while 
the English or American borderer indicated that he was 
^Hhe herald of a relentless system of conquest."'^ 

Having obtained sole permission to work the mines, a 
monopoly which would prevent other traders from securing 
the rich opportunities of the mining region, Dubuque soon 
removed from Prairie du Chien with ten French-Canadian 
laborers. Extensive improvements were made at once upon 
the site of his new labors : a farm was cleared, a trading- 
house, horse-mill, and smelting furnace were constructed, 
and mining commenced. Nor does Dubuque appear to have 
been restricted to the west side of the river while working 
in the interests of his traffic. It is believed that his pros- 
pectors and miners, who enjoyed the full sympathy of the 

the water in a mass of flames. To be sure it was only the burning of some oil 
which had been poured upon the current of the stream above the village, but the 
wishes of Dubuque were soon satisfied. For such traditions of his life in the 
Iowa country see Tasse's Les Canadiens de L 'Quest, Vol. I, p. 240; Annals of 
Iowa (Third Series), Vol. II, p. 334; Beltrami's A Pilgrimage in Europe and 
America, Vol. II, p. 165. 

•^Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XIII, pp. 279, 280, 283, 284; Tasse's 
Les Canadiens de L'Ouest, Vol. I, p. 242. 


Sacs and the Foxes, roved about at will on both sides of the 

In exploiting the mines Dubuque seems to have employed 
his Indian friends to do the mining and smelting and Cana- 
dians and half-breeds to prove the claims which the Indians 
discovered. The only improved tools available at that early 
day were obtained from the traders : hoes and shovels, pick- 
axes and crowbars. Crude ore was brought to the surface 
in tough deer skins hoisted or dragged up inclined planes by 
means of long strips of hide. Thus for eight years Dubuque 
worked industriously at the mines in the Iowa country. 
Kealizing that the grant of the Indians might not fully 
establish him upon the land, he applied to the Spanish 
Governor-General in 1796 for a formal recognition and con- 
firmation of his rights to the property. His petition, trans- 
lated from the French, reads as follows : 

To his excellency the Baron de Carondelet : 

Your excellency's very humble petitioner, named Julien Du- 
buque, having made a settlement on the frontiers of your govern- 
ment, in the midst of the Indian nations, who are the inhabitants of 
the country, has bought a tract of land from these Indians, with the 
mines it contains, and by his perseverance has surmounted all the 
obstacles, as expensive as they were dangerous, and, after many 
voyages, has come to be the peaceable possessor of a tract of land on 
the western bank of the Mississippi, to which he has given the name 
of the ''Mines d'Espagne," in memory of the government to which 
he belonged. As the place of settlement is but a point, and the 
different mines which he works are apart, and at a distance of more 
than three leagues from each other, the very humble petitioner prays 
your Excellency to have the goodness to assure him the margin of 
the waters of the little river Maquanquitois to the margin of the 
Mesquabysnonques^ which forms about seven leagues on the west 
bank of the Mississippi, by three leagues in depth, and to grant him 
the full proprietorship [Peaceable possession] thereof, which the 

8 United States Supreme Court Reports, 16 Howard, 221. 

9 The Maquoketa and the Tete des Morts are referred to. 


very humble petitioner ventures to hope that your goodness will be 
pleased to grant him his request. I beseech that same goodness 
which makes the happiness of so many subjects, to pardon me my 
style, and be pleased to accept the pure simplicity of my heart in 
default of my eloquence. I pray Heaven, with all my power, that it 
preserve you, and that it load you with all its benefits; and I am, 
and shall be all my life, your Excellency's very humble, and very 
obedient, and very submissive servant. 

J. Dubuque. 

Upon the receipt of this memoriaP^ the Governor-General 
turned for information to the merchant, Don Andreas Todd, 
an Irishman who had obtained from the King of Spain a 
monopoly of the Indian trade in Upper Louisiana. This 
individual replied that so far as he was concerned, he saw 
no reason why his excellency should not grant the request, 
provided *^that the grantee shall observe the provisions of 
his Majesty relating to the trade with the Indians ; and that 
this be absolutely prohibited to him, unless he shall have my 
consent in writing.'' The grant was accordingly made to 
Dubuque subject to these restrictions.^^ 

On the first day of October, 1800, the vast expanse of 
territory west of the Mississippi was by Spain ceded back 
to France which was then under the sway of Napoleon 
Bonaparte and his government. At the moment, however, 
when almost all of Europe was mobilizing troops against 

10 TMs document may be found translated in American State Papers, Fublio 
Lands, Vol. Ill, p. 678; Senate Documents, 1st Session, 29th Congress, No. 256, 
pp. 17, 18. 

11 United States Supreme Court Beports, 16 Howard, 224. 

*'Don Andrew, however, does not seem to have been able to hamper Dubuque, 
and the latter 's establishment grew with time. His friendship with the Indians, 
and their dislike of the Spanish, were a sufficient safeguard against interference 
from Don Andrew, although he appears to have met with no small opposition on 
the east side of the river from wandering representatives of the American Fur 
Company at Mackinaw, who are said to have obtained considerable supplies of 
lead from the crafty Foxes and indeed to have themselves smelted some ore.^' 
No authority is cited for this statement in Wisconsin Historical Collections, 
Vol. XIII, p. 283. 


him, the First Consul, feeling the urgent need of concen- 
trating his forces, abandoned his scheme of reviving a great 
colonial empire ; and so, in April, 1803, he sold to the United 
States government for a few million dollars the rich fur- 
bearing and lead-mining province of Louisiana. The 
''Mines of Spain" were thus incorporated into the Amer- 
ican Eepublic.^^ 


Beginning with the year 1804 the United States govern- 
ment turned its attention to the unknown trans-Mississippi 
region acquired from France. The new purchase was di- 
vided into the Territory of Orleans and the District of 
Louisiana, the latter or northern part being attached for a 
short time to Indiana Territory under the governorship of 
William Henry Harrison. Early in the spring of 1804 
Lewis and Clark set out on the exploring expedition which 
had been contemplated for commercial reasons even before 
Napoleon parted with the shady title which France held to 
the country. 

On the third day of November, 1804, Harrison effected at 
St. Louis, then but a good-sized town, a treaty with the Sac 
and Fox tribes whose seven tepee villages overlooked the 
Mississippi River in the Iowa-Illinois country. The allied 
tribes gave up their title but not their right to possession of 
the lands east of the river.^^ In sending this treaty to the 
Senate President Thomas Jefferson urged its adoption be- 
cause of the importance of securing exclusive commercial 
relations with all the Indian nations west of the Great River. 
The expansion of American commerce, then, was the chief 
motive which dominated United States Senators when they 
ratified the treaty in January, 1805. 

i2Chc'inning'H The Jefersonian System, pp. 58-72, fully presents the circum- 
stances of this big deal in real estate. 

13 Kappler's Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 76. 




The richness of the lead mines in the Sac and Fox terri- 
tory had already attracted the attention of the public and of 
Congress. Indeed, rumors had reached the government at 
Washington that Julien Dubuque claimed the richest of 
them, and that speculators were trying to get from him an 
interest in them/' A few days after Harrison's treaty 
with the Sacs and Foxes, Dubuque completed important 
negotiations at St. Louis: he parted with his title to the 
southern half of the land which he occupied, including ^^all 
the works, furnaces, buildings, clearings, &c.,'' for the sum 
of $10,848.60. The purchaser was Auguste Chouteau, a 
merchant of St. Louis to whom Dubuque had become in- 
debted for articles used in the Indian trade. Dubuque also 
sold certain records'' for $32.79. 

Did Dubuque believe that his title to the land was worth- 
less and that he was getting money and goods under false 
pretenses, or did Chouteau enter into the deal as pure spec- 
ulation and adventure? These are interesting questions in 
view of the fact that after Dubuque had received a grant of 
the privilege to work the mines, he had taken no step to- 
wards securing a full and valid title: he had kept certain 
papers in his possession but never undertook to get from 
the Spanish officials an order for the survey of the area 
which he occupied. Without an order or a survey no land 
grant could be complete according to Spanish law. What- 
ever Dubuque and Chouteau may have thought about this 
aspect of the case, they lost no time in filing their joint 
claims to the lead district with the United States Board of 
Land Commissioners, sitting at St. Louis in May, 1805, for 
the purpose of adjudicating questions arising out of the 
Spanish land policy in the Mississippi Valley.^* 

Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. Ill, p. 649; United States Supreme 
Court Beports, 16 Howard, 204, 234, 235. 



In the summer of 1805 the commander of the western 
army detailed one of his lieutenants, Zebulon M. Pike, to 
explore the Upper Mississippi and collect general informa- 
tion for military and legislative purposes and more definite 
knowledge of what were the boundaries of Louisiana. In a 
keel-boat seventy feet long, with a party of twenty men, 
Pike ascended the river and on the 20th of August encoun- 
tered the first difficulty, in the rapids De Moyen^', a series 
of cascades near the mouth of the Des Moines Eiver. Here, 
in the midst of treacherous shoals, the Americans were met 
by William Ewing, four chiefs, fifteen warriors, and an 
interpreter by the name of Louis Honore Tesson, who in 
their canoes assisted the party up the rapids to Ewing 's 
house on the Illinois side opposite a Sac village of thirteen 
lodges on the present site of Montrose, Iowa. Tesson, son 
of the man who had obtained a Spanish land grant in 1799, 
was considerably disappointed when Pike refused to engage 
him as interpreter on the journey : he promised to point out 
mines which no person knew but himself, but Pike consid- 
ered him ^^much of a hypocrite, and possessing great gas- 

While the exploring party was resting opposite Tesson 
Spanish land grant settlement most of the next day. Pike 
made a speech to the chiefs of the Sac village. Pike later 
encamped on a sand bar near the present city of Fort 
Madison and two days afterward went into raptures over 
the site of the present city of Burlington, **a very handsome 
situation for a garrison of which he wrote : 

The channel of the river passes under the hill, which is about 600 

10 William Ewing had just been stationed "at the Eiver Desmoin, to teach 
the Ind ians the Arts of Agriculture .... He appears to be a young man 
of innocence, levity and simplicity — without experience or observation." — 
Coues's The Expeditions of Zehulon M. Tike, Vol. I, pp. 15, 221, 222, 291. 



feet perpendicular, and level on the top ; 400 yards in the rear there 
is a small prairie of 8 or 10 acres, which would be a convenient spot 
for gardens; and on the east side of the river there is a beautiful 
prospect over a large prairie, as far as the eye can extend, now and 
then interrupted by groves of trees. Directly under the rock is a 
limestone spring, which, after an hour's work, would afford water 
amply sufficient for the consumption of a regiment. The landing 
is bold and safe, and at the lower part of the hill a road may be made 
for a team in half an hour. Black and white oak timber in abund- 
ance. The mountain [no doubt later known as Flint Hill] continues 
about two miles, and has five springs bursting from it in that dis- 

On the following day, August 24th, Pike lost not only his 
two favorite dogs on the Iowa side but also two men who 
volunteered to find them. The party then encamped some- 
where in Louisa County. On the 25th the explorers fired a 
blunderbuss every hour of the day as a signal to the lost 
men, but to no avail, and camp was pitched on Grant's 
prairie above the mouth of the Iowa River, now known as 
Muscatine Island. Pike learned of a village of loways ten 
miles up the Iowa Eiver, and declared its branch, the Red 
Cedar, navigable for batteaux nearly 300 miles ''.^^ 

The next two camping places were also on the Iowa side : 
Louisa County and the site of Davenport. On the 28th Pike 
breakfasted at the camp of Mr. James Aird, a Scotch gentle- 
man from Mackinac, who had just injured his boat in de- 
scending the Rock Rapids of the Mississippi. That evening 
above the rapids Pike landed for the night on the later site 
of Le Claire, and next morning had breakfast at a Fox 
village of eighteen lodges near the site of the present town 
of Princeton. Beyond the **Wabisipinekan'' River, after a 
camp near the site of Camanche, they made good headway, 
noting Leopold hill near Bellevue in J ackson County. 

16 Cones 's The Expeditions of Zebulon M. PiTce, Vol. I, pp. 21, 292. See also 
Miss Ethyl E. Martin's article in The Iowa Jouenal of History and Politics, 
Vol. IX, pp. 335-358. 


At twelve o'clock on Sunday, September 1st, Pike arrived 
at the lead mines and despite a violent fever he dressed 
himself ''with an intention to execute the orders of the 
general [James Wilkinson] relative to this place." Twelve 
miles inland was the second Fox village. As to what hap- 
pened let the entry in Pike's journal suffice: 

We were saluted with a field-piece, and received with every mark 
of attention by Monsieur Dubuque, the proprietor. There were no 
horses at the house, and it was six miles to where the mines were 
worked ; it was therefore impossible to make a report by actual in- 
spection. I therefore proposed 10 queries, on the answers to which 
my report was founded. 

Lieutenant Pike put the following questions to Dubuque, 
whose replies seemed ''to carry with them the semblance of 
equivocation ' ' ; ^"^ 

1. What is the date of your grant of the mines from the savages ? 
Ans. The copy of the grant is in Mr. [Antoine Pierre] Soulard's 

[Surveyor-general's] office at St. Louis. 

2. What is the date of the confirmation by the Spaniards ? 
Ans. The same as to query first. 

3. What is the extent of your grant? 
Ans. The same as above. 

4. What is the extent of the mines? 

Ans. Twenty-eight or twenty-seven leagues long, and from one to 
three broad. 

5. Lead made per annum? 

Ans. From 20,000 to 40,000 pounds. 

6. Quantity of lead per cwt. of mineral ? 
Ans. Seventy-five per cent. 

7. Quantity of lead in pigs? 

Ans. All we make, as we neither manufacture bar, sheet-lead, 
nor shot. 

8. If mixed with any other mineral? 

Ans. We have seen some copper, but having no person sufficient- 
ly Coues's The Expeditions of Zehulon M. Pike, Vol. I, pp. 28-30, 225, 226, 
2fM, 339. 



ly acquainted with chemistry to make the experiment properly, can- 
not say as to the proportion it bears to the lead. 

Dubuque's house then stood near the mouth of Catfish 
Creek close to the Mississippi. To quote again from Pike 's 
interesting journal: 

Dined with Mr, D., who informed me that the Sioux and Sauteurs 
were as warmly engaged in opposition as ever. ... At this 
place I was introduced to a chief called Eaven, of the Reynards 
[Foxes] . He made a very flowery speech on the occasion, which I 
answered in a few words, accompanied by a small present. 

I had now given up all hopes of my two men, and was about to 
embark when a peroque [pirogue] arrived, in which they were, with 
a Mr. Blondeau, and two Indians whom that gentleman had engaged 
above the rapids of Stony [Rock] river. The two soldiers had been 
six days without anything to eat except muscles [mussels], when 
they met Mr. James Aird, by whose humanity and attention their 
strength and spirits were in a measure restored ; and they were en- 
abled to reach the [first] Reynard village, where they met Mr. B. 
The Indian chief furnished them with corn and shoes, and showed 
his friendship by every possible attention. I immediately dis- 
charged the hire of the Indians, and gave Mr. Blondeau a passage 
to the Prairie des Chiens. Left the lead mines at four o'clock. 
Distance 25 miles. 

All along the west bank north of the Des ]\ioines River 
Pike observed the possibilities of good deer-shooting. Op- 
posite the mouth of the Turkey River the Americans landed 
to shoot pigeons. **The moment a gun was fired," writes 
Pike, **some Indians, who were on the shore above us, ran 
down and put off in their peroques with great precipitation ; 
upon which Mr. Blondeau informed me that all the women 
and children were frightened at the very name of an Amer- 
ican boat, and that the men held us in great respect, con- 
ceiving us very quarrelsome, much for war, and also very 
brave.'' The warriors who took to the water in such a 
hurry were Foxes from the third village half a league up the 
Turkey River, where they raised ' ' sufficient corn to supply 

VOL. XIII — 2 


all the permanent and transient inhabitants of the Prairie 
des Chiens.''^^ 

At this village Pike was entertained by some Americans, 
Captain Fisher and Mr. Frazer, and in company with them 
and Mr. Woods crossed over to the Iowa side on the 5th of 
September : they ascended the hill which now rises between 
McGrregor and North McGregor and by blazing some trees 
Pike marked that spot as most suitable for the proposed 
United States military post. To General Wilkinson he 
wrote that the hill was ^4evel on top, and completely com- 
mands both rivers, the Mississippi being only one-half mile 
wide and the Ouisconsing [Wisconsin] about 900 yards 
when full." Concerning the site he added the following 
statement : 

There is plenty of timber in the rear and a spring at no great 
distance on the hill. If this position is to have in view the annoy- 
ance of any European power who might be induced to attack it with 
cannon, it has infinitely the preference to a position called the Petit 
Gris on the Ouisconsing, which I visited and marked the next day. 

On the small stream then called Giard's Eiver, the north- 
ern boundary of Basil Giard^s Spanish land grant, Pike 
found three houses, which with others on the Wisconsin side 
numbered about thirty-seven in all, housing perhaps three 
hundred and seventy settlers upon this far western frontier. 
After a few days rest among the generous and hospitable 
people of Prairie du Chien the exploring crew, enlarged by 
the accession of Mr. Frazer and two interpreters, continued 
their journey past Yellow Eiver (Jaune Riviere) and three 
miles farther observed a steep bluff now called Painted 
Rock, long known to the French as Roche Peinte" or 
^'Rochers Points", in Allamakee County. Some ten miles 
beyond Pike again encamped on the Iowa side. 

On the 10th of September he got word from Wabasha, 

18 Coues's The Expeditions of Zehulon M. Pilce, Vol. I, pp. 32, 33, 294. 



chief of a Sioux village just below the mouth of the Upper 
Iowa Eiver, that he had been waiting three days with meat, 
that his warriors at last had started to drink, and that there- 
fore he could not meet the Americans ^^with his people 
sober" until the next day. Pike nevertheless pushed on and 
could write afterwards : 

On our arrival opposite the lodges, the men were paraded on the 
bank, with their guns in their hands. They saluted us with ball 
with what might be termed three rounds; which I returned with 
three rounds from each boat with my blunderbusses. This salute, 
although nothing to soldiers accustomed to fire, would not be so 
agreeable to many people ; as the Indians had all been drinking, and 
as some of them even tried their dexterity, to see how near the boat 
they could strike. They may, indeed, be said to have struck on 
every side of us. "When landed, I had my pistols in my belt and 
sword in hand. I was met on the bank by the chief, and invited to 
his lodge. As soon as my guards were formed and sentinels posted, 
I accompanied him. Some of their arms behind, as a mark of con- 
fidence. At the chief's lodge I found a clean mat and pillow for me 
to sit on, and the before-mentioned pipe on a pair of small crutches 
before me. The chief sat on my right hand, my interpreter and 
Mr. Frazer on my left. 

The chief then made a speech to which Pike gave reply, 
explaining the objects of his expedition. This was followed 
by a medicine dance, and just before the Americans de- 
parted. Pike presented Wabasha with tobacco, knives, half 
a pound of vermilion, one quart of salt, and eight gallons of 
liquor, of which two were whisky and the remainder water. 
The chief thanked him, saying, ^'they must come free, as he 
did not ask for them" ; and Pike answered that to those who 
did not ask for anything, he gave freely; but to those who 
asked for much, he gave only little or nothing. 

The expedition proceeded northward to the Minnesota 
country and the sources of the Mississippi, and after mak- 

19 Coues 's The Expeditions of Zehulon M. PiTce, Vol. I, pp. 41, 43-48. 


ing some discoveries and important negotiations with the 
Sioux Indians Pike started on the return journey to St. 
Louis in the spring of 1806. He stopped one April day at 
Wabasha's village, left some powder and tobacco when the 
chief did not come back from a hunt, and received from the 
Sioux a kettle of boiled meat and a deer. On the 18th of 
April the crew took breakfast at the Painted Eock. After a 
few days well spent at Prairie du Chien, Pike went on, 
reaching Dubuque's place at 10 o'clock in the evening of 
April 23rd. There he found a camp of traders with forty 
or fifty Indians, got some information from *^the polite and 
evasive Monsieur Dubuque ' ', and requested him to write on 
certain points. After boiling some food the party put off 
once more in haste. They descended the river rapidly, 
reaching the agricultural establishment at the lowest Sac 
village on Sunday, April 27th, where Pike met Blondeau 
and found all the Indians drunk. 

Such were some of the interesting facts noted by Zebulon 
M. Pike in a journal and letters which were soon to give the 
American public in the East the first detailed glimpse of the 
Upper Mississippi Valley. The Iowa wilderness he de- 
scribed with special reference to the native inhabitants, 
three villages of Foxes and two of Sacs upon the Missis- 
sippi shore, and excellent sites for military strongholds as 
above indicated. He found the Foxes hunting from the 
Iowa Eiver to the Upper Iowa, while the Sacs roamed over 
the same country and as far south as the Illinois, and west- 
ward to the Missouri. Pike also noted the cause of a schism 
between these allies, the Foxes ^^not approving of the in- 
solence and ill-will" which had marked the conduct of the 
Sacs toward the United States. Both tribes raised a great 
quantity of corn, beans, and melons. The loways. Pike said, 
lived in villages near the mouth of the Iowa River and upon 
the Des Moines, under special Sac and Fox protection, 



away from the highroad of comraerce and therefore *4ess 
civilized Such a picture of eastern Iowa as then inhab- 
ited is complete if it includes Wabasha's village of Sioux 
Indians in the northeastern corner, with all the region north 
of Prairie du Chien on both sides of the Mississippi as their 


Such was the wilderness of eastern Iowa in which Julien 
Dubuque dwelt from the time of settlement in 1788 until his 
death in 1810. He had remained in uninterrupted posses- 
sion of the lead region, mined and smelted the ore, main- 
tained several houses and a horse-mill, cultivated four plots, 
and traded with his Indian friends. He exercised great 
influence over the Indians on both sides of the river : Winne- 
bagoes and Foxes were in the habit of consulting him upon 
their more important concerns.^^ 

Twice a year, it is related, in the spring and autumn, 
Dubuque left the scenes of his labors with some of his 
French employees in charge of boat-loads of lead and furs. 
Accompanied sometimes by Fox chiefs and warriors they 
floated down the current of the Mississippi to St. Louis, the 
one emporium of the great Middle West. There his visits 
seem to have created a considerable sensation, for it is said 
balls were given in his honor, and the leading men showered 
attentions upon him. A clerk in the store of Auguste Chou- 
teau, with whom Dubuque traded, described him as a man 
below the usual stature, of black hair and eyes, wiry and 
well built, capable of great endurance, and remarkably 
courteous and polite, with all the suavity and grace of the 

20 Coues's The Expeditions of Zehulon M. PiJce, Vol. I, pp. 337-339, 342, 348. 
Pike computed the probable number of Sacs at 2850, Foxes 1750, and loways 
1400. See page 346. 

21 Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. V, map opposite page 328; United 
States Supreme Court Beports, 16 Howard, 221, 222. 


typical Frenchman.'' In exchange for lead and furs and 
deer-skins Dubuque obtained all sorts of articles for his 
Indian customers.^^ 

But Dubuque was no financier : as was stated above, he 
fell under obligation to Auguste Chouteau of St. Louis, and 
to liquidate the indebtedness he sold part of the lead lands 
in 1804. Chouteau promised to pay a balance in Dubuque's 
favor in merchandise, taffetas, whisky, and other articles, 
during the next two years.^^ Despite the fact that the lead 
industry offered such unusual opportunities, Dubuque did 
not wax wealthy: not only St. Louis merchants but Mack- 
inac traders as well held claims against him as the following 
letter, translated from the French, bears witness 

De La Prerye Da Chients 3 June 1807. 
Msrs RochShleve & pooUier <& Coy 

Sirs — by Mr Brisebois you will receive twenty eight packs and 
four ditto for Mr. Berthelotte all together making thirty two packs 
whose invoice is enclosed, and which you will receive and send on to 
be sold on the account I owe you 

I have drawn on you for the wages of only one man to whom is 
due 6891vs. the rest I have drawn for Mr. Brisebois which I sup- 
pose will only be to transfer it from one leaf to another of your 

Probably you will be astonished at so small returns this year. It. 
is true, but consider the circumstances which have caused this small 
result. For seeing the fine appearances of last autumn I arranged 
with 8 men to trap Beaver on the Missourye I had sent them An 
Outfit [?] to make their Entrance into the village and entrench it 
etc. When they had gone ten days journey or had camped ten 
times they met the Sioux of Des Moins river, and had a little Broil 
with them. They all gave up the enterprise and came to pass the 
winter opposite their village eating up their maize since they had no 

22 TaHse's Les Canadiens de L 'Quest, Vol. I, p. 253; Annals of Iowa (Third 
Series), Vol. II, p. 335; Sabin's The Making of Iowa, p. 90. 

Annah of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. Ill, pp. 649, 650; Senate Documents,. 
Ist Session, 29th Congress, No. 256, pp. 2, 3, 9, 18-20. 

24 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XIX, pp. 318-320. 



meat to eat. This spring they came to return to me what remained, 
their guns, traps and Kettles, and I refused to accept them only 
replying that the loss was total. I told them that these credits re- 
mained for another year, which they must make up. But this Mis- 
fortune makes me wish to give up trading and I will really quit 
it when affairs have become settled up. 

I pray you not to be apprehensive for the Balance that remains 
against me — it is true that I am on the wrong side of the account 
But when I die I have funds that belong to me that will more than 
equal the Balance owing you. For all the small debts that I owe you 
I would much prefer to pay in peltry than to draw on you for 

I inform you that I have waited in vain since I had the honor of 
receiving a letter from you last Autumn and for information of the 
inheritance that I charged you to recover. I do not know the result, 
but whatever it may Be I always await with Great impatience what- 
ever you may have to tell me. 

I had hoped to go to Mackinac this year but an alarm spread 
among, the Savages renders my presence necessary in my locality 
and I must postpone my journey until next year. 

As for the Accounting that you ask me for, I make it the same as 
to what I owe you as you and every one does. But there are some 
small differences in regard to the price made on sugar, rum, and 
powder ; and after these are settled, I will adjust the Balance when- 
ever you wish. 

Since we have learned from you that I have had my lands con- 
firmed [see page 24 below] , I await a favorable opportunity to sell 
a portion of them to satisfy those that I owe, and to have left suf- 
ficient to live on the remainder. 

I am, awaiting the honor of one of your letters, and the pleasure 
of seeing you afterwards, one who has the honor to be. Messieurs, 
Your very humble and very affectionate Servant 

J. Dubuque 

Such were the difficulties in which Dubuque became in- 
volved towards the end of his life. After the year 1806 he 
accumulated more debts at St. Louis, for the men who later 
laid claim to all his lands asserted that his influence with 
the Indians ^^had been much enhanced by the liberal pres- 


ents lie had made them/' In 1809 he began to trade consid- 
erably with Jean Baptiste Faribault, then an independent 
trader at Prairie du Chien. But Dubuque could not pros- 
per: he seems to have been too generous to his Indian 
friends. And so, when death overtook him, his Fox neigh- 
bors were thrown into the deepest grief, so unalterably had 
Dubuque won their affections. If we may believe tradition, 
the funeral ceremonies conducted by the natives were char- 
acterized by pomp and many were the eloquent speeches at 
the grave. Dubuque was buried upon a high bluff situated 
between Catfish Creek and the Mississippi.^^ 


Meanwhile in 1806 the United States Land Commission- 
ers with one dissenting voice had pronounced the Dubuque- 
Chouteau claim a complete and valid Spanish grant. Pierre 
Chouteau, Jr., who had already spent a couple of years at 
the lead mines,^^ set out from St. Louis in the spring of the 
year 1810 after repeated urgings by Dubuque and arrived a 
few weeks after the latter 's death. According to the repre- 
sentations of the Chouteau claimants, Dubuque had often 
spoken to the Fox Indians of the expected arrival of his 
friend, and a short time before his death bade them to re- 
ceive and treat him as a friend. 

The Fox chiefs welcomed Chouteau ^^with every demon- 
stration of respect and kindness, and informed him that it 

25 For such accounts see Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. Ill, p. 343; 
Tasse's Les Canadiens de L 'Quest, p. 250; Senate Documents, 1st session, 29th 
Congress, No. 2.56, p. 12. For Dubuque's trade with Faribault see Collections 
of the Minnesota Historical Society, Vol. Ill, p. 174. In Catlin's North Amer- 
ican Indians (Chatto and Windus), Vol. II, p. 130, there is a picture of Du- 
buque's grave on the bluff. In 1897 the citizens of Dubuque erected a thirty- 
eight-foot monument upon the spot. 

2«Thwaitcs's Original Journals of the Lewis and ClarTc Expedition, Vol. V, 
p. 375. See also Chittenden's The History of the American Fur Trade of the 
Far West, Vol. I, p. 383. 



was the request of Dubuque that he should take possession 
of his property and occupy his house.'' Although Pierre 
Chouteau did not stay upon the premises permanently after 
1810, he continued to do business there until the commence- 
ment of the War of 1812, when he returned to St. Louis. By 
this time, however, much had happened to the status of the 
Dubuque-Chouteau title. In the year 1810 Albert Gallatin, 
Secretary of the Treasury, rendered a report hostile to the 
claim, and accordingly, in December, 1811, the Land Com- 
missioners reversed their decision of 1806. 

Not even this hard blow could dampen the ardor of the 
St. Louis merchants and traders who were interested in the 
lead-mine region. Auguste Chouteau, who had been waiting 
two years and more for an opportunity to qualify as Julien 
Dubuque's administrator, at last succeeded in getting the 
appointment under the following circumstances : the Terri- 
tory of Orleans was admitted to the Union as the State of 
Louisiana in April, 1812, and the northern part of the 
Louisiana Purchase (which from 1805 to 1812 had consti- 
tuted the Territory of Louisiana) was then organized into 
the Territory of Missouri, and all of the Iowa country be- 
came part of St. Charles County, Missouri. In defiance of 
the Land Commissioners' decision, Chouteau then obtained 
from the probate court of this county an order to sell Du- 
buque 's interest in the mining lands for the payment of his 
debts. The land was accordingly divided into parcels and 
sold to John P. Cabanne, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., William 
Eussell, and others.^'' Their claim to Dubuque's Mines 
became the most notorious case in and out of the halls of 
Congress for over forty years: pressure was brought to 
bear in many ways and not until the United States Supreme 

27 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 29tli Congress, No. 256, p. 12 ; United States 
Supreme Court Reports, 16 Howard, 204, 205; Annals of Iowa (Third Series), 
Vol. V, pp. 327-330. 


Court declared its opinion in 1853 were the St. Louis mer- 
chants forever silenced. 


Dubuque's removal by death did not end the exploitation 
of the lead mines, for the Fox villagers took things into 
their own hands. Down to September, 1811, they are said 
to have dug and smelted the lead ore with remarkable suc- 
cess, finding a market for their product at the government 
factory of old Fort Madison. Jean Baptiste Faribault of 
Prairie du Chien, who began trading with Dubuque in 1809, 
also bought from them, conveying his cargoes to St. Louis 
in keel-boats at a good profit. When the British captured 
Prairie du Chien in 1814, their Indian allies seized $3000 
worth of Faribault 's lead at Dubuque 's mines. 

It was reported that the Sacs and Foxes produced four 
hundred thousand pounds of lead the year after Dubuque's 
death. They had largely abandoned the chase and were 
exchanging their lead for goods. The United States gov- 
ernment was urged to induce the Indians to turn their atten- 
tion permanently to mining in order to drive Canadian fur 
traders from the country. This advice by an Indian agent 
met with no response, and as a result British subjects were 
allowed to ply their traffic in the Iowa wilderness a number 
of years more. 

The Sacs and Foxes had been operating Dubuque 's mines 
for over a year when the United States factor of Fort Madi- 
son sent George Hunt, his sutler, with government goods to 
their neighborhood. This man arrived on the Illinois side of 
the river at a point known as Death's Head, a few miles 
below Dubuque, and there with the aid of a half-breed inter- 
preter and two discharged soldiers, erected a store, lead- 
house, and fur-house. About the end of September he 
commenced trade in earnest: from ten to fifteen canoes of 



lead came to Ms landing daily. Near by, Nathaniel Pryor, 
one of the four sergeants of the Lewis and Clark expedition, 
carried on a smelting furnace. 

Hunt had transacted profitable business in lead and furs 
and had advanced a large quantity of goods to the Indians 
on credit when a party of AVinnebagoes, returning from 
their defeat at the battle of Tippecanoe, came along, riddled 
Hunt's men with bullets, and then scalped and dissected 
them. Hunt himself was saved because he was taken for an 
Englishman. During the drunken orgy that followed their 
discovery of his barrel of whiskey Hunt and his interpreter 
took their departure southward to Fort Madison. On look- 
ing back as they made their escape in the darkness they saw 
the sky lit up by a raging fire and concluded that the In- 
dians had set the torch to the buildings. When Hunt at- 
tempted to return for his lead in May, 1812, he and other 
passengers in a French boat from St. Louis found the 
Mississippi River blockaded by a force of Winnebagoes on 
Rock Island : French boats were required to pay tribute and 
all Americans were threatened with death. It was the be- 
ginning of the War of 1812 in the Upper Mississippi Valley : 
a war between British traders and their Indian allies on one 
side and American traders and troops on the other.^^ 

What happened at the lead mines after hostilities were 
opened in this region! As English influence over the minds 
and commerce of the Black Hawk faction of the Sacs and 
Foxes reigned supreme for a while even after the conclusion 
of peace in 1815, trade in lead was no doubt practically 
ruined so far as Americans were concerned. 


After the close of the War of 1812 the American govern- 
ment lost no time in making its strong arm felt in the upper 

28 For Hunt 's account of trade near the lead mines see The Iowa Journal 
OF History and Politics, Vol. XI, pp. 525-534, 540. For operations at Du- 


portion of the Mississippi Valley: north of Fort Edwards, 
which was constructed opposite the mouth of the Des Moines 
Eiver, arose Fort Armstrong upon Rock Island, and at 
Prairie du Chien there appeared Fort Crawford, all three 
being erected in the year 1816. Henceforth, the United 
States troops garrisoned at these posts were to act as a 
police force to see that the government's trade and inter- 
course laws were observed by traders in the Indian country, 
and gradually American subjects gained a foothold in the 

The sutler of the troops upon Rock Island, George Daven- 
port, a native-born Englishman, soon turned to the Indian 
trade. He is credited with having shipped to St. Louis in 
1816 the first flatboat of lead ^^ever avowedly emanating 
from the Fever River mines ' \ It may be doubted whether 
Davenport obtained the ore as early as this, but that he 
visited the Sac and Fox Indians who operated the mines on 
both sides of the Mississippi in 1818 and that he obtained 
large quantities of lead from them practically every year 
thereafter is well authenticated.^^ 

Another event of importance in 1816 was the survey and 
marking of the line which many years later came to be 
Iowa's southern boundary. By a treaty in 1808 the Osage 
Indians surrendered their rights to a considerable tract of 
land within the Louisiana Territory. On account of the 
"War of 1812 the government did nothing to follow up the 
treaty until after peace was declared. Then John C. Sulli- 
van was commissioned to mark the northern border of the 
Indian cession. With the aid of a few Osages he projected 
a line from a point one hundred miles north of the mouth of 
the Kansas River due east, as he supposed, to the Des 

buquo's mines from 1810 to 1814 see the writer's article on the fur trade in 
The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 503, 504. 

29 Wisconsin Ilistorical Collections, Vol. XIII, p. 286; Wilkie's Davenport 
Past and Present, p. 155. 


Moines Eiver, driving stakes in the prairie and blazing trees 
in the timber. 

For many years this Old Indian Boundary Line **lay un- 
disturbed by the tread of the white man, while the grass 
grew over the stakes and mounds the surveyor left in his 
wake and time almost weathered away the blazed trail where 
the outstretched hand of civilization had sought to mark its 
line.'' Not until the State of Missouri almost twenty-five 
years later attempted to push its boundary some ten miles 
farther north, thus rousing the warlike spirit of the people 
of Iowa Territory, were steps taken to locate the position of 
Sullivan's boundary. The United States Supreme Court 
finally decided in favor of the contention that Sullivan's 
Line was the true State boundary.^^ 


1818, AND 1819 

American exploration of the northern portion of the 
Louisiana Purchase had been neglected for many years 
after Pike's important expedition, when Major Stephen H. 
Long, a topographical engineer of the United States Army, 
was despatched from Prairie du Chien in July, 1817, to 
sketch the course of the Upper Mississippi. In a six-oared 
skiff with a crew of seven men and two interpreters Long 
ascended the river to the Falls of St. Anthony. While 
passing the Iowa country he learned that the Yellow River 
was navigable for a distance of fifty miles for pirogues in 
time of high water. Three miles above the Upper Iowa 
River he and his party passed a Fox village of five or six 
lodges. Long soon returned to Fort Crawford, and then 
accompanied by five men he journeyed by water to St. Louis. 
Passing Dubuque 's mines and noting the beautiful scenery 
upon the banks of the Great River he wrote : 

30 Parish's 22o&er* Lucas, pp. 229-257. 



But the idea that this beautiful tract has for ages unfolded its 
charms with none to admire, but unfeeling savages, instead of hav- 
ing delighted thousands that were capable of enjoying them, casts a 
gloom upon the scenery, which added to the solemn stillness that 
everywhere prevails in these solitary regions, robs the mind of half 
its pleasures. 

On the 4th of August Long and his crew disembarked 
upon the Iowa shore to view the ruins of Fort Madison: 
nothing remained but old chimneys and a covert way with 
palisades, and a number of fruit trees in the old garden, 
among them ^^the peach, the nectarine and the apple tree.'' 
Farther on they stopped at Fort Edwards in Illinois near 
which were to be seen traces of a surveyor's work. On the 
11th of August, Major Long and Dr. Lane ascended for 
some distance the ^^De Moyen" Eiver, then in a low stage of 
water, with its narrow and crooked channel full of drift 
wood, snags, and sawyers. The principal part of the loway 
tribe resided about one hundred and twenty miles up. The 
explorers observed many fragments of coal of good quality 
upon the sand bars. Four days later Long arrived at Belle- 
fontaine after an absence of seventy-six days,^^ 

In 1818, the same year in which George Davenport began 
to purchase lead from the Indians, a man named John S. 
Miller with two companions is reported to have exchanged 
a boat-load of goods at the mines. Up to 1819 many Amer- 
icans are said to have been killed in the attempt to go among 
the Indian miners to compete with the French Canadian 
traders. It was customary for the young Sac and Fox 
Indians to plant their corn in the spring and hunt for furs 
and skins in the summer, leaving the old men and most of 
the women to go up to the lead mines in canoes, dig mineral, 
and smelt it in log furnaces, returning to their village some- 
time in the autumn. Edward Tanner, a man who had 

31 MAnnefiota Historical Society Collections, Vol. II, pp. 10, 67, 68, 69, 75, 76, 
80, 81; Iowa Uistorical Record, Vol. XVI, pp. 163-172. 



scoured the western country and visited all the native tribes 
in the search for a brother captured by the Indians many 
years before, wrote of ^^De Buke's" mine as very rich and 
productive, but he added: ^^So deeply rooted is the jealousy 
of the Indians, that they allow no trader to build his hut on 
the side of the river in the vicinity of these mines/ 

In 1819 a general movement set in toward the Illinois lead 
region. Jesse W. Shull appeared at Dubuque's mines with 
goods for a Prairie du Chien firm. During the months of 
June and July Thomas Forsyth ascended the Mississippi 
from St. Louis with goods for the Sioux Indians north of 
Prairie du Chien. On this journey he and his men met sev- 
eral canoes laden with Sacs and Foxes, camped above the 
mouth of the Iowa River, and delivered Indian annuities at 
Fort Armstrong on Eock Island. Forsyth had with him 
Gr. Lucie, at one time Dubuque's interpreter, ^^a simple, 
harmless creature'', who told of all the upper lead mines. 
Of those in the Iowa country he mentioned one *^at a place 
called the Eed Head's village, about six miles above the 
Grand Macouttely, .... up a small creek on its left 
bank". This mine was declared non-productive, ^'as the ore 
appeared to be incorporated with some other hard sub- 
stance, probably silver, and required too much labor to ex- 
tract the lead, and was soon abandoned. ' ' Dubuque 's mines 
were ^Hoo well known to require any description", while 
another mine six miles up the Little Maquoketa, fifteen miles 
farther north, was also referred to. The party rested at the 
Tete des Morts or Death's Head Creek during a storm, and 
at Prairie du Chien was increased into a force consisting of 
ninety-eight soldiers and twenty boatmen. At the Indian 
village just north of the Upper Iowa River a one-eyed 
Sioux chief and his band lined the bank to receive pres- 

32 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. VIII, p. 288, and Vol. ^III, pp. 284, 
286, 287. 


ents of powder and ^^milk" (whisky). Forsyth went as far 
as Camp Cold Water which was later called Fort Snelling.^^ 


Stephen Watts Kearny accompanied a military expedition 
from Camp Missouri across northern Iowa to Camp Cold 
Water, and in a very interesting journal told of his voyage 
down the Mississippi to St. Louis in August, 1820. At ten 
o 'clock on the morning of the 5th of August, Kearny stopped 
his six-oared keel-boat ^^at a settlement of traders, (where 
we found Dr. Muir, late of the army, with his squaw & 2 
children) opposite a *Fox village' of 17 lodges, & 100 Inhab- 
itants — On a high hill, at one end of the village, we saw a 
small building, covering the remains of Mr. Dubuque .... 
These mines are at present partially worked by 5 or 6 of the 
^Fox Indians'.'' Kearny adds that he and his men were 
politely received by Dr. Muir and the traders. 

Farther on Kearny stopped at a Fox village of nineteen 
lodges above the Rock Rapids, and later enjoyed a visit at 
Fort Armstrong. Having passed the ^ ^ Ayauwa ' ' and ^ ' Pole 
cat" rivers, Kearny noted a trader's house upon the Iowa 
shore some distance below and then canoed past the Flint 
Hill", six miles long and one hundred feet high. The next 
stop was made at old Fort Madison *^on the W. shore, where 
are the remains of nine chimneys, & some Picketts, & scat- 
tering stones, that indicate a military work once existed 
here." Fort Edwards, opposite the mouth of the Des 
Moines, had been abandoned for over a year and a half 

Two days after Kearny's visit Henry R. Schoolcraft in a 
canoe manned by eight voyageurs and one guide landed at 

Tanner's efforts were crowned with success a year later when he found the 
object of his search at Lord Selkirk's colony on the Eed Eiver. — See Wisconsin 
Historical Collections, Vol. XIV, pp. 47, 48. 

33 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. VI, pp. 188, 194, 195, 196, 201, 202, 

Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. X, pp. 364-369. 


Chief Kettle's village of nineteen lodges and two hundred 
and fifty souls. From the island he got Dr. Muir and an 
interpreter, and then went to the lodge of Aquoqua to obtain 
information respecting the location of the mines. Objec- 
tions were raised at once: since the death of Dubuque, 
. . . . they had manifested great jealousy of the whites, 
were afraid they would encroach on their rights, denied all 
former grants, and did not make it a practice even to allow 
strangers to view their diggings. ' ' 

Prepared for just such an emergency Schoolcraft gave the 
reluctant chiefs presents of tobacco and whisky, and soon 
got their assent and two guides. Pursuing **a path over 
undulating hills, exhibiting a half prairie and picturesque 
rural aspect ' \ they came to the diggings where women and 
old men were working with hoes, shovels, pick-axes, and 
crow-bars purchased from the traders. Baskets of the 
crude ore were carried out of the pits to the Mississippi by 
the women and ferried over to the island where the traders 
paid two dollars for one hundred and twenty pounds and 
then smelted it in their furnaces. Formerly, it seems, the 
Indians had smelted the ore on log heaps, a method which 
caused a considerable quantity to be converted into lead 
ashes. These ashes were also collected by the Foxes and 
sold to the traders for one dollar per bushel. 

Schoolcraft found a stone monument over Dubuque's 
grave at this time. He learned also that the Indians had 
burned down Dubuque's house and fences, and declared: 
**They have erased every vestige of civilized life, and re- 
voked or at least denied the grant [to Dubuque], and appear 
to set a very high value on the mines." After a minute 
examination of the mines, the visitor and his party returned 
northward to Prairie du Chien, the boatmen sometimes 
animating their labors with a song".^^ 

35 Schoolcraft 's Expedition to the Sources of the Mississippi, Chapter XV; 
Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. XVI, pp. 100-106. 

VOL. xni — 3 



Some time after this the Iowa country which had been a 
part of Missouri Territory was left without a local constitu- 
tional status by the admission of Missouri to the Union in 
1821. Bounded by the uninhabited portion of the State of 
Illinois on the east and the sparsely settled State of Missouri 
on the south, the Iowa wilderness for thirteen years went by 
the name of Savage Lands'' or Indian Territory": as 
yet the government had purchased none of it from the In- 
dian inhabitants and only two tracts of a square mile each 
had been confirmed as valid Spanish land grants, namely 
Tesson's near the present town of Montrose in Lee County 
and Giard's in Clayton County. 

In the year 1821 the government assumed the regulation 
and control of lead mines upon the public lands in north- 
western Illinois. Henceforth the mines were leased to pri- 
vate adventurers : the lessees were enabled to work the land 
peaceably under government protection in return for one 
tenth of the net produce of lead. During the years 1821- 
1830 they extracted 40,000,000 pounds of ore. 

The Fox Indians across the river in the Iowa country had 
religiously excluded whites from the site of Dubuque's 
mines, and up to the summer of 1833, with slight interrup- 
tions, they remained in virtual possession. George Daven- 
port obtained perhaps the greatest portion of their output. 
In 1822 he established a trading-post upon the Galena Eiver 
and kept Amos Farrar in charge of the trade in furs and 
lead for several years. A trader by the name of * ^ Kentuck ' ' 
Anderson purchased from the Foxes the waste about their 
crude furnaces, smelted the lead-ashes in his own furnace 
on the island opposite the Fox village at a very small cost, 
and landed a keel-boat load of the product at St. Louis in 
the spring of 1822.^6 

30 Wilkie 's Davenport Past and Present, p. 156 ; Wisconsin Historical Collec- 
tions, Vol. XX, pp. 356, 357; Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 21st Congress, 
No. 1, p. 148. 



Early in May, 1823, occurred an event wMcli was said to 
be **an epoch in the history of navigation/* The eastern 
Iowa wilderness, hitherto apparently accessible only to 
canoes and other light water craft on account of channel 
obstructions in the Mississippi known as the Des Moines 
Eapids, was now reached and passed for the first time by a 
steamboat, the Virginia'', a vessel one hundred and eight- 
een feet long and twenty-two feet wide. J. C. Beltrami, a 
former judge in the kingdom of Italy during the years 
1805-1814, was the passenger who recorded the feat of the 

Virginia" as *^an enterprise of the boldest, of the most 
extraordinary nature; and probably unparalleled'', for no 
steamboat had ever before made a voyage as far north as 
the Falls of St. Anthony in the Minnesota country. The 
ship's captain was declared to be entitled to the admira- 
tion of mankind, to the gratitude of his fellow-citizens, and 
of his government. ' ' 

Beltrami took special note of the chief features of the 
Iowa country which he called Savage Lands". In this 
public domain under the jurisdiction of the national govern- 
ment Beltrami saw no traces of civilization other than a few 
scattered traders' huts and, north of a Sac village at the 
head of the rapids, the ruins of old Fort Madison. He noted 
the **Bete Puante" (Skunk) and ^^Yahowas" (Iowa) riv- 
ers, and described the Iowa bank of the Mississippi in the 
following lines : 

The fields were beginning to resume their verdure ; the meadows, 
groves, and forests were reviving at the return of spring. Never 
had I seen nature more beautiful, more majestic, than in this vast 
domain of silence and solitude. . . . Wooded islands disposed 
in beautiful order by the hand of nature, continually varied the 
picture : the course of the river, which had become calm and smooth, 
reflected the dazzling rays of the sun like glass : smiling hills formed 
a delightful contrast with the immense prairies, which are like 
oceans, and the monotony of which is relieved by isolated clusters 


of thick and massy trees. These enchanting scenes lasted from the 
river Yahowa till we reached a place which presents a distant and 
exquisitely blended view of what is called Rocky Island. . . . 
Fort Armstrong, at this spot, is constructed upon a plateau, at an 
elevation of about fifty feet above the level of the river, and rewards 
the spectator who ascends it with the most magical variety of 
scenery. . . . 

The eastern bank at the mouth of Rocky River was lined with an 
encampment of Indians, called Foxes. Their features, dress, weap- 
ons, customs, and language, are similar to those of the Saukis, whose 
allies they are in peace and war. On the western shore of the Mis- 
sissippi, a semicircular hill, clothed with trees and underwood, en- 
closes a fertile spot carefully cultivated by the garrison, and formed 
into fields and kitchen gardens. The fort saluted us on our arrival 
with four discharges of cannon, and the Indians paid us the same 
compliment with their muskets. The echo, which repeated them a 
thousand times, was most striking from its contrast with the deep 
repose of these deserts. 

After a pleasant reception by the garrison at Fort Arm- 
strong, Beltrami and his fellow-passengers proceeded over 
the Eock Eapids, passed a village of Foxes six miles beyond, 
the rivers *4a Pomme^' (Wapsipinicon) and *4a Garde'' 
( f ), and a place called Death's Head, the site of an Indian 
battle. At the Galena River lead mines a Kentucky family 
disembarked ^^with their arms and baggage, cats and dogs, 
hens and turkeys", a feature of emigrant life about which, 
the eminent foreigner observed : 

The facility, the indifference with which the Americans under- 
take distant and difficult emigrations, are perfectly amazing. Their 
spirit of speculation would carry them to the infernal regions, if 
another Sybil led the way with a golden bough. 

Beltrami also found the Foxes in exclusive possession of 
Dubuque's mines, and with such jealousy that he *^was 
obliged to have recourse to the all-powerful whiskey to ob- 
tain permission to see them." The Indians melted the lead 
into holes in the rock and then carried it to the traders. 



Notwithstanding these precautions, Beltrami believed the 
mines so valuable and the Americans so enterprising that 
the Foxes could not retain sole possession much longer. He 
also alluded to Dubuque's remains as reposing ^4n a leaden 
chest in a mausoleum of wood/' on a bluff overlooking the 
Indian village and the Mississippi Kiver. 

Beyond Prairie du Chien on the western bank rose *Hhe 
painted rock'', red and yellow. Farther on, a little above 
the Turkey Eiver stood an old village which the Foxes had 
deserted. Then one dark night, opposite the mouth of the 
Upper Iowa Eiver, the traveler was treated to an immense 
prairie and forest fire for a distance of fifteen miles, re- 
sembling ' ' the undulating lava of Vesuvius or Aetna ' ', and 
showering large sparks upon the steamboat to the amuse- 
ment and excitement of the passengers. Such were Bel- 
trami's experiences upon the eastern Iowa border.^ 


David G. Bates and A. P. Vanmetre occupied the island 
opposite the Fox village during the winter of 1823 and 1824 
and purchased of the Indians 100,000 pounds of mineral and 
lead-ashes. No whites were as yet permitted to come near 
Dubuque's old mines. In 1824 Amos Farrar was still post- 
ed on the Gralena River in Illinois. George Davenport ap- 
peared at St. Louis in the spring of 1825 to protest against 
the grant of a government license to Etienne Dubois, a clerk 
of Joseph Rolette of the American Fur Company: he ob- 
jected to this individual's trading with the Foxes between 
Dubuque's mines and Prairie du Chien. Perhaps Daven- 
port's business in lead was suffering considerably from 
competition with the great Ajuerican trust founded and 
directed by John Jacob Astor.^^ 

^'^ Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. VI, pp. 272, 277; Wilkie's Daven- 
port Past and Present, p. 157; Beltrami's A Pilgrimage in Europe and America, 
Vol. II, pp. 127, 128, 131, 135, 136, 150-152, 160, 161, 162, 164, 175, 176-178. 

38 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XX, pp. 374, 375, 378, 379, 380. 


In a full report on lead mines in the Mississippi Valley 
prepared for the government in 1826, Lieutenant Thomas 
referred to ^^Dubuke's celebrated mines'', about fifteen 
miles from Galena Eiver, wrought for a short period of 
the year by the Sac and Fox Indians, who derive much bene- 
fit from them in trading the ore to the white smelters." 
Squaws were the principal miners and they also frequently 
smelted the ore in small temporary furnaces.^^ 

In July, 1825, about one hundred miners were engaged 
upon the Galena River, and a year later the government 
was leasing mines to four hundred and fifty-three persons. 
So large were the shipments of lead to St. Louis that the 
government was urged to clear out the Eock and Des Moines 
rapids of the Mississippi An officer estimated that for 
$30,000, the equivalent of two years ' rent for the mines, the 
channel obstructions could be removed. And one year later 
a Winnebago chief complained of * * a great many Americans 
on our land, working it without our permission. I want to 
tell our great Father to stop it; to reach out his long arm 
and draw them back." He referred to the miners and the 
persons who were then allowed to locate on public lands 
between the Rock and Wisconsin rivers. Lewis Cass of 
Michigan Territory emphasized the injustice of this method 
of advancing the Illinois frontier.^^ 

That the Foxes who operated the old Dubuque mines at 
this time did not dispose of all their mineral to licensed 
Indian traders in their vicinity may be gathered from the 
statement of George W. Jones, later one of the first two 
representatives of the State of Iowa in the United States 
Senate in 1848. In the summer of 1828 the Foxes came with 

39 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 19th Congress, No. 45, p. 17, and 2nd Ses- 
sion, 2l8t Congress, No. 1, p. 148; Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. VI, pp. 
290, 296. 

40 House Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 19th Congress, No. 7, p. 8, and 
Ist Session, 20th Congress, No. 117, p. 6. 


samples of lead ore to his store at Sinsinawa Mound (south- 
western Wisconsin) where he had squatted the year before, 
built two log furnaces, and set to smelting lead hauled by 
his teamsters from the Menominee and Galena River mines. 
Jones accompanied the Indians to what is now East Du- 
buque, Illinois, where they unloaded several canoes. Next 
day Jones went to the place with ox-team and wagon and 
removed the ore. To quote from his reminiscences : *^I then 
lashed two canoes together, forming a transport in which to 
cross my wagon and oxen to and from the other shore. I 
therefore made the first wagon tracks and the first ferry to 
Dubuque, if not to any part of the State of lowa."^^ 


Caleb Atwater, journeying from Ohio to Prairie du Chien 
in 1829, visited Morgan, chief of the Foxes, at the mines, 
and noted Dubuque's tomb on a high hill where the cross 
on his grave can be seen from the river. ' ' In the year 1829 
J ames L. Langworthy is reported to have crossed the river 
and with the Indians ' permission and two young Fox guides 
explored the region near the site of Dubuque and between 
the Maquoketa and Turkey rivers.^^ Soon afterward an 
event occurred which was the signal for him and his friends 
to take possession of the coveted mines. 

The Fox Indians of Dubuque's mines had gotten into 
trouble with some Winnebagoes whose chiefs told Wynkoop 
Warner, sub-agent for the Sacs and Foxes stationed at 
Galena, that they were willing to patch up differences at a 
council to be held at Prairie du Chien. Warner carried the 
news to Dubuque's mines, found nearly all the Foxes drunk, 
and immediately recrossed the river. Hearing the object of 
his visit, they later sent a deputation to request him to wait 

41 Parish's George Wallace Jones, p. 95. 

42 Atwater 's ternaries Made on a Tour to Prairie du Chien, p. 73 ; Annals of 
Iowa, Vol. Ill, pp. 514, 515. 


until the next morning when they would all be sober and 
come to see him. They accordingly set April 24, 1830, as the 
day when they would proceed to the proposed council at 
Prairie du Chien. 

When the appointed time arrived, their chief, Kettle, in- 
formed Warner that he and his party were not ready, and 
so the agent went alone to meet an engagement for April 
28th. Meanwhile General Street, agent for the Winne- 
bagoes, had sent Warner word that the Foxes had better not 
come as there was at Prairie du Chien a body of Menominee 
Indians who had refused to receive wampum from the 
Foxes. On his journey back by water to Galena, Warner 
must have passed the Foxes on their way to the council, for 
not many days later, on May 7th, he received the news of a 
battle between Menominees and Foxes in which the Fox 
chief, also called Piemansky, and several others were 


On account of this bloody encounter the Foxes in alarm 
abandoned their village at Dubuque's mines and repaired to 
Eock Island under the protection of troops from Fort Arm- 
strong. No sooner did the whites in the Galena country 
hear of the fact when they made a rush across the river to 
take possession of the mines. Wynkoop Warner sent the 
following letter to his superior, Thomas Forsyth, the In- 
dian agent at Fort Armstrong : 

Galena, June 3, 1830 
Dear Sir: Since writing you, I was disappointed in getting a 

43 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23rd Congress, No. 512, Vol. VIII, pp. 62, 

63, 74. Two pioneers of the region are authority for the statement that the 
Sioux and not the Menominee Indians attacked the Foxes at this time. See 
Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. II, p. 170, and Vol. V, p. 256; The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, p. 370. 

44 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. VIII, pp. 62, 

64, 68. 



horse, and have deferred going until morning. I have the promise 
of two men to take me up in a canoe. I have since understood, to a 
certainty, that there are at least one hundred men mining in the 
Indian country, and are determined to remain there. I will, on to- 
morrow, go and order them to leave there. I have hired a guide to 
show me where they are, but my belief is, from what I can hear, 
they will laugh at me. Eumor says, that Mr. Gratiot has gone over, 
with forty men, to take possession in the name of the claimants, 
John Smith,^^ and others, and that it has been a concerted plan to 
dispossess the Indians for that purpose ; if, sir, they refuse to go, I 
shall send express to Col. Taylor, and inform him what your instruc- 
tions are ; for I think it a most flagrant outrage, and a breach, that 
we should not suffer imposed on the Indians. I would be very glad 
to hear from you as early as possible. 

Very, &c., 

W. "Warner. 

Among the first intruders upon the Fox lands in 1830 
were the Langworthy brothers Lucius and James. In a 
lecture upon his early experiences, the former declared:*^ 

We crossed over the Mississippi at this time, swimming our horses 
by the side of a canoe. It was the first flow, or the first tide of civil- 
ization on this western shore. . . . Where Dubuque now stands, 
corn fields stretched along the bluffs, up the ravines, and the Coule 
valley, and a thousand acres of level land skirting the shore, was 
covered with tall grass, as a field of waving grain. But the stalks of 
the corn were of the last year's growth, the ears had been plucked, 
and they withered and blighted, left standing alone mournful 

45 If we may believe another account, John Smith had attempted to work the 
mines before the Indians left in 1830. On p. 14 of A Eecord of the Commemo- 
ration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of Iowa, appears the fol- 
lowing statement: 

''Soon after the death of Dubuque, Col. John Smith 'T' of Missouri, a 
gentleman of remarkable enterprise and bravery came from St. Louis in a keel- 
boat with sixty men to prosecute the business of mining and smelting. He, 
with others, had purchased an interest in the Dubuque claim when it like Tes- 
son's was sold at St. Louis. The Musquakees (Foxes) however, formed under 
Chief Piamosky, in front of their village in hostile array, and successfully re- 
sisted the landing of Col. Smith and his men. ' ' 

46 See The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, pp. 317, 321, 
354, 371, 372. 


REPRESENTATIVES of the VANISHED RACE. A large village was then 
standing at the mouth of Catfish Creek, silent, solitary, deserted — 
no one remained to greet us, but the mystic shadows of the past. 
About seventy buildings constructed with poles, and the bark of 
trees remained. . . . Their council house, though rude, was 
ample in its dimensions, and contained a great number of furnaces, 
in which kettles had been placed, to prepare the feasts of peace or 
war. But their council fires had gone out. On the inner surface of 
the bark there were paintings done with considerable artistic skill, 
representing the buffalo, elk, bear, panther, and other animals of 
the chase ; also their wild sports on the prairie, and even their feats 
in wars. 

Forsyth at once commanded Warner to prevent any per- 
sons from injuring the Indian bark-hnts or working the 
mines, or else to call upon the commandant of Fort Craw- 
ford for assistance. On June 9th the Foxes had not yet 
heard of the white invasion of their mines: Forsyth de- 
clared that the Sacs and Foxes were already sufficiently 
soured against the whites because their people had been 
killed on the way to Prairie du Chien in answer to an invita- 
tion of the government agent, and should they then learn 
that whites were in possession of their mineral lands, blood 
would most certainly be shed and plans for a treaty of peace 
would be frustrated. Here was a fine opportunity, the psy- 
chological moment for the United States to prove its friend- 
ly disposition toward the Sacs and Foxes by punishing the 
whites for misconduct.^*^ 

On June 16th General William Clark of St. Louis called 
upon General Henry Atkinson for troops to remove the 
intruders. A few days later he received word from the 
Indian office relating to the removal of Forsyth and the 
appointment of Felix St. Vrain as Indian agent.^^ By this 

47 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. VIII, pp. 63, 
64, 65, 95. 

48 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. VIII, pp. 62, 
68, 71. 


time the miners had gathered upon the forbidden soil in 
such numbers that they felt the necessity of formally ex- 
pressing rules for future conduct in the new mining com- 
munity. On the 17th of June they are said to have met 
beside a Cottonwood log upon the Mississippi bank and pre- 
pared the following regulations — probably the first set of 
laws drawn up by whites within the limits of what is now 
the State of Iowa : 

Dubuque Mines, June 17, 1830. 
We, a committee, having been chosen to draft certain rules and 
regulations, by which we, as miners, will be governed ; and, having 
duly considered the subject, do unanimously agree that we will be 
governed by the regulations on the east side of the Mississippi River, 
with the following exceptions, to wit : 

Article I. — That each and every man shall hold two hundred 
yards square of ground by working said ground one day in six. 

Article II. — We further agree, that there shall be chosen by the 
majority of miners present, a person who shall hold this article, and 
who shall grant letters of arbitration, on application being made, 
and that said letter [of] arbitration shall be obligatory on the 
parties concerned so applying. 

To the above, we the undersigned subscribe : 

J. L. Langworthy, 
H. F. Lander, 
James McPheeters, 
Samuel H. S coles, 
E. M. Urn. 


Having elected Dr. Francis Jarret to bold tbe instrument, 
the squatters were not destined to enjoy for long tbe fruits 
of tbeir illegal enterprise. Lieutenant Colonel Zacbary 
Taylor of tbe First Infantry at Fort Crawford warned 
tbem about tbe 4tb of July, 1830, to depart witbin one week. 
He beard tbe miners' objections: ^^tbey bad occupied a 
vacant country, bad struck some valuable lodes, tbat tbe 
land would soon be purcbased, and tbat tbey intended to 


maintain possession;'' to all of which he replied : We shall 
see to that my boys.'' Anticipating the arrival of troops 
the miners speedily re-crossed the river, and later when 
soldiers disembarked from a steamer to enforce orders, 
they took only three miners prisoners.^^ 

During the stay of soldiers in the mining region the 
Foxes ventured back, seized the lead which they found, 
mined the newly discovered lodes, and from one alone they 
are said to have obtained more than a million pounds of ore, 
with the assistance of traders and settlers along the river 
who gave them provisions, implements, and teams. During 
the next two or three years the American Fur Company had 
agents at the mines and also at an island opposite the mouth 
of the Little Maquoketa — here no doubt they exchanged 
merchandise for the lead mined by the Foxes.^^ 


General William Clark of St. Louis had entertained hopes 
during the summer of 1830 of buying the lead district from 
the Foxes. Thomas L. McKenney, Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, wrote to him as follows on the 9th of June, 1830:^^ 

There is no objection to your purchasing, subject to ratification, 
&c., as usual, the mineral country, called Dubuque's mines, as it 
will be the means, not only of possessing, the country of those valu- 
able mineral regions, upon which our people are constantly in- 
truding, but of throwing the Sacs and Foxes back from the border 
of the Mississippi, and from the means of supplying themselves with 
whiskey, by their proximity to the whites, who go up & down the 

49 The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, pp. 317, 318, 321, 
378; The History of Dubuque County, Iowa, pp. 341, 342. C. Childs, writing for 
a Dubuque newspaper, in 1857, declared that Zaehary Taylor came to the miners 
in person. 

60 The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, p. 379, and Vol. 
XII, pp. 547, 556. 

61 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. VIII, p. 14. 


After effecting the treaty of peace of July, 1830, by wMch 
the United States obtained title to practically all of what is 
now western and northern Iowa, Clark explained that al- 
though he had determined to procure the sale also of the 
lead region held by the Foxes he had not urged the purchase 
because he had previously heard that their price would be 
^^$32,000 per annum for fifty or sixty years, with salt, to- 
bacco, and the payment of about sixty thousand dollars 
towards the debts due their traders. Without advice from 
Washington he was not prepared to pay the price even 
though the Sac and Fox mines were much superior to those 
east of the Mississippi. He was commended for his action. 
He stated that he expected a deputation of Sacs and Foxes 
to come to St. Louis in October prepared to sell their lead 
district. Again his hopes of a purchase were blasted.^^ 

In 1831 the Sacs and Foxes sent a war party against the 
Sioux, and fearing that this breach of the peace would bring 
upon them punishment by the United States government, 
they once more abandoned the lead mines. In the fall of the 
year Lieutenant Jefferson Davis received orders to watch 
the Indians and to prevent whites from trespassing upon 
Indian territory. He remained on duty in the Iowa country 
until the spring of 1832, making frequent reconnoissances 
into the country, sometimes as far as the Maquoketa Eiver : 
then he was relieved by Lieutenant J. R. B. Gardenier, who 
remained until Black Hawk's hostilities commenced.^^ 

At the time of the treaty of July, 1830, a trader made the 
statement that the Sacs and Foxes would sell all their Mis- 
sissippi Eiver country to the United States provided the 
government would pay off their debts to Farnham and Dav- 
enport, representatives of the American Fur Company. 

52 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. VIII, pp. 23, 80, 

53 See Jefferson Davis's letter in Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. TV, pp„ 
231, 232. 


But not until September, 1832, after the close of tlie Black 
Hawk War and the defeat of a hostile band of Sacs and 
Foxes by troops in Illinois and Wisconsin, were the beliefs 
of 1830 verified. In February, 1832, George Davenport had 
appeared at Washington, D. C, to state the grievances of 
the Sacs and Foxes and lay their complaints before Con- 
gress and the President : the Indians protested against the 
trespasses of whites at their lead mines and the removal of 
thousands of dollars ' worth of mineral ; they acknowledged 
the services of United States troops in removing the in- 
truders and in being stationed at the mines during the sum- 
mer of 1831, but they feared the renewal of depredations as 
soon as the soldiers should be removed. To prevent all 
further difficulties in the future, therefore, Davenport an- 
nounced their proposal to sell the mines and adjoining ter- 
ritory to the United States.^* 

Had the government at once acted upon this announce- 
ment, the expense and loss of life of the Black Hawk War 
two or three months later might perhaps have been avoided. 
Hence, in the annals of American Indian policy the acquisi- 
tion of eastern Iowa from the Sacs and Foxes came to 
represent not an outright purchase but an indemnity — the 
title to western and northern Iowa passed into the hands of 
the United States by purchase, but the title to eastern Iowa 
was acquired by conquest after a trial of the fortunes of 
war. Nevertheless, the treaty of peace concluded in Sep- 
tember, 1832, made the Sac and Fox tribes beneficiaries of 
the government's generosity to the extent of $20,000 a year 
in specie for thirty years. The Indians also got assurance 
that if they pointed out to a United States agent the position 
of one or more mines supposed by them to contain metal 
more valuable than either lead or iron, a suitable present 
would be their reward.^^ 

54 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. IX, p. 223. 
65 Kappler's Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 350. 




While General Scott was negotiating with the Indians at 
the close of the Black Hawk War, Galena in Illinois was 
crowded with people : scores of adventurers lined the east- 
ern shore of the Mississippi, ready to seize npon the pos- 
session and pre-emption rights in the new territory as soon 
as they became perfect/' But they acted almost before the 
ink of the treaty was dry. The fact that the government's 
agents effected a treaty in September, 1832, did not entitle 
the whites to enter the conquered country : not only was it 
necessary to wait for the United States Senate to ratify the 
treaty, but the treaty itself permitted the Sacs and Foxes to 
remain in possession until June 1, 1833. Government 
troops, the Mississippi River, or treaty provisions — none 
of these could check a fresh movement to the forbidden soil. 
Through ignorance of the law and by reason of the advice 
of bad counsellors and of their natural avarice, nearly one 
hundred and fifty miners and their families settled down at 
the old lead mines of J ulien Dubuque. 

On the 25th of October, Lewis Cass, Secretary of War, 
gave strict orders in a letter to Marmaduke S. Davenport, 
the new Indian agent at Fort Armstrong, to cause the re- 
moval of this new band of intruders. Owing to the absence 
of a regular mail line these instructions from Washington 
were not received at Rock Island until December the 7th. 
Soon afterward Davenport informed the miners of the gov- 
ernment's wishes, and they began to depart at once. On 
account of the scarcity of teams ten days ' time was allowed 
to men with families to remove. Great distress was pre- 
dicted for many men as they had invested all their money in 
digging and raising lead without having realized any re- 
turn. As a great majority of them had taken part in the 
Black Hawk War, Davenport promised to represent to the 
government their claims to the ground they had entered and 


to ask that they be permitted to resume operations in the 
mines which they were now compelled to leave. They pre- 
pared and signed a petition to the Secretary of War and 
declared : 

It is with regret we learn that the Government issued its order to 
have us expelled east of the Mississippi. We have made some im- 
provement, such as built us cabins, &c., to shelter us from the in- 
clemency of the winter, peculiar to this latitude. We have not come 
here as intruders. It is not our intention to wrong Government; 
for the mineral or ore that is now raising at these mines will not be 
manufactured into lead before next spring. And then we will hold 
ourselves in readiness to pay such rent as is, or may be, established 
by law, from time to time, on the upper Mississippi lead mines. We 
would also state, that, if the order of the department be promptly 
executed, it will leave us, (and some with large and helpless fami- 
lies,) in a suffering condition, houseless and pennyless, in the dead 
of winter; pennyless we say, not as yet having received our pay 
after a long and aggravated summer's war. And as for danger 
being apprehended by Government of a collision between the whites 
and Indians, we would say such apprehension is groundless, for 
there is not, nor has there been, any Indians within one hundred and 
fifty miles of this place, to our knowledge, since the treaty.^ ^ 


By the 1st of January, 1833, the petitioners, many of them 
bearing Irish names, had peaceably left the mines. Then 
Marmaduke S. Davenport expressed a fear that still more 
difficulty might arise because the Chouteau and other pow- 
erful interests at St. Louis had sent an agent to Galena for 
the purpose of leasing the Dubuque mines to such persons 
as might be' willing to work them. The Secretary of War on 
January 5th issued orders to General Atkinson to employ 
troops at Fort Armstrong or Fort Crawford to drive out all 
intruders. On the 22nd of February Davenport reported 
that just after he had left Rock Island to demand the mvir- 

Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. II, p. 81; Senate Documents, 1st 
Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. IX, pp. 558-560. 


derers of a white man named Martin he was overtaken by 
an express from S. D. Carpenter of Galena with news that 
**from eighty to one hundred persons had gone over to Du- 
buque 's mines, and were there engaged in mining, smelting, 
etc'^, and that unless a small military force were placed at 
the mines, white settlers could not be kept out.^"^ 

The St. Louis claimants, tracing their title back to the old 
Spanish grant to Dubuque, had taken possession of the land 
and erected houses upon it. Believing they would not be 
disturbed by the government until their title was adjudged 
invalid by the courts, they experienced *^the extraordinary 
spectacle .... of an ejectment hy military force 
under an order of the Secretary of War. Thrust from the 
land at the point of the bayonet, they could not resort to a 
tribunal to test their title or restore them to possession, 
*^for they could not institute any proceedings against the 
United States for quieting the title ; nor could they sue the 
armed men who ejected them, to recover the possession, as 
no court had jurisdiction at that spot for those purposes." 

From various reports it would appear that the miners 
were removed several times during the early months of 
1833. Lucius H. Langworthy afterward said:^^ 

Many fine lodes and prospects were discovered and considerable 
lead manufactured up to about January twenty-fifth, 1833. . . . 
But in January the troops were again sent down from Prairie Du 
Chien, and removed the settlers the second time, merely because the 
treaty by which the land was acquired, had not been ratified by the 

57 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. X, pp. 2, 70, 
110; Senate Documents, 1st Session, 28th Congress, No. 350, p. 28. 

Senate Documents, 1st Session, 29th Congress, No. 256, pp. 12, 13; The 
Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, pp. 342, 381; United 
States Supreme Court Beports, 16 Howard, 205. At his wits' end, the agent of 
the St. Louis claimants went to Galena and sued for some of the lead mined 
west of the river, but being unable to identify the ore, he was nonsuited. Then 
he went to Washington, D. C, and petitioned for redress at nearly every session 
of Congress until the United States Supreme Court rendered an adverse de- 

VOL. XIII — 4 


United States Senate,^^ a formal act that every one knew would 
take place at the earliest opportunity. This was a foolish policy on 
the part of the Government, and operated peculiarly hard on the 
new settlers, who were thus obliged to leave their cabins in the cold 
winter of 1832-3, and their business until spring. Many re-crossed 
the river and did not return. We repaired to the Island, and there 
erected temporary buildings to await the ratification of the treaty. 
Having about three hundred thousand pounds of lead on hand, and 
being uncertain what would be the orders of the military regarding 
this kind of property taken from land not yet fully owned by Gov- 
ernment, we removed it also to our island home, and remained by it 
until spring, the soldiers meantime occupying our warm and com- 
fortable dwellings at the mines. 

Several cabins were torn down, and some wagons that were con- 
veying mineral away during the winter were cut to pieces and 
destroyed, by the orders of Lieutenant Covington, the officer in 
command, he being clothed with a little brief authority. But on 
complaint to Col. Taylor, at Prairie Du Chien, he was removed, and 
Lieutenant George Wilson, brother of Judge Wilson, sent in his 
place, a man of more mild and amiable disposition. 

From this one may judge that after Ms arrival Lieutenant 
Wilson winked at the operations of certain miners in the 
Dubuque region.^^ He seems to have reported, however, 
that despite all his efforts the miners kept crossing the river 
and he was accordingly relieved by a larger force of troops 
under Lieutenants John J. Abercrombie and Jefferson 
Davis. So cold was the weather that they marched all the 
way from Prairie du Chien to the mines upon the ice of the 
Mississippi. Lieutenant Davis had known many of the 

C9 On the 25th of October, 1832, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs had 
notified Joseph M. Street, Indian agent at Prairie du Chien, that the command- 
ant at Fort Crawford would furnish troops to expel the intruders at the mines. 
See Senate Bocuments, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. VIII, p. 943. 

«o It has been stated that Lieutenant Wilson refused to obey the command of 
the War Department that he burn the miners' cabins. On the 1st of April, 
1833, he obtained a furlough for three months, which may have been ''a mild 
punishment for his disobedience of orders" which he believed to be cruel and 
inhuman. See the Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. II, p. 243. 



miners when they lived on the east side of the river, and as 
he later wrote, npon him devolved the task of inducing them 
to retire. He ^^went to their residences, explained the en- 
tire absence of any power on our part to modify, or delay 
the execution of our orders ; and being an intimate friend of 
Capt. Legate, the superintendent of the [ Galena ] lead 
mines, volunteered my services to secure through him to 
every man, the lead or prospect then held ; if, and as soon as, 
the treaty should be ratified, to extinguish the Indian title.'' 
Davis in later life recalled with much pleasure how he re- 
moved the miners without resort to force and how each 
miner afterwards ^4n due time came to his own."^^ 

In pursuance of its policy of leasing mines upon the pub- 
lic lands, the United States government authorized John P. 
Sheldon, assistant superintendent of the lead mines at Ga- 
lena, to issue licenses to work at the Dubuque mines in 
return for six percent of all the lead produced. After June 
6, 1833, Sheldon granted permits to scores of persons to 
mine and smelt, build cabins, make gardens, and enclose and 
cultivate fields to raise grain for their teams.^^ All other 
persons found upon the Black Hawk Purchase without au- 
thority under the laws and regulations for leasing mines 
upon government lands were to be reported to the Indian 
agents at Bock Island and Prairie du Chien. 

Once more the St. Louis claimants appeared upon the 
scene : on June 20th of this year George W. Harrison was 
reported to be surveying land under their authority.^^ As 
matters then stood, however, the paper title to Julien Du- 
buque's mining district was worthless in the eyes of govern- 
ment officials. Thus, armed with United States licenses, 

Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. IV, pp. 231, 232. 

62 Oldt 's History of Bubuque County, Iowa, pp. 20, 40 ; Child 's historical 
account in the Bubuque Baily Eepuhlican, 1859. 

63 Senate Bocuments, 1st Session, 23d Congress, No. 512, Vol. X, p. 457 ; The 
Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, pp. 382, 383. 


miners began to transform this lonely but coveted section of 
the Iowa wilderness into a prosperous frontier community 
and thus one of the first permanent settlements in Iowa 
took root. 

Jacob Van dee Zee 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 




An examination of the legislative journals of the Amer- 
ican Commonwealths reveals the fact that few subjects 
receive more continuous attention at the hands of State 
legislatures than the subject of education. Every other 
winter the legislatures of about forty States meet in delib- 
erative session. They consider approximately one thou- 
sand bills on educational questions and enact about two 
hundred of them into law.''^ 

Among the educational questions demanding solution is 
the question of the best method of selecting and providing 
text-books for pupils in the public schools. Indeed, in prac- 
tically every State legislature which met in 1913 one or more 
text-book bills, in some form or other, were under discus- 
sion. Commonwealths not having State uniformity of text- 
books were considering bills establishing such a system; 
while in States where that system was already in operation 
the legislatures were discussing amendments. In Kansas, 
where, under a system of State uniformity, the prices of 
text-books were fixed by law at a rate so low that publishing 
houses were not able to offer even their second-class books 
for consideration, the legislature considered and finally 
enacted a bill which provided that the State should here- 
after publish its own text-books. Thus it is evident that the 
text-book problem is receiving considerable legislative at- 
tention in the United States. Moreover, numerous articles 

1 Bussell Sage Foundation Bulletin, No. 124, p. 1. 



on the subject are to be found in the pages of current period- 
icals, both technical and popular in character.^ 

That the text-book is an important factor in the educa- 
tional system would be admitted by everyone. The text- 
book is the tool with which the pupil works. If the tool is 
poor the work of the pupil must necessarily be poor. To be 
sure, there are teachers who can, if need be, rise above the 
text-book and teach the subject rather than the book; but as 
a rule teachers confine themselves largely to teaching the 
subject-matter in the book. If the book be unsatisfactory 
the work of the teacher is hindered. This fact apparently 
is not fully appreciated by the general public, and as a re- 
sult the public is too often ready to accept almost anything 
in the way of a text-book, providing the price is low. For 
instance, in some States (notably in Kansas and Indiana) 
a limit was placed on the prices for which school books 
could be contracted, thereby placing a premium on cheap 
books — a policy which was very short-sighted from the 
educational standpoint. The saving amounts to very little 
when the pupil is thereby forced to use a text-book so great- 
ly inferior that he is hampered in his advancement.^ 

2 For instance, in a certain weekly periodical there appeared an article in 
which the author made the exaggerated claim that a certain method of regula- 
tion which he proposed would save the people of the State of Illinois one million 
dollars a year in the cost of school books. Clearly, if such a saving could be 
effected the legislature of Illinois would be remiss if it failed to enact such a 
plan into law. But the reason why no such sum of money could be saved to the 
people of any one State during a year is the fact that there are not more than 
two States in the Union which pay a million dollars a year for text-books. Even 
these States do not average a million dollars yearly over a five-year period. 

3 Concerning the importance of the text-book a prominent educator writes as 
follows : 

''The text book is a teacher of teachers. If it is not a force which the 
teacher may substitute for himself, or as the text of an author stands for the 
great truth which the commentator interprets, it is at least a condition through 
which the teacher presents a subject to the class. ... It also remains for 
the student a permanent treasure house, where he may refresh his own delin- 
quent memory, and whence he may draw specific facts for his own use." — The 
Nation, Vol. X, p. 424. 


The need of some regulation of text-books is fully realized 
only after a consideration of the real problem — which is 
to provide pupils in the schools with suitable texts on the 
subjects contained in the curriculum and to insure the use 
of these texts in the schools for a reasonable length of time. 
In most States where contracts are entered into for the use 
of certain text-books a specified period is prescribed, usually 
five years. This is the case in Iowa. No text-book once 
legally authorized to be used in the public schools in this 
State can legally be changed for another text until the ex- 
piration of the five-year period, unless the people of the 
school district shall by popular vote so determine.^ Even 
this vote is safeguarded : it can be taken only at a specified 
regular election, and due notice must be given of the fact 
that a change in text-books is to be voted upon at that 

The frequent change of text-books is now regarded by 
educators as one of the chief causes of the retardation of 
pupils — a condition which is looked upon as one of the 
greatest evils in public school work, because in a majority 
of cases the retarded child leaves school before he has com- 
pleted the grades. 

Again, it is very clear that in a sense changes in text- 
books operate as an additional tax upon those who •send 
children to school. Without some form of regulation many 
teachers are prone to change text-books frequently. The 
reason for this state of affairs is to be found in the fact that 
many teachers become so proficient in teaching a certain 
text that they object to being required to use a different 
text in the same subject, even when moving to a new school 
where that particular text has not been in use. This fre- 
quently happens in Iowa, where the same tendency often 

4 Code of 1897, Sec. 2829. 

5 J. C. McNees et al. vs. School Township of East Eiver, 133 Iowa 120. 


characterizes superintendents of schools. Little attention 
is paid in such cases to the length of time the text-book 
which it is proposed to abandon has been in use. For ex- 
ample, in a given school a certain series of Arithmetics may 
have been adopted in the autumn of 1913. In the spring of 
1914 a new superintendent of schools is chosen. When he 
reaches his new field of labor he expresses himself as being 
dissatisfied with the choice of Arithmetics made by the 
school board in the previous autumn; and he recommends 
that the books then in use be displaced by those he himself 
may favor for one reason or another. If his wish is allowed 
to prevail the patrons of the school or the taxpayers, if 
free text-books are furnished, are obliged to pay for two 
sets of books within a single year. 

Sometimes this result is accomplished through the regu- 
lar process of securing an affirmative vote of the people 
authorizing a change of text-books. Or, as frequently oc- 
curs in rural schools, a new teacher insists that she can do 
better work with texts other than those regularly adopted ; 
and so unauthorized books are purchased, thus causing ad- 
ditional expense to the patrons. 

Another reason for the frequent change of text-books is 
to be found in the solicitations of representatives of the 
various publishing houses who are naturally eager to secure 
new business. The way to secure new business, of course, 
is to bring about a change of text-books. The represent- 
ative of Blank and Company is desirous of displacing the 
books of Doe and Company — irrespective of the statute 
which provides that the books of Doe and Company, having 
been regularly adopted, shall be in use for at least five years 
unless voted out by the people at a stated election. Often- 
times the arguments of these representatives in favor of 
the books of their respective companies are sufficient to 
cause a change of text-books before the expiration of the 
legal period set for the use of the books already adopted. 


Two considerations should be borne in mind in any regu- 
lation of the length of the period of time during which a 
given text-book shall continue in use. In the first place, 
it is desirable that a text-book shall be used for a reasonable 
length of time in order that, as far as possible, pupils who 
have become familiar with a given author's method of treat- 
ing a subject may not be deprived of that knowledge before 
they have completed the study of the subject. For example, 
the author of an Arithmetic builds his text-book around a 
certain method of teaching. Having become accustomed 
to the author's method of presentation, it becomes easier 
for the pupils to make progress in the study of the book. 
But if this book is taken from their hands while they are 
still in the midst of the subject, and a new book is substi- 
tuted, much time is lost even by the better pupils in be- 
coming familiar with the new methods, while the poorer 
pupils are apt to fail completely in the work of the new text. 

On the other hand, the length of time for which any book 
is used should not be too long, since a change is often de- 
sirable in order to secure better and more up-to-date texts. 
In Indiana, which formerly had let contracts for five-year 
periods under the State adoption system, it was thought 
that a longer period of time than five years should be speci- 
fied. The legislature, therefore, amended the law and pro- 
vided that certain books which were to be adopted in the 
future should be adopted for a period of ten years. It was 
soon discovered, however, that it might be necessary to 
change books oftener than once in ten years in order that 
the pupils might have the advantage of the best text-books. 
Accordingly, the law providing for a ten-year period was 
repealed ; and now all the contracts in the State of Indiana 
are again drawn for five-year periods. 

Three other aspects of the problem of text-book regula- 
tion which receive more extended discussion in the following 


pages are : uniformity of text-books, the regulation of the 
price of school books, and the question of free text-books. 
In the absence of some system in the selection of text-books 
pupils moving from one school district to another are al- 
most certain to find that they must buy a majority if not 
all of the books which they will use in the new school. Con- 
sequently, some system of uniformity is necessary. But 
should the State or the county be the unit in the system of 
uniformity? Again, should the prices of school books be 
left to competition or should they be subject to State regula- 
tion? Finally, should the school corporation, the county, 
or the State, as the case may be, purchase school books and 
supplies; and if so, should these books and supplies be 
furnished to pupils free of charge or at cost? These are 
among the questions which present themselves in connection 
with the regulation of text-books. 



When the first schools were established in Iowa each 
teacher was apparently his own authority, not only deciding 
what text-books should be used by his pupils but also deter- 
mining the length of time during which these books should 
continue in use. In the pioneer settlements almost any text- 
book was acceptable, since the number of different books on 
the same subject was limited, as was also the financial 
ability of the settlers to buy new books. Pioneer families 
coming from other States naturally brought with them 
among their most cherished possessions such school books 
as they might have. Consequently, when the district school 
was conducted for its limited session several different books 
on a given subject were used in the same class. This situ- 
ation resulted in confusion and detracted from the efficiency 
of the work of the teacher, who in many cases was compelled 


to hear as many recitations in a given subject as there were 
various text-books on that subject in use in the school. It 
was due to this chaotic condition of affairs that the necessity 
for uniformity of text-books, at least in the same school 
district, was early recognized by the people. 

After uniformity of text-books began to be established 
in the various school corporations or school districts it was 
found that persons moving from one school district to 
another were at a disadvantage in that the books used in one 
district might not be the same as those used in another. 
Thus, in time agitation was begun to secure a larger unit 
within which uniformity of text-books should prevail. 

The first legislative provision in Iowa concerning uni- 
formity of text-books is to be found in the law passed by the 
General Assembly in 1849. By this act it became the duty 
of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to examine 
and recommend to the several school districts a uniform 
series of text books, to be used in the schools thereof.''^ 
The Superintendent, however, was given no power to com- 
pel schools to use the books which he recommended. At 
the same time, the law was a step in the direction of the 
selection of text-books by a central authority. 

In accordance with this law Superintendent Thomas H. 
Benton, Jr., recommended the following books : 

Sanders' series of readers and spellers, a first book in drawing by 
Josiah Holbrook, Winchester's penmanship in four books, Mitchell's 
geographies, McElligott's Young Analyzer and Manual, Parley's 
Universal History with Engravings, Colburn and Perkins' arith- 
metic, Wells' grammar, Wilson's History of the United States, and 
Webster's primary school and pronouncing dictionary J 

Teachers were urged by the State department not to use 
books that were not in the recommended list, and in this 

6 Laws of Iowa, 1848-1849, p. 96. 

7 Aurner 's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 343, 344. 


way an attempt was made to secure a greater degree of uni- 
formity throughout the State. School book publishers were 
active in Iowa then as now, and in the attempt to induce the 
Superintendent to recommend their publications had sent to 
his office a large number of samples of their respective texts. 
^^In 1849 there were some three hundred volumes in this 
text-book library which were accessible to citizens of the 

In 1854 Mr. James Eads, then Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, made an almost complete change in the list of 
text-books which he recommended. Webster's dictionary, 
MitchelPs geographies, and Parley's history were retained. 
The remainder of the list was new, and was made up of the 
following books: 

Calvin and Eunice Cutter's books on physiology and hygiene, 
Lincoln's chemistry, Parker's natural and experimental philosophy, 
Pinneo's grammar, .... Burritt's Atlas of the Heavens, 
Wood's botany, Ray's arithmetics and algebra, McGuffey's readers 
and speller, Foster's book-keeping, Emma Willard's history, 
. . . . Bayard's Exposition of the Constitution of the United 
States, and Mansfield's Political Grammar.^ 

This list is perhaps more interesting than the previous 
one, since it was the first recommended list containing texts 
for high schools. 

At this time the leaders in the educational field in Iowa 
were making strenuous efforts to secure uniformity in the 
use of books in the schools of the State. It was declared 
that uniformity was absolutely necessary if the schools were 
to be efficient. In order to appeal to the parents and secure 
their assistance, statements were made that uniformity 
would save money since texts would be used for a much 
longer period of time. Parents were also appealed to on 

8 Aurncr's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, p. 344, 
Aurner's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, p. 345. 


the ground that frequent changes of texts were detrimental 
to the best work of the children. Claims were made then, 
as now, that many of the changes were brought about by 
agents of the text-book houses or were made for the pur- 
pose of satisfying some personal preference of the teacher. 
At any rate the leaders in education insisted that frequent 
changes of school books must cease and that uniformity 
of texts must be secured.^^ 

It is interesting to note, however, that the State Superin- 
tendent himself made frequent changes in his recommended 
list, so that, had all the schools followed his recommenda- 
tions, changes in texts would still have occurred with con- 
siderable frequency. For instance, the list recommended in 
1854 by Superintendent Eads was changed within the very 
short period of two years, that is, in 1856, when he recom- 
mended the following list of books : 

Greene's grammars, Bernard's History of the United States, 
Webster's Definer, the Constitution of the United States by W. 
Hickey, Cotton and Fitch's geographies, Cowdy's Elementary 
Moral Lessons, Brookfield's First Book, Parker's Aids, Davies* 
Legendre, and Davies' Surveying.^i 

This list was to be added to the list recommeded in 1854, 
thus practically destroying any attempts which may have 
been made theretofore to secure uniformity of texts, for it 
will be seen that there was now allowed a choice in gram- 
mars, histories, dictionaries, civics, and geographies. 

When Mr. Maturin L. Fisher became Superintendent of 
Public Instruction he reported in 1857 that schools were 
more dependent upon good teachers than upon good text- 
books", and therefore he made no recommendation of 

10 Aumer 's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, p. 345. 

11 Aumer 's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 345, 346. 

12 Aumer 's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, p. 346. 


The office of Superintendent of Public Instruction was 
abolished in 1858 and a State Board of Education was 
created. Upon its organization a committee of this Board 
was appointed for the purpose of revising the recommended 
text-book list. This committee retained most of the books 
recommended by Mr. Eads, with the following exceptions : 
Grey's botany was substituted for Wood's botany, and May- 
hew 's book-keeping displaced that of Foster. Norton's 
Primary Natural Philosophy was added to the list. Men- 
tion has been made of the fact that on the recommended 
list at this time there were two different grammars. Evi- 
dently the committee sought to get back to uniformity by 
recommending only one grammar. *^But the committee 
could not agree on the grammar to be recommended, Bul- 
lion's, Clark's, and Pinneo's each having an adherent. The 
Secretary, it seems, was finally given authority to decide, 
whereupon Pinneo's book was retained. "^^ 

The committee went on record as opposing frequent 
changes in text-books and urged for the first time that books 
should be sold throughout the State at a uniform price. 
*^Your committee", reads the recommendation, ^^are fur- 
ther of the opinion that some arrangement might be made, 
and should be made, by which text books may be furnished 
throughout the State at a uniform price, and we trust this 
Board will recommend the Secretary to endeavor to make 
such an arrangement."^* It does not appear, however, that 
any action was taken upon this recommendation. 

The Board of Education convened for its second session 
in Des Moines in December, 1859. The question of text- 
books was discussed with great freedom, and suggestions 
were made to the effect that district boards should be au- 
thorized to adopt texts without recommendations from the 

13 Aurner's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, p. 346. 

1^ Journal of the Board of Education, First Session, pp. 67, 68. 


State Board. A majority and a minority report were made 
loj the committee on text-books. The majority report re- 
jected all texts on geography that had been submitted, 
claiming that all were filled with errors with regard to the 
location of streams and towns in the western States and in 
respect to the population of cities and towns in lowa.^^ 

The minority report concurred in this condemnation of 
the geographies but insisted that ^4n many portions of the 
State, great efforts have been made to obtain a uniformity 
of text-books in the schools, and those efforts have been 
crowned with a good degree of success. This success, I 
consider, due almost entirely to the fact that the same 
recommendations have been adhered to for several years, 
and no course has contributed so much to that end as the 
refusal of the Board at its last session to change the recom- 
mendations formerly made by the State Superintendents. ' ' 
The minority report, however, favored certain changes in 
high school texts on the ground that these studies were 
but little pursued in our common schools, ' ' and that changes 
could be made with but little expense.^^ 

It is interesting to note that in accordance with an act 
passed by the Board of Education it became the duty of the 
Secretary of the Board to recommend from time to time to 
county superintendents such books as he thought suitable 
for use as text-books. Such lists were to be transmitted by 
the county superintendents immediately to the presidents of 
the several district boards of directors in their respective 
counties. ^'^ 

It was not until 1860 that the General Assembly enacted 
a law giving to the electors in school districts the power to 

15 Journal of the Board of Education, Second Session, p. 48. 
Journal of the Board of Education, Second Session, pp. 55, 56. 

17 Educational Laws of the State of Iowa passed hy the Board of Education 
<at its First and Second Sessions, and hy the General Assembly, at its Eighth 
Regular Session, p. 30. , 



* ' determine the branches to be tanght and the text-books to 
be used in the schools ' ' — a power which might be delegated 
by the electors to the district school board.^^ This act of 
the General Assembly provided for township uniformity, 
inasmuch as the law to which it was amendatory specified 
the rights of electors in each district township. As a matter 
of fact, the township is still the largest unit of uniformity 
except in those cases where counties have voluntarily ac- 
cepted county uniformity. 

On December 19, 1861, the State Board of Education made 
its last recommendation of text-books. The list was as fol- 
lows : spellers, McGuffey ^s ; readers, McGuffey 's new series ; 
writing, Spencerian and Beer's system; arithmetic, Eay's 
series; algebra, Eay's; grammar, Pinneo's; geography, 
Monteith and McNally's latest edition; music, Bradbury's 
school music; history, Wilson's; dictionary, Webster's; 
book-keeping, Palmer's; natural philosophy, Wells'; na- 
tural philosophy, Wells ' Science of Common Things ; chem- 
istry, Youman's; botany, Grey's; geometry, Eobinson's; 
trigonometry, Eobinson's; surveying, Eobinson's; physi- 
ology. Cutter's; astronomy, Brocklesby's ; meteorology, 
Brocklesby's ; geology, Hitchcock's. In this list only one 
change appears : Pinneo 's grammar was once more recom- 

There is nothing to show that this last recommendation 
carried any weight with the township boards of directors, 
although it is to be assumed that the agents representing 
publishing companies that had books on this list were active 
in their endeavors to promote sales. 

The Iowa Instructor and School Journal, which was then 
the leading school journal in Iowa, made strong appeals to 
the township boards of directors to determine the series of 

18 Bevision of 1860, Sec. 2028-7. 

19 Journal of the Board of Education, Third Session, p. 63. 



books that should be used in their schools for a considerable 
period of time to come. It also suggested that supplies of 
these texts should be kept at some central or other con- 
venient place and sold at a cheap rate ; and it was even sug- 
gested that the books might be loaned or furnished free. 
Moreover, arguments were advanced to prove that no one 
thing would so handicap a pupil as the use of corrupt or 
badly written school books. ' ' 

In 1864 the Board of Education was abolished and the 
office of Superintendent of Public Instruction was once more 

Three years later Superintendent D. Franklin Wells 
made the announcement that the chief interest in text-books 
centered in the subject of uniformity. He declared State 
uniformity to be impractical. Uniformity was desirable for 
the county and very important throughout a township, but 
he took the position that the only place where uniformity 
was absolutely essential was in each school district. The 
law at that time, as has already been noted, gave to the 
electors in each district township or to the board of direc- 
tors the power to secure uniformity of text-books in the 
schools in the township. It was urged very strongly by 
Superintendent Wells that this township uniformity should 
be required, and not merely permitted, by the directors.^^ 

In some of the counties of the State, notably in Dallas 
County, uniformity of text-books was early secured through- 
out the entire county. The process was simple. A conven- 
tion of the school officers was called, and by mutual 
agreement a list of books was agreed upon. This plan was 
also followed in Louisa County; and a similar plan has been 
followed during the last few years by Osceola County. Ac- 
cording to the plan employed in Osceola County at present 

20 Beport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, p. 53, in the Iowa Leg- 
islative Documents, 1868, Vol. I. 

VOL. xm — 5 


each township wishing to enter the county uniformity sys- 
tem appoints a committee with power to act. These various 
committees meet in conference with the county superin- 
tendent. A list of books is agreed upon and selected. These 
books are then put into use in the rural schools of the coun- 
ty, thus securing county uniformity. A somewhat similar 
plan was followed in Franklin County a few years ago. 
Furthermore, it appears that during the earlier years in 
some counties a committee from the county teachers insti- 
tute recommended lists of books that were accepted by some 
of the schools.^^ 

The General Assembly in 1872 evidently felt that text- 
books were being changed too often, thereby entailing too 
large an expense upon patrons of the schools. A statute 
was therefore enacted which prohibited the change of texts 
oftener than once in three years, unless they were voted out 
by the electors, due notice of the election having been 

During this same year the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction suggested that the only way to make the public 
schools free to everybody and at the same time provide for 
text-books that should be suitable was to provide that school 
boards should purchase and own the text-books to be used 
in the schools — in other words, free text-books should be 
furnished to pupils.^^ 

It appears that there were those who advocated the idea 
of State uniformity at about this same time, for State 
Superintendent von Coelln objected to the proposal very 
strongly in a report which he made in 1877, quoting the 
Minnesota State Teachers ' Association as being opposed to 
a law of this character which was then in operation in Min- 

21 Aurner's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, p. 351. 

22 Laws of Iowa, 1872 (General), p. 85. 

23 Report of the Superintendent of Puhlic Instruction, pp. 191, 203, in the 
Iowa Legislative Documents, 1872, Vol. I. 


nesota. He did, however, recommend the Wisconsin law of 
1875 which provided that boards of directors could pur- 
chase text-books for their respective districts — such books 
being thereafter the property of the district.^* 

In the meantime Iowa became the battle-ground for text- 
book companies, because each township board was empow- 
ered to select its own books. Since the statute provided 
that books should remain in use for at least three years, if 
satisfactory to the electors, in many cases boards of direc- 
tors of district townships entered into contracts with pub- 
lishing houses to supply all the books needed for the 
township for a period of three years. But before the ex- 
piration of the three years perhaps some opposing company 
would send an agent into this township, who would en- 
deavor, possibly with success, to convince the school board 
that the books of his company were better than those al- 
ready in use, and would propose an even exchange whereby 
the company would give to the pupil a new book free in 
exchange for the copy of the book displaced. This practice 
led to a great many abuses, especially where changes took 
place, as they frequently did, during the school year. The 
people began to feel that there must be a very large profit 
in the text-book business. Applying the old adage that 
**one never gets something for nothing'', they suspected 
that the publishing houses recouped their losses from these 
even exchanges by charging exorbitant prices for those 
books actually sold. 

To put a stop to the frequent changing of text-books and 
to secure books at lower prices was one of the problems a 
solution of which was demanded of the General Assembly 
which met in January, 1880. Five distinct bills were intro- 
duced in the House of Representatives and one in the Sen- 
ate, all of which had for their purpose the securing of 

24 Aurner 's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, p. 352. 


uniformity of text-books and lower prices than had former- 
ly prevailed. For instance, House File No. 205 was entitled 
bill for an act to provide for a uniformity of text books 
in the common schools of the State. ' ' Another bill proposed 
^^to create a State Board of text-book control and to define 
their duties.'' A third was framed with the idea of pro- 
viding for a uniform system of text-books for schools, and 
giving school districts power to provide text-books.'^ 
Again, another bill had for its object the securing of cheap 
and uniform text-books in counties. 

All these bills were referred to the Committee on Schools,, 
which on February 13th was given the instructions indi- 
cated in the following resolution: 

Whereas, The patrons of the schools of the State have to pay 
exorbitant prices for their school books, doubtless double their orig- 
inal cost; and 

Whereas, Said patrons are, and of a right ought to look to this: 
General Assembly for relief; therefore 

Be it resolved, That it is the sense of this House that the Com- 
mittee on Schools should take special care to devise means and 
measures that will secure the text-books to the schools of the State 
at the lowest possible price .^^ 

On March 1st the Committee on Schools made the follow- 
ing report : 

Your Committee on Schools, to whom were referred House Files; 
Nos. 242, 249, 454, 205 and 400, bills for acts to provide cheap and 
uniform text books in counties, beg leave to report that they have 
had the same under consideration and have instructed me to report 
the same back to the House with the recommendation that a substi- 
tute for all of said bills herewith submitted do pass 

This substitute measure, however, received but little ac- 
tive support in the House, while outside of the General 

2r. Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1880, pp. 79, 110, 113, 222, 263;, 
Journal of the Senate, 1880, p. 345. ' 
2Q Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1880, p. 177. 
27 Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1880, p. 341. 


Assembly it was condemned by leading educators of the 
State. As a consequence the bill failed to pass the House. 
In the Senate the subject was scarcely considered. 

Four years later (1884) Governor Buren R. Sherman, in 
his message to the General Assembly, suggested that the 
State should proceed to publish its own text-books. This 
plan, he believed, offered the only possible solution to the 
problem of the cost of text-books. Furthermore, he was of 
the opinion that text-books written by Iowa authors would 
be the most suitable to the use of pupils in the schools of 
this State ; while the plan would have the additional advan- 
tage of securing uniformity of text-books throughout the 
State.^^ Although this suggestion was not productive of 
any legislation it is indicative of the fact that interest in the 
text-book problem had shifted from the question of uniform- 
ity to the matter of prices. 

In 1886 the questions of the uniformity and prices of text- 
books again arose. United States Senator James F. Wil- 
son expressed his opinion in a letter to Superintendent 
Akers. The document was pronounced 'an eloquent plea 
for free text-books', but it was utterly opposed to any at- 
tempt on the part of the State to enter upon the publication 
of the same or to dictate the selection in any manner. ' ' The 
Senator insisted upon what has now come to be called the 
principle of home rule, declaring that ' ' districts should not 
only be allowed to select but also to own the books used 
therein. ''2^ 

That people throughout the State were interested in the 
subject is indicated by the report made in 1885 by the Com- 
missioner of Labor Statistics, wherein he included excerpts 
from letters received from working people expressing their 
views on various subjects. '*I think'', wrote a miner, *'we 

28 Shambaugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
V, p. 268. 

29 Aurner 's History of Education in Iowa, Vol, I, pp. 354, 355. 


ought to have a uniformity of school-books, printed by the 
State/' A fellow-worker declared that there are far too 
many changes in text-books; I can't afford it.'' A car- 
penter found the buying of school books quite a tax; and 
it is an outrage on the people, the price that publishers put 
on these books." On the other hand, a blacksmith empha- 
sized the need of uniformity, for, he said, *^with so many 
changes all the time, it is very hard indeed for the poor 
people to send all their children to school, as we would like 
to do." The same attitude was revealed in other letters.^^ 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction, John W. 
Akers, devoted thirty-five pages to the text-book question in 
his report of 1885. ^ ^ There is no question in connection with 
the entire subject of education", he declared, which has 
been so generally agitated and discussed, and which is so 
difficult of any satisfactory solution, as that which relates to 
the selection and supply of text-books." For this reason 
* ' some relief from the evils which the public has so long and 
so patiently borne" was demanded.^^ 

The Superintendent then proceeded with a discussion of 
the evils from which the people were suffering, namely: 
frequent changes, the cost of text-books, and the lack of 
uniformity. He pointed out the fact that while the burdens 
and bad results caused by frequent chtoges of texts had 
been very great the evil has been magnified out of all proper 
proportion in the public mind. In fact, because of this feel- 
ing '^boards, in many cases refused to change books when 
changes really should have been made. So sensitive has the 
public mind become on this question that the promotion of a 
child from a lower grade of work to a higher, requiring a 
more advanced book, is resented as * another change,' and is 

30 Beport of the Commissioner of Labor Statistics, pp. 208, 209, in the Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1886, Vol. IV. 

31 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, p. 52, in the Iowa Leg- 
islative Documents, 1886, Vol. V. 


roundly and unqualifiedly denounced.'^ His conclusion on 
this point was that * ^ a really good book may be used in any 
school for a life time, provided no book surpasses it in the 
mean time''; but if *^a book proves, after a fair trial, to be 
bad and unsatisfactory, a board of directors should be free 
to discontinue its use at any time." 

Turning to the subject of the cost of school books Super- 
intendent Akers stated his belief that the price of text-books 
should and could be reduced to prices from forty to fifty 
percent lower than those charged at that time. While he 
expressed the hope that ^^the time may soon come when we 
shall have uniformity of text-books in the schools of each 
school district'', he was not in favor of State uniformity. 
Furthermore, he did not believe that the reduction of the 
prices of school books could be accomplished through any 
scheme of uniformity. On the contrary the solution of the 
whole problem lay in the establishment of a system of free 
text-books. In support of this contention he presented in 
detail the results of an extensive investigation of free text- 
book systems in the United States.^^ 

As a result of all this agitation as many as seven bills 
dealing with the uniformity and prices of text-books were 
introduced in the House of Representatives in 1886 ; and a 
large number of petitions were presented from various 
sections of the State asking for the passage of a law on the 
subject.^^ In spite of this general interest, however, none 
of these bills was enacted into law. 

The subject of text-books again received attention from 
Superintendent Henry Sabin in his report in 1889. He dis- 
cussed at some length the methods by which the merits of a 
text-book could be determined and the qualifications which 

32 Eeport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp. 52-87, in the Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1886, Vol. V. 

Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1886, index under heading of 
''Text Books '\ 


the author of such a book should possess. A series of ef- 
fective arguments was then presented against State publi- 
cation of school books in which it was shown that the State 
was in no position to compete with the publishing houses, 
except in the one matter of the price of the books : the qual- 
ity must suffer under any system of State publication. 

Superintendent Sabin likewise disapproved of the plan of 
State uniformity of text-books which, he declared, had no- 
where been a success. There were many objections to the 
plan. In the first place, it would be impossible to select a 
list of books that would be suitable for use in all the differ- 
ent grades of schools, from those in rural districts to those 
in the largest cities. No body of men would possess the 
wisdom necessary to make a selection that would be satis- 
factory to all concerned. In the second place, there would 
be a large pecuniary loss in replacing the books then in use 
throughout the State by a uniform set, or else the new books 
would be of an inferior quality. Finally, the administration 
of a system of State uniformity, especially if the books were 
to be purchased by the State, would require elaborate and 
expensive machinery for the distribution and disposal of 
the books. Space would not permit of further consideration 
of the plan. 

In fact, Mr. Sabin, like his predecessor, came to the con- 
clusion that the best way to solve the problem of the cost of 
text-books was to do away with the services of the middle- 
man as far as possible : he believed that the price of books 
could thus be reduced by as much as a third. Finally, he 
was of the opinion ^^that the surest and quickest relief will 
be found in giving the people of each district the power to 
furnish the text-books, as they furnish the desks and other 
equipments of the school, without cost to the individual 
pupil. ''34 

34 Beport of the Superintendent of Fublic Instruction, pp. 89-96, in the Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1890, Vol. II. 


The Twenty- third General Assembly, which met at Des 
Moines in January, 1890, witnessed the culmination of the 
movement for reform in the regulation of text-books. 
Nearly a score of bills on the subject were introduced in the 
House, while almost an equal number were placed on file in 
the Senate. Furthermore, both houses were flooded with 
petitions and memorials from citizens of Iowa favoring or 
opposing the plans proposed in these bills.^^ Naturally, if 
any legislation was to be the outcome of this wholesale 
introduction of bills there must be an effort at compromise. 
Consequently, in both houses the committees to whom these 
bills were referred prepared substitute bills which were 
recommended for adoption. It will not be necessary, how- 
ever, to discuss the proceedings in the Senate since it was 
the House substitute bill which was finally enacted into law. 

It was on March 27th in the House of Representatives 
that ^^Mr. Holbrook, from [the] Committee on Text-Books 
reported relative to House files Nos. 27, 32, 50, 62, 65, 68, 
102, 121, 140, 184, 200, 225, 258, 298, 321, 364, 380, 382 and 
390, recommending substitute for them to pass, and that the 
bills be indefinitely postponed.'' A substitute bill proposed 
by the minority of the committee was also submitted. The 
matter was then made a special order for Tuesday, April 
1st. At the appointed time the House took up the consider- 
ation of the proposed substitutes, which for several suc- 
ceeding days were the principal topics of debate. The 
proceedings were enlivened on April 3rd, when Mr. Norman 
E. Holbrook rose to a question of privilege and remarked 
that, according to the morning Leader, ^^Mr. Dobson 
charged that a lobby had been here all winter working for 
State uniformity and had promised some members a finger 
in the job if it prevailed. ' ' He therefore moved the appoint- 

Journal of the Rouse of Bepresentatives, 1890, index; Journal of the 
Senate, 1890, index. 


ment of a committee of investigation. The matter was 
eventually laid on the table, but it served to stimulate the 
interest of members in the text-book bill. 

After much debate and after several amendments had 
been made the bill proposed by the majority of the com- 
mittee finally passed the House on April 11th by a vote of 
sixty to thirty-four. Many members, however, felt called 
upon to explain their votes at various stages of the proceed- 
ings. One member who favored State uniformity supported 
the bill because it was *^a step toward the law which the 
people seem to want.'' Another voted against the bill be- 
cause it was ^^not in the interest of the laboring classes" 
and it was ^^not in accord with the fundamental principles 
of our government ^ ^ This bill may prove better than no 
law on the subject" was the justification offered by still 
another for his affirmative vote. The attitude of others 
who opposed the measure was expressed in the words of 
the member who stated that do not believe that any 
measure that satisfies the school-book trust as this bill does 
will afford any relief to the people. The editor of an 
Iowa school journal, who heartily favored the law, made the 
following comment on the vote in the House : 

The sixty-one votes which were for the passage of the bill, were 
from men who are willing to make any reasonable compromise in 
order to get some legislation. About thirty of the votes in the nega- 
tive were for "State uniformity or nothing." Some eight or nine 
members of the House favored ' ' no legislation. ' ' About thirty-five 
members were in favor of a local option clause permitting free text- 

The bill passed the Senate on April 14th by a vote of 
thirty-two to fourteen and on May 7th it became a law by 
receiving the approval of the Governor. 

36 Journal of the House of Eepresentatives, 1890, pp. 325, 401, 414, 416, 520. 

37 The Iowa Normal Monthly, Vol. XIII, p. 428. 

38 Journal of the Senate, 1890, p. 700. A number of Senators also requested 
that explanations of their votes be spread upon the journal. 



The law thus enacted authorized boards of directors to 
adopt, contract for, and purchase text-books and other 
school supplies and sell them to the pupils in their respec- 
tive districts at cost. The books were to be paid for out of 
the contingent fund and the contract was to be awarded to 
the bidder offering the lowest prices taking into consider- 
ation the quality of material used, illustrations, binding and 
all other things that go to make up a desirable text-book 
Text-books thus adopted could not be displaced before the 
expiration of a period of five years, except upon an affirm- 
ative vote of a majority of the electors voting at the regular, 
annual March meeting. 

The distinctive feature of the law, however, is to be found 
in the optional system of county uniformity therein out- 
lined. A Board of Education", consisting of the county 
superintendent, the county auditor, and the members of the 
board of supervisors, was created for each county. If one- 
half of the school directors in the county should sign a peti- 
tion asking for a uniform series of text-books in the county, 
it became the duty of the county board of education to ar- 
range for a vote on the question at the annual school election 
in March. In case a majority of the electors voting at the 
election favored the proposition the board of education was 
required to *^meet and select the school-text-books for the 
entire County, and contract for the same under such rules 
and regulations as the said Board of Education may adopt." 
Further details of the plan were specified, and it was stated 
that the law did not apply to schools in cities or towns, al- 
though such schools might adopt the books selected for the 
county and buy them at the prices fixed by the board of 

This law apparently met with general approval, for it 
was many years before there was further serious agitation 

39 Laws of Iowa, 1890, pp. 36-39. 


of the text-book question. Furthermore, as will be seen 
later, many counties immediately took advantage of the 
provisions for optional county uniformity; others followed 
in succeeding years, until at present the plan outlined in the 
law is in operation in over half of the counties of the State.*^ 

Section one of the law was amended in 1894 in such a 
manner as to place all school books and supplies in charge 
of the board of directors or board of education, as the case 
might be, instead of holding the presidents of these boards 
solely responsible, as had previously been the rule. Fur- 
thermore, one or more persons might be selected within the 
county to keep text-books and supplies for sale, but such 
persons were required to give bonds *^to insure the safety 
of the books and moneys".*^ At this same session of the 
legislature permission was given to school boards ^Ho fur- 
nish the necessary books for indigent pupils, when they are 
likely to be deprived of the proper benefits of the school 
unless aided by the district with books. 

The last piece of text-book legislation in Iowa is the free 
text-book law enacted by the General Assembly in 1896. 
According to the provisions of this act, upon the filing of a 
petition signed by one-third or more of the voters in any 
school township or independent district the board of direc- 
tors is required to submit the question of free text-books to 
a vote at the next annual meeting. In case the vote is favor- 
able it becomes the duty of the board to *4oan text-books to 
the pupils free of charge''. Pupils may, if they choose, pur- 
chase books at cost; otherwise they are to be held respon- 
sible ^'for any damage to, loss of, or failure to return any 
such books''. The loaning of text-books, however, may be 
discontinued at any time by vote of the electors at the an- 
nual school election.*^ 

40 See below, p. 86. 

41 Laws of Iowa, 1894, p. 45. 

42 Laws of Iowa, 1894, p. 45. 

43 Laws of Iowa, 1896, p. 43. 


Although there has been no legislation concerning text- 
books since 1896 there have been several indications of a 
continued interest in the subject. In 1897 a House resolu- 
tion directed the Superintendent of Public Instruction to 
^investigate the various methods of obtaining and furnish- 
ing our public schools with text-books and supplies, and to 
report to the Twenty-seventh General Assembly the most 
practical system for supplying the people of Iowa with suit- 
able text-books at the lowest possible cost price to the tax- 
payers.'' Furthermore, he was requested ^^to secure from 
not less than three reputable and responsible publishing 
houses, which are not in any way engaged in the publication 
or sale of school books, estimates showing the cost of the 
material, press work, and binding, per volume, of each of 
the various kinds of text-books necessarily used in the pub- 
lic schools of the state''. 

Superintendent Sabin complied with the first part of this 
resolution, making an extensive investigation of the prices 
of school books in Iowa and in five other States, including 
California where the system of State publication was in 
operation. As a result of this investigation it was his con- 
clusion that the prices paid for text-books in Iowa were no 
higher than those paid in other States. He was not able, 
however, to satisfy the request made in the last part of the 
resolution, for the reason that no publishing firm was will- 
ing to spend the time required to make such estimates as 
were desired without receiving compensation therefor ; and 
no appropriation had been made by the legislature to defray 
any such expenses.^^ 

A similar effort to secure data relative to the cost of text- 
books was made in the General Assembly in 1898, when a 

44 Beport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp. 65-87, in the Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1898, Vol. II. The House resolution is printed in this 
Beport, but seemingly does not appear in full in the Journal of the House of 


resolution was introduced in the House but failed to receive 
consideration. This resolution reads as follows : 

Resolved, That the state printer and binder be requested to fur- 
nish for the information of this House, the cost per copy, according 
to the schedule of rates established by the code of 1897, of a series of 
school readers from the first to the fifth inclusive, equal in point of 
illustration, binding and material, to the Barnes' series of readers 
now in use in this state. All material to be furnished by the state>^ 

Occasional bills relative to text-books have been intro- 
duced in the General Assembly since 1896, but without suc- 
cess. Interest in the subject has not ceased, however, as is 
evidenced by the fact that several text-book bills were intro- 
duced in the Thirty-fifth General Assembly, two of them 
providing for a system of State uniformity administered by 
a State text-book commission.^^ 



Under the laws as they stand in Iowa to-day text-books 
may be selected, purchased, and supplied to pupils by any 
one of a number of different methods. School books may be 
selected in two ways: (1) by boards of directors, both in 
rural and independent districts; and (2) by the county 
boards of education, in case the people of the rural districts 
of the county take advantage of the provision for optional 
county uniformity and vote in favor of a uniform set of 
text-books for the schools of the county outside of cities and 
towns. Books and supplies may be purchased by local 
school boards, by county boards of education, or by book 

Several methods are also provided whereby texts and 
supplies may be furnished to pupils. In the first place, 

*s Journal of the House of Representatives, 1898, p. 317. 
4« For a brief discussion of these bills see Aurner 's History of Education in 
Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 363, 364. 


local and county boards which have purchased books and 
supplies may sell them to pupils at cost. In the second 
place, if the electors so decide, text-books and supplies may 
be furnished to pupils free of charge. In either case the 
business of handling the books may be committed to an 
agent or agents, of whom a bond is required. Finally, the 
selling of school books may be left entirely to dealers, with 
or without regulation. Books once adopted must remain in 
use for a period of five years unless voted out by the electors 
of the district at the annual school election. 

Thus it appears that opportunity is given to the people of 
every school district to provide text-books suitable to their 
desires and needs by almost any method which they choose 
to select. If texts are unsatisfactory the people have it 
within their power to vote them out at the annual school 
election. In fact, thus far no complaint has been made by 
any body of teachers or by any school board that under the 
present systems it is not possible to secure satisfactory 

Furthermore, the only cases on record of districts having 
voted out a list of books before the contracts had expired 
are the cases of certain townships in Page County. In one 
of these townships, namely East River, it appears that a 
certain list of books had been adopted by the school board 
without advertising for bids as is required by law. An elec- 
tion was called in a manner contrary to that authorized by 
law and the people voted out certain books which had pre- 
viously been adopted. A case involving the validity of the 
transaction was brought in the district court and later ap- 
pealed to the Supreme Court of Iowa. The latter court 
declared the change of texts to be illegal on the grounds 
that the law had been violated both in the calling of the 
election and in the selection of a list of books without adver- 
tising for bids.^"^ 

47 J. C. McNees, et al. vs. School Township of East Eiver, 133 Iowa 120. 



As far as the cost of school books is concerned a study of 
the statutes of Iowa reveals the fact that boards of directors 
are clothed with sufficient authority to enable them to sell 
books at the net wholesale price asked by the publishing 
house. They must, however, proceed according to law. For 
instance, in the independent district of Iowa City a few 
years ago the school board attempted to have certain deal- 
ers sell text-books to pupils at the wholesale prices charged 
by the publishing houses, the board agreeing to reimburse 
the dealers for handling the books by paying them lump 
sums out of the contingent funds. The matter was brought 
into court on a writ of injunction asking that the board be 
restrained from paying the dealers the sums agreed upon. 
The case was appealed to the State Supreme Court which 
reversed the decision of the lower court in an opinion con- 
taining the following statement : 

The statutory plan is for the school board, if it sees fit to do so, to 
contract for and buy books, to keep the same for sale to scholars at 
cost, and to select one or more persons to have charge of the sale of 
such books. Without doubt, as incident to the employment of such 
agent or agents, the board has implied power to pay them a com- 
pensation for their services. But unless there is occasion to employ 
such agents — that is, unless the board has bought books, and is 
keeping them for sale to scholars at cost — there is no occasion, and 
therefore no authority, for employing such agents. And the method 
provided for purchasing books is on competitive bids made after 
publishing notice in newspapers in the county. Now the method 
pursued by the defendant board was a wholly different one from 
that authorized by statute. It did not advertise for bids or receive 
competitive bids. It did not purchase any books. It did not provide 
for the keeping of any books purchased for sale to scholars. But, on 
the contrary, it arranged with the publishers of certain books that 
the books should be supplied for sale to scholars at specified prices, 
and contracted with booksellers that they should, in consideration of 
annual payments to be made to them by the board by way of com- 
pensation, sell these books, without additional cost, to such scholars 
as should desire to purchase them. Perhaps the plan adopted by 


the board was a more satisfactory plan than that contemplated by 
the statute. It may be that advertisements in the local papers for 
bids to supply copyrighted books exclusively under the control of 
certain publishers would have been of no advantage in securing the 
books at lower prices than those at which they were offered by the 
publishers. It may be that it was not to the advantage of the dis- 
trict that it should become owner, by purchase from the contingent 
fund, of quantities of schoolbooks, the cost price of which, when 
paid by the scholars purchasing them, should be returned to the 
fund. . . . The fact nevertheless remains, as practically un- 
disputed, that the school board did not in any respect attempt to 
exercise the authority given it by statute to purchase books for sale 
to scholars at cost; and therefore it had no authority to contract 
with persons for the sale of such books, for it had no such books for 

In the forty- six counties of the State which do not have 
county uniformity, authority for the selection of text-books 
for the rural schools rests with the board of directors of the 
school township. As has already been noted, county uni- 
formity does not affect the schools in city or town independ- 
ent districts, unless the electors in these districts by vote 
decide to adopt and purchase the same books as are in use 
in the county at large. 

All of the methods provided by law for the distribution 
and sale of text-books are employed in the various school 
districts of Iowa. For instance, the school boards in a num- 
ber of independent districts are handling their own text- 
books and selling them at cost to the pupils. This is the case 
in Creston, Villisca, Webster City, and a number of other 
places. In these towns some one connected with the city 
superintendent's office is authorized to handle the books. 

In some instances the freight is added to the wholesale 
price of the book. In other cases the price of the book to 
the pupil is the wholesale price quoted by the publishing 
company f. o. b. Chicago. Still other city independent dis- 

48 Eies vs. Hemmer, 127 Iowa 409, at 411, 412. 

VOL. xm — 6 


tricts, taking advantage of the authority of the section of 
the law which gives them the right to select one or more 
persons within the county to keep the books for sale, pur- 
chase the books and designate some particular dealer to 
whom they pay a certain commission as compensation for 
handling the books. The commission varies, though it is 
usually ten percent of the wholesale price of the books. In 
some cases this percentage is added to the cost of the book, 
making the selling price to the pupil an amount equal to the 
wholesale price, f. o. b. Chicago, plus the dealer's com- 

The counties having county uniformity allow a commis- 
sion to these depositaries, which is usually ten percent. 
Some counties add this commission to the contract price, 
and fix the resulting amount as the retail price which the 
dealers shall charge for the book. Other counties pay the 
commission and the freight out of the general fund of the 
county, thereby making the net contract price the retail 
price to pupils. Some boards of education in city independ- 
ent districts and most boards of education of school town- 
ships do not elect to purchase the books and sell them at 
cost, but allow a dealer to handle them, who may charge any 
price which he sees fit, although the price is usually the list 
price quoted in the publisher's catalogue. This is true in 
Johnson County which operates under county uniformity. 

Thus, it can readily be seen that the same text-book may 
retail in the State at three different prices. The publishers 
of a certain geography, for example, quote a wholesale 
price, f. 0. b. Chicago, of ninety-four cents. A city school 
board or a county board of education which would handle 
this geography and sell it to the pupils at cost would fix the 
retail price of this book at ninety-four cents. Another price 
would be established by a district which, while buying the 
books itself, allows a dealer to handle them at a commission. 


In many cases this commission of ten percent would be 
added to the wholesale price of ninety-four cents, making 
the retail price of the geography in these districts one dollar 
and four cents. In still other districts where a retail dealer 
is permitted to buy the books and sell them at a price fixed 
by himself, this book would sell at the publisher 's list price 
of one dollar and twenty-five cents. It is to be noted in this 
connection that by none of these three different methods of 
handling text-books does the publisher of the geography 
receive more than ninety-four cents for each book, f. o. b. 
Chicago. Furthermore, in every case it is possible, if school 
boards will take advantage of the provisions of the law, to 
reduce the price of the school book to the wholesale price 
f. 0. b. Chicago. Many boards of education, however, do 
not take advantage of this provision. 

On the other hand, it has been seen that it is possible for 
the school board of any school corporation to furnish free 
text-books for the use of the pupils in the public schools; 
and the same provision applies to counties where county 
uniformity is in operation. 

The leading city independent districts which have estab- 
lished free text-books are Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Clin- 
ton, Council Bluffs, Grinnell, Marshalltown, and Red Oak. 
The free text-book system has also been adopted in a num- 
ber of smaller towns and in several country districts and 
school townships — as for instance, Fairview Township in 
Allamakee County and Welcome Township in Sioux County. 
Altogether, in 1913 free text-books were in use in over sixty 
school districts in thirty-two counties.*^ It is interesting to 
note that but one school district has discontinued the use of 
free text-books, namely, Preston, which, by vote of the peo- 
ple, abandoned the plan in 1914. 

For the purpose of ascertaining the results in other 

49 Iowa Educational Directory, 1913-1914, p. 108. 


States a questionnaire was sent by the writer to a number 
of towns in Nebraska and Minnesota in which free text- 
books have been in use for several years. From the replies 
to this questionnaire there has been formulated the follow- 
ing general statement of the advantages of the free text- 
book system : first, each child has a book at the time when 
school opens or when he is promoted; second, the burden 
rests upon the whole body of taxpayers rather than entirely 
upon those who have children in school; third, changes in 
texts can be ordered when desirable without working a 
hardship upon parents; fourth, the plan results in much 
greater economy in the cost of text-books to the people as a 
whole; and finally, the system is in accord with the policy 
of maintaining free public schools. 

In addition to the general advantages noted above a num- 
ber of other beneficial results are indicated in the replies. 
*'It permits those responsible for the curriculum to adapt 
the text-books to its needs, and those of the community'*, 
writes a city superintendent from Nebraska. ^*It makes 
compulsory school attendance possible of enforcement." A 
Minnesota superintendent calls attention to the fact that 
the plan makes it possible to have **a larger supply of sup- 
plementary texts on hand. " ^ ^ It encourages school attend- 
ance somewhat on the part of the children from poor fami- 
lies", writes another. ^*It does away with the stigma at- 
tached to the loan of books to poverty students only.^^ 
Still another declares that the plan means better text- 
books and, as a result, better work from the pupils." Fi- 
nally, in one letter is to be found the suggestion that under 
a system of free text-books it is possible to enforce better 
care of books on the part of pupils — a point which will be 
appreciated by those acquainted with the pernicious man- 
ner in which school books are sometimes marked by pupils. 

In the questionnaire these superintendents in Nebraska 


and Minnesota were also asked to state *Hhe average 
amount expended per pupil per year for books in the last 
five years According to twenty-five replies which were 
received the cost per pupil per year ranges from as low as 
forty cents to as high as one dollar and fifteen cents. The 
cost seems to be the highest during the first year under the 
system of free text-books. The ayerage cost for a five-year 
period in the twenty-five towns and cities was sixty cents 
per pupil per year in the grades, and about seventy-five 
cents per pupil in the high school.^^ 

It is interesting to compare these figures with the cost of 
school books in certain cities of Iowa where the free text- 
book system is in operation. The expenditure in the city of 
Des Moines for the five-year period beginning in 1909 is 

indicated by the following figures : 





$ 8,805.05 














On an average, covering the five-year period, there were 
17,230 children enrolled in the city schools of Des Moines. 
The total amount expended for text-books for these pupils 
for the five-year period was $43,719.88, or a total cost for 
the five-year period per pupil of $2,537, and an average an- 
nual cost per pupil of a fraction over fifty cents. This 
amount includes text-books for the high school as well as for 
the grades. 

For the first year after free texts were installed in Coun- 
cil Bluffs the cost was $1.75 per pupil for both the high 
school and the grades. Since that time the expenditure has 
steadily decreased until the cost averages forty cents per 
pupil per year. The average cost per pupil in Clinton is 

50 Letters received hj the writer in response to a questionnaire. 


seventy-seven cents per year, based on a five-year period. 
Corning reports approximately one dollar per pupil — a 
sum which seems to be unusually high, and undoubtedly in- 
cludes the cost of certain school supplies. In fact, the chief 
difficulty in securing data relative to the cost of books under 
the system of free text-books lies in the fact that in most 
cases the secretary's report includes the cost of school sup- 
plies, which is always greater than that of text-books. 



Provision for optional county uniformity of text-books in 
Iowa was made in an act passed by the General Assembly in 
1890.^^ The following counties availed themselves of the 
provisions of this act in 1891, that is, as soon as it was legal- 
ly possible for them to do so: Appanoose, Buena Vista, 
Butler, Cherokee, Davis, Emmet, Greene, Grundy, Hardin, 
Harrison, Howard, Jasper, Johnson, Jones, Linn, Louisa, 
Madison, Mahaska, Marshall, Mills, Mitchell, Muscatine, 
'Brien, Plymouth, Polk,^^ Ringgold, Shelby, Tama, Winne- 
shiek, and Worth. Since that time text-book uniformity 
has been adopted in the following counties : Adair, Adams, 
Benton, Black Hawk, Boone, Cerro Gordo, Chickasaw, Clay, 
Dallas, Des Moines, Dickinson, Fayette, Floyd, Guthrie, 
Ida, Monona, Sac, Taylor, Union, Warren, Washington, 
Woodbury, and Wright. 

Thus, uniformity of text-books is in operation in fifty- 
three counties of Iowa in all the schools excepting those in 
the independent districts. Moreover, many small independ- 

51 For a discussion of the provisions of this law see above, p. 75. 

52 Polk County was the first county to adopt text-books under the system of 
county uniformit}?. Eight publishing houses were represented in the bidding by 
thirty-two agents. — The Iowa Normal Monthly, Vol. XIX, p. 475. 

53 Iowa Educational Directory, 1913-1914, p. 108. The list here given would 
indicate that Clinton and Pottawattamie counties also have county uniformity, 
but this is an error. 


ent districts have taken advantage of the provision of the 
law which allows them to adopt the same books as are in use 
in the county at large and to buy them at the prices fixed by 
the county authorities. It is perhaps worthy of mention 
that while thirty counties adopted uniformity as soon as it 
was legally possible for them to do so, in the twenty-three 
years since that time only twenty-three counties have put 
the plan into operation. At this rate it would be about 
forty-six years before county uniformity would prevail 
throughout the State under the present law. 

There are at least two reasons why more counties have 
not adopted uniformity of text-books. In the first place, it 
appears that when county uniformity first became possible 
the people expected that the plan would afford them much 
lower prices on text-books. This expectation has not been 
fulfilled : it has been found that prices of school books have 
remained about the same, in spite of the enlargement of the 
unit of uniformity.^* A second reason which is frequently 
assigned to explain why county uniformity has not been 
more universally adopted is to be found in the fact that a 
certain large text-book company holds most of the contracts 
in those counties where the township is the unit of adoption. 
It has been said that any attempt by county superintendents 
or other persons interested in education to bring about 
county uniformity in these counties has been bitterly fought 
by this publishing house. For example, it is alleged that 
this was the case in Buchanan County three years ago.^^ 

Some attempts have been made in various counties to se- 
cure county uniformity without a vote of the people. For 
instance, the representatives of a certain book company, 
which has contracts in most of the townships in the counties 

54 No plan will ever make it possible to secure books for less than wholesale 
prices, as is pointed out below. 

55 See a pamphlet published by the county superintendent of Buchanan 
County in 1912. 


not having county uniformity, call upon the boards of direc- 
tors of the school townships and urge upon them the adop- 
tion of a uniform list of books selected wholly from the 
publications of that company. If this plan succeeds the 
county may be said to have county uniformity without hav- 
ing submitted the question to a vote of the people. 

One objectionable feature of this method of securing 
county uniformity is the fact that the contracting boards 
have no option as to what books shall be selected since the 
question of what books shall be submitted lies wholly with 
the representatives of the publishing house. Another ob- 
jection is the fact that in most counties the book company 
representatives have not been able to get all the school 
boards to adopt the entire list of books submitted. Further- 
more, no competition either in the price or the quality of 
books is possible under this method of securing county uni- 
formity. Attempts have been made by various publishing 
houses to compete in township adoptions, but it has been 
found that the expense incurred in such competition in an 
area with so small a population was out of all proportion to 
the profits received on contracts when secured. The cost of 
samples and their distribution, together with the salary of 
the agent while working in the township, more than over- 
balances the profits which would arise if the contract to 
supply the entire township with books is secured. 

It is not to be understood that all the counties not having 
county uniformity under the statute have actual uniformity 
by the method above described : in fact, there are very few 
which do have such uniformity. Most counties have varied 
lists of text-books, inasmuch as townships do not all adopt 
the same books at the same time. For instance, the follow- 
ing books were in use in the various schools of Buchanan 
County in 1912 : 



Redway and Hinman's 

Redway and Hinman's 

Rand McNally's 
Swinton 's 

Tarr and McMurry's 


McMaster's Brief 

McMaster's School 





Graded Literature 

Sears and Brooks 
Swinton 's 

Lights to Literature 
Progressive Course 

Steele 's 
Krohn 's 
Tracey 's 


Iowa and the Nation 
Seerley and Parish 
United States (Shimmell) 

and Iowa (Weaver) 
Young 's 

Macy and Geiser's 
Willbanks' ''Our Nation's 
Government ' ' 

Reed 's 

Metcalf and Bright 's 


Harvey 's 

Steps in English 

Mother Tongue 


Palmer Method 

Spencer's Practical 
Barnes' Natural Slant 
Economy System 


Hunt's Progressive 


Swinton 's 

Rand and McNally 

New Business 






Reed and Kellogg 's 
Steps in English 
Conklin 's 
Mother Tongue 


Beebe 's 
Stewart & Co. 
Swin ton's 
Brumbaugh 's 


Milne's Standard 

(Two book series) 
Milne's Standard 

(Three book series) 
Milne's Progressive 

(Two book series) 
Milne's Progressive 

(Three book series) 
Prince 's 

Robinson's Complete 




Wentworth-Smith 's 


Wilkinson's Practical 
Goff and Mayne's 


Uncle Sam's 

Golden Glee 


E. Smith's Songs 

American School Songs 

Leslie Day School Songs 



In Buchanan County the proposition for county uniformi- 
ty was submitted to the electors of the county first in 1910 
and again in 1913. At both times it seems to have been bit- 
terly opposed by the agents of a certain book company ; and 
the opposition was strong enough to defeat the proposition. 

It should be observed that while the system of free text- 
books may be disestablished at any time by vote of the peo- 
ple at the annual school election, there is no method 

Quoted from a printed list compiled from the reports made by teachers to 
the county superintendent of Buchanan County in 1912. 


provided in the law whereby the people of a county may rid 
themselves of county uniformity, in case they should wish to 
do so after the system has once been established. A bill con- 
taining a provision giving the people this power was intro- 
duced in the Thirty-fifth General Assembly, but was. 
indefinitely postponed.^"^ 

In order to obtain data relative to the workings of county 
uniformity of text-books in Iowa questionnaires were sent 
to the ninety-nine county superintendents in the State. The 
following list of questions was sent to the superintendents, 
of the forty-six counties which have not adopted county uni- 
formity under the provisions of the statute : 

1. In your opinion, is uniformity of text-books in your county 
to be desired? 

2. If county uniformity is now in operation in your county, by 
what methods is it obtained? 

3. If county uniformity is not desirable, in your judgment,, 
what are your objections to it? 

Eeplies to these queries were received from the superin- 
tendents of thirty-six out of the forty-six counties in which 
statutory uniformity is not in operation. The replies to the 
first question were mere affirmative answers, with two ex- 
ceptions. One superintendent writes as follows : 

Uniformity of text books is highly desirable in any system of 
schools, whether it be city or country. From the fact that the 
majority of rural school teachers are secured from our city schools, 
it is very essential that such students be accorded the privilege of 
the opportunity of study of the uniform text, as used in the rural 
schools. . . . Thus, I feel that if we could only secure the co- 
operation of town and city schools, from whence our teacher supply 
comes, that as students they would familiarize themselves with the 
uniform text in use in the rural schools, it would be worth much to 

57 House File No. 114. Another bill dealing with the subject of uniformity 
and proposing certain important changes in the present law was Senate File- 
No. 530. 


the children under their jurisdiction as teachers. This could be 
carried out to the greatest benefit, if the Normal Training High 
Schools would require these students to use as a basis for their 
work in the common branches, the texts in uniform use in the 
county in which they more than likely will secure a position. 

Uniformity of text-books'', says another superintend- 
ent, *^at the price of School book lettings by Boards of 
County Bridge and Eoad Builders is in my opinion alto- 
gether too high to warrant a change in the manner of selec- 
tion of desirable texts.'' In justification of this attitude he 
declares that boards of education of the school districts 
are made up of men who are interested in the schools of 
their district and who as a rule have children attending the 
home school. Boards of supervisors are made up of men 
who as a rule have had little experience in school matters, 
and are not interested in the schools so much as in the coun- 
ty bridges." Of course this comparison of the ability of 
supervisors and school directors to make a wise selection of 
text-books is obviously a misstatement of facts. It is be- 
lieved that the average county supervisor is as well qualified 
to select school books as is the average member of the dis- 
trict school board, and he has an equal interest in the 

In replying to the second question twenty-two superin- 
tendents stated that county uniformity was impossible in 
their counties under present conditions. Thirteen reported 
that while uniformity as provided for by law did not prevail 
in their counties, an approach to a uniform system was se- 
cured by the adoption of the same list of books by all the 
boards in the various school townships. Ten of these thir- 
teen superintendents expressed dissatisfaction with this 
method of securing county uniformity, adding that town- 
ship adoptions did not result in complete uniformity 
throughout the county, since even under such an agreement 
a number of unauthorized text-books were in use. One 


county superintendent stated that after years of effort to 
secure county uniformity through township adoptions uni- 
formity exists in eighty-five percent of the books in use in 
the rural schools. 

The replies to the third question reveal no objections to 
county uniformity in general. In fact, a number of the 
superintendents expressed themselves in favor of a law pro- 
viding for compulsory, and not merely optional, county 
uniformity. But there were objections to certain features 
of the present law relative to county uniformity of text- 
books. The attitude of one superintendent is expressed in 
the following statement : 

I am not in favor of county uniformity under the provisions of 
the present law. The selection is made by the boards of super- 
visors, many of whom are not capable of judging text-books. 
Again, they have too many other duties to attend to, and things are 
not always done in the best manner. The legal adoptions arouse 
bad feelings and produce friction by the manner of selections. 
Those vitally interested and capable are in the minority, and their 
opinions are of little weight against a board placed through politics. 
Teachers should take the place of Boards of Supervisors and im- 
positions would be few. 

Another superintendent expressed the same skepticism 
of the ability of county supervisors to make the wisest pos- 
sible choice of text-books, and declared that '^uniform selec- 
tion must be made by practical school people''. In view, 
however, of the statement that *^the average teacher's 
knowledge of the common branches is so meager that she is 
unable to separate the chaff from the wheat ' ', it would seem 
very difficult, if not impossible, to secure a board composed 
of practical school people". 

Another objection to the present law was voiced by a 
superintendent who pointed out the disadvantage of being- 
required to adopt the entire list of text-books at one time, 
and suggested that permission should be given to adopt a 


part of the books one year, another part the next year, and 
so on — each adoption to be, as at present, for a five-year 
period unless sooner voted out by the people. He argued 
that this plan would make it possible to change one text- 
book each year if a better book should be offered than the 
one then in use. Thus the schools could be constantly sup- 
plied with the best text-books on the market without arous- 
ing so much antagonism on the part of the patrons of the 
schools as is sometimes aroused when the entire list comes 
up for consideration once in five years and a large number 
of changes are made. 

In addition to the above questionnaire the following sim- 
ilar list of questions was sent to the county superintendents 
in the fifty-three counties which have adopted the system of 
county uniformity provided for by law : 

1. From your experience with county uniformity would you say 
that county uniformity is desirable? 

2. If it is not desirable, what are your objections to it? 

(The above questions apply to the value of uniformity of books 
in your county ; not to the method of adoption. ) 

3. In your opinion, is the present County Board of Education 
properly constituted to select books ? 

4. If not, what changes would you suggest? 

The answers to the first question were all in the affirma- 
tive. Very few objections are revealed in the replies to the 
second question. ^'I certainly do not like the method of 
adoption'', declared one writer. ^^I can see no reason why 
the rural and town schools should not all use the same books, 
if they are all supposed to be graded." Another superin- 
tendent suggested that when text-books ^*are not changed 
for a long time the schools become narrow.'' 

In reply to the third question twenty-four county super- 
intendents answered in the negative — some of them quite 
emphatically. The remaining replies reveal all shades of 


opinion. One superintendent said, Don't know, doubt- 
ful' another answered **yes" without further comment; 
and still another regarded the present board as probably 
as good as any continuous board that might be formed/' 
The suggestion was made in one reply that ^Hhe present 
county board might be improved upon by including the as- 
sistance of some of the heads of the schools of the independ- 
ent districts for review of the text-books offered by the 
board before adoption. ' ' One of the most experienced and 
successful county superintendents in the State declared that 
it is * ^ an unusual thing to find a country school teacher who 
would be competent [to select text-books]. Town superin- 
tendents do not always make wise selections for their own 
schools. Therefore, all things considered, I would not sug- 
gest a change." A few other replies expressed a similar 
belief that the present county board of education is about as 
efficient in the selection of text-books as any other possible 
board would be. 

On the other hand the objections to the present method of 
adopting books for use in the schools of the county are il- 
lustrated by the statement that the members of the board 
*^as now constituted do not know text-books and are not 
interested in their examination. Those who sell the books 
know men better than the majority of the board know books, 
hence the board is at a disadvantage." The influence of 
public opinion on the board in a certain county is indicated 
in the reply of the superintendent who stated that ^'we are 
using books which were adopted ten years ago, and at the 
last adoption the board of supervisors and the auditor were 
so afraid of being criticised that it was impossible to do 
anything in the way of getting rid of the old books. ' ' 

The answers to the fourth question varied greatly, but 
they were to the effect that the board which adopts text- 
books under county uniformity should be made up either of 


persons who are in school work or of persons who have kept 
in touch with the situation and are acquainted with present- 
day needs, methods, and conditions in the field of public 
education. For instance, it was suggested that the county 
superintendent should be empowered to appoint a commit- 
tee to select text-books, made up either entirely of teachers 
or partly of taxpayers of the county who are not teachers. 
Several replies advocate a committee made up entirely of 
rural school teachers inasmuch as only the rural schools are 
affected; while one superintendent recommends a board 
composed of a successful rural school teacher, a graded 
school teacher, a city superintendent, and the county super- 
intendent. The prevailing opinion, however, was that the 
size of the board should be limited to three members. 

Finally, a few superintendents recommended State uni- 
formity as a method of improving the present system. One 
who favored this plan suggested that *^the books be selected 
by competent school men, and that they be required to care- 
fully examine every book before its adoption. 

Summing up the replies to the two questionnaires, the 
following points may be noted concerning the attitude of 
county superintendents — who are the persons best quali- 
fied to pass judgment upon the actual workings of county 
uniformity. First, the seventy-nine superintendents from 
whom replies were received were, without exception, in fa- 
vor of county uniformity as a general principle. Secondly, 
the objections to county uniformity have to do chiefly with 
the composition of the board which makes the selection of 
text-books. This board is composed of the county superin- 
tendent, the county auditor, and the members of the board 
of supervisors. Thirdly, there is not much agreement as to 
changes which should be made in the composition of this 

88 These replies are in the possession of the writer. 


board. And fourthly, among the county superintendents at 
least, there is very little sentiment in favor of State uni- 
formity in Iowa. 



There seems to be a general misconception concerning the 
amount of money actually spent annually in any one State 
for school books. In view of the fact that a statement is 
said to have been made in a legislative committee meeting 
in Iowa that State uniformity in this State would save the 
people a million dollars annually in the cost of text-books, 
an effort has been made to secure data on this point. 

It has not been possible to ascertain the actual amount of 
money spent for text-books in this State. A request for in- 
formation was sent to every county having county uni- 
formity. The replies which were received did not take into 
consideration the value of the books on hand in the various 
county depositaries, and hence the sums indicated were too 
high. Still other counties apparently handled the books for 
city independent districts which are not on the uniform 
county list, thereby making the data of no avail. Indeed, in 
view of the various methods of supplying pupils with text- 
books now employed in Iowa, to secure accurate figures con- 
cerning the total amount of money spent in this State each 
year would require a more extensive investigation than the 
writer has been able to make. 

There are available, however, statistics of other States 
which can well be examined for comparative purposes. 
Pennsylvania, for instance, has provided free text-books for 
all the pupils enrolled in the graded schools, both rural and 
city, for the pupils in all the high schools, and for the stu- 
dents in all the State normal schools.^^ From the reports 

59 The free text-book system in Pennsylvania was established by an act of 
May 18, 1893. 

VOL. xni — 7 


of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of that State 
the following statistics have been compiled : 











$ 884,757.15 



















The average amount of money spent annually per pupil 
during the five-year period was $.776 ; while the cost of sup- 
plies was somewhat higher, being $.783 per pupil. The total 
school expenditures of all kinds for the same five-year pe- 
riod as shown by the reports of the Superintendent was 
$187,278,655.69. Of this amount the total sum expended for 
text-books was two and sixty-five hundredths percent. 

In Oklahoma the system of State uniformity is in opera- 
tion. There are no exempt cities, and consequently every 
pupil attending the public schools must use the books adopt- 
ed by the State authorities. The State depositary is the 
Oklahoma Book Company of Oklahoma City, which handles 
all the text-books sold in Oklahoma. In reply to an inquiry 
this company stated that the sale of text-books during the 
five-year period beginning with 1909 amounted to approxi- 
mately $250,000 a year.6<> 

The total enrollment in the schools of Oklahoma during 
the same five years, with the exception of the year 1909, is 
as follows: 

In the year 1910 the enrollment was 415,116 
In the year 1911 the enrollment was 443,227 
In the year 1912 the enrollment was 438,901 
In the year 1913 the enrollment was 469,809 

00 Letter from the Oklahoma Book Company to the writer, dated August 3, 


The average annual enrollment during the four years was 
441,763. The average annual sale of text-books amounted 
to $250,000 a year. Thus the average cost of text-books to 
each pupil was $.566 per year. The Oklahoma list of school 
books during this period was a fairly representative list, 
and included a large amount of what is known as supple- 
mentary material — which material was sold in large quan- 

The difference between the expenditure per pupil in Okla- 
homa and in Pennsylvania can be accounted for by the fact 
that in Pennsylvania high school pupils are very much 
more numerous in proportion to the number of the grade 
pupils than in Oklahoma, and high school text-books are 
much more expensive than books used in the grades. Hence, 
if figures were available showing the expenditure for grade 
texts in Pennsylvania the cost in both States would be about 
the same. 

The enrollment of pupils in the schools of Iowa for the 
five-year period beginning in 1909^^ was as follows: 

In the year 1909 the enrollment was 518,446 
In the year 1910 the enrollment was 510,661 
In the year 1911 the enrollment was 507,294 
In the year 1912 the enrollment was 507,109 
In the year 1913 the enrollment was 507,845 

The average yearly enrollment during this period, there- 
fore, was 510,271. On the basis of the cost per pupil in 
Oklahoma the total school book business in Iowa would av- 
erage $288,813.39. On the basis of the Pennsylvania figures, 
which are a little too high for Iowa inasmuch as in this 
State text-books are not furnished free to students in the 
State Teachers College, the text-book business in Iowa 
would amount to $395,970.30 a year. In either case it is very 
apparent that it would be impossible to save the people of 
the State a million dollars a year on text-books. 

61 Iowa Educational Directory, 1913-1914, p. 107. 


Twenty-four States in the Union have attempted by nni- 
form text-book adoption laws to lower the cost of school 
books to the pupil. Two of these States, namely, Missouri 
and Washington, abandoned State uniformity some time 
ago and adopted the plan of county uniformity. This leaves 
twenty-two States still operating under State uniformity. 

The following tables are taken from the report of the 
school book investigating committee of the General Assem- 
bly of Georgia made in 1914 : 



Primer $ .22 

First Reader 20 

Second Reader 25 

Third Reader 30 

Fourth Reader 35 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 4 books 1.24 

Grammar, 3 books 1.09 

Geography, 2 books $1.28 

History, 3 books 1.80 

Agriculture 60' 

Physiology, 2 books 86 

Civics 55 

Spelling, 2 books 41 

Writing, 6 books 30 

Total $9.85 


Primer $ .30 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 35 

Third Reader 40 

Fourth Reader 40 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 2 books 1.10 

Grammar, 3 books 1.45 

Geography, 2 books $1.75 

History, 2 books 1.50 

Agriculture, no text 

Physiology, 2 books 1.05 

Civics, no text 

Spelling, 2 books 55 

Writing 45 

Total ,..$9.95- 


Primer $ .25 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 35 

Third Reader 45 

Fourth Reader 45 

Fifth Reader 55 

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.09 

Grammar, 2 books 71 

Geography, 2 books $ 1.28 

History, 3 books 1.64 

Agriculture 60 

Physiology, 3 books 1.35 

Civics 50 

Spelling 18 

Writing, 9 books 45 

Total $10.10' 



Primer $ .14 

First Reader 16 

Second Reader 18 

Third Reader 25 

Fourth Reader 40 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 2 books 55 

Grammar, 2 books 76 

Geography, 2 books $1.28 

History, 3 books 1.70 

Agriculture 55 

Physiology 50 

Civics 44 

Spelling, 2 books 24 

Writing, 7 books 35 

ToTAii $7.90 


Primer $ .30 

First Reader 35 

Second Reader 40 

Third Reader 45 

Fourth Reader 50 

Fifth Reader 60 

Arithmetic, 2 books 95 

Grammar, 3 books 1.55 

Geography, 2 books $ 1.75 

History 1.00 

Agriculture, no text 

Physiology, 2 books 1.10 

Civics 54 

Spelling 20 

Writing 40 

Total $10.09 


Primer $ .15 

First Reader 15 

Second Reader 20 

Third Reader 25 

Fourth Reader 30 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 2 books 95 

Grammar, 2 books 65 

Geography $ .90 

History 75 

Agriculture, no text 

Physiology, 2 books 80 

Civics, no text 

Spelling 10 

Writing, 5 books 25 

Total , $5.85 

Primer $ .12 

First Reader 10 

Second Reader 17 

Third Reader 23 

Fourth Reader 30 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 3 books 80 

Grammar, 2 books 55 

Geography, 2 books $1.05 

History 50 

Agriculture, no text 

Civics 40 

Spelling 10 

Writing, 8 books 40 

Physiology 45 

Total $5.57 



Primer $ .10 

First Reader 12 

Second Reader 20 

Third Reader 20 

Fourth Reader 35 

Fifth Reader 45 

Arithmetic, 4 books 98 

Grammar, 2 books 1.65 

Geography, 2 books $1.20 

History, 3 books 1.75 

Agriculture, no text 

Physiology, 2 books 90 

Civics 45 

Spelling 12 

Writing, 7 books 35 

Total $8.82 


Primer $ .25 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 35 

Third Reader 35 

Fourth Reader 35 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 4 books 1.01 

Geography, 2 books $1.28 

History, 4 books 2.50 

Agriculture 60 

Physiology, 2 books 80 

Civics 60 

Spelling 18 

Writing, 8 books 40 

Grammar, 2 books 62 Total , $9.94 


Primer $ .20 

First Reader 23 

Second Reader . . .32 

Third Reader 36 

Fourth Reader 30 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 4 books 1.26 

Grammar, 3 books .87 

Geography, 2 books $1.28 

History, 3 books 1.70 

Agriculture 60 

Physiology, 2 books 82 

Civics , 54 

Spelling, 2 books 26 

Writing, 8 books 40 

Total $9.54 


Primer $ .30 

First Reader 30 

Second Reader 30 

Third Reader 40 

Fourth Reader 50 

Fifth Reader 50 

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.15 

Grammar, 2 books 90 

Geography, 2 books $ 1.80 

History, 2 books 1.55 

Agriculture, no text 

Physiology, 2 books 1.10 

Civics 65 

Spelling 25 

Writing, 8 books 95 

Total $10.65 



Primer $ .30 

First Reader 30 

Second Reader 35 

Third Reader 50 

Fourth Reader .50 

Fifth Reader 50 

Arithmetic, 2 books 1.00 

Grammar, 2 books 1.15 

Geography, 2 books 

Histor}^, 2 books 

Agriculture, no text 


Civics, no text 

Spelling , 

Writing , 


New Mexico 

Primer $ .20 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 35 

Third Reader. 40 

Fourth Reader 40 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 2 books 92 

Grammar, 4 books 1.75 

Geography, 2 books 
History, 3 books . . . 
Agriculture, no text 
Physiology, 2 books 

Civics , 

Spelling, 2 books . . . , 

Writing, 8 books 

Total , 

North Carolina 

Primer $ .25 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 27 

Third Reader 32 

Fourth Reader 32 

Fifth Reader 36 

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.09 

Grammar, 2 books 70 

Geography, 2 books 
History, 2 books . . . 



Civics , 

Spelling, 2 books. . , 
Writing, 7 books . . , 
Total , 


Primer $ .25 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 35 

Third Reader 45 

Fourth Reader 45 

Fifth Reader 55 

Arithmetic, 2 books 70 

Grammar, 2 books 89 

Geography, 2 books 

History , 

Agriculture , 

Physiology, 2 books 

Civics, no text 

Spelling , 

Writing, 8 books . . , 
Total , 



Primer $ .25 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 35 

Third Reader 45 

Fourth Reader 45 

Fifth Reader 55 

Arithmetic, 2 books 93 

Grammar, 2 books 81 

Geography $1.00 

History, 2 books 1.50 

Agriculture 70 

Physiology, 2 books 95 

Civics 65 

Spelling 23 

Writing 45 

Total $9.52 

South Carolina 

Primer $ .25 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 25 

Third Reader .30 

Fourth Reader 35 

Fifth Reader 35 

Arithmetic, 2 books 76 

Grammar, 2 books 68 

Geography, 2 books $1.33 

History, 3 books 1.60 

Agriculture 60 

Physiology, 2 books 75 

Civics 60 

Spelling 26 

Writing, 7 books .35 

Total $8.68 


Primer $ .25 

First Reader 18 

Second Reader 25 

Third Reader 30 

Fourth Reader 35 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 3 books 84 

Grammar, 3 books 1.08 

Geography, 2 books $1.28 

History, 3 books 1.85 

Agriculture 60 

Physiology, 2 books 63 

Civics 55 

Spelling 18 

Writing, 7 books 35 

Total $9.09 

Primer $ .18 

First Reader 18 

Second Reader 25 

Third Reader.. 30 

Fourth Reader 35 

Fifth Reader 40 

Arithmetic, 4 books 1.16 

Grammar, 3 books 1.02 

History, 3 books $ 1.60 

Geography, 2 books 1.36 

Agriculture, 3 books 2.10 

Physiology, 3 books 1.60 

Civics 75 

Spelling 18 

Writing, 8 books 40 

Total $11.83 



Primer $ .25 

First Reader 25 

Second Eeader 35 

Third Reader 45 

Fourth Reader 48 

Fifth Reader 48 

Writing, 8 books 40 

Orammar, 3 books 1.65 

Geography, 7 books $ 3.55 

History, 5 books 3.55 

Agriculture 75 

Physiology, 5 books 2.35 

Spelling 20 

Civics, 2 books 1.50 

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.20 

Total $17.41 


Primer $ .18 

First Reader 15 

Second Reader 22 

Third Reader 28 

Fourth Reader 30 

Fifth Reader 30 

Arithmetic, 2 books 66 

Grammar, 2 books 52 

Geography, 2 books $1.28 

History, 5 books 2.75 

Agriculture 60 

Physiology, 3 books 1.40 

Civics 55 

Spelling 20 

Writing, 8 books 40 

Total $9.79 

West Virginia 

Primer $ .25 

First Reader 25 

Second Reader 31 

Third Reader 41 

Fourth Reader 41 

Fifth Reader 41 

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.05 

Grammar, 2 books 84 

Geography, 2 books $ 1.28 

History, 4 books 3.81 

Agriculture 60 

Physiology, 2 books 1.15 

Civics 53 

Spelling 22 

Writing, 9 books 45 

Total $11.97 

At the present time the pupils in the grade schools of Iowa 
are equipped with text-books at approximately the follow- 
ing prices : 

Primer $ .19 

First Reader 22 

Second Reader 26 

Third Reader 30 

Fourth Reader 30 

Fifth Reader 30 

Sixth Reader 38 

Seventh Reader 38 

Physiology, 2 books $ .83 

Geography, 2 books 1.31 

Grammar, 3 books 1.05 

History, 2 books 1.20 

Speller 16 

Agriculture 56 

Arithmetic, 3 books 97 

Total $8.41 


For the purpose of comparing the prices prevailing in 
Iowa with the prices prevailing in the States which have 
State imLforniity it is necessary to take the entire list of 
books at the net contract prices quoted above, that is, at the 
])rices at which any Iowa school board may buy these books 
at the present time if it proceeds in a legal manner. At- 
tention should also be called to the fact that the Iowa list 
provides for eight readers, while the State adoption lists 
show but six. Furthermore, the number of books may vary 
in other respects. For instance, the prices shown for the 
States having State adoption include the cost of writing 
books. In most of the schools of Iowa writing from copy- 
books has been abandoned, and therefore writing books are 
not included in the Iowa list. Hence, for purposes of com- 
parison the cost of writing books in the States having State 
uniformity has been deducted, making the total cost of a 
complete set of text-books for use in the grades as follows : 




$ 9.45 



New Mexico 




North Carolina 












South Carolina 


Kansas (old law) 














"West Virginia 






The Utah list is so complicated that it is not just to in- 
clude it in this list. 

The price of $8.41 represents the actual price at which 
any school board in Iowa can secure the above named list 
of books if it takes advantage of the statutes now in force, 
giving it authority to purchase books and sell them at cost 
to the pupils or to adopt the free text-book plan. The 


figures quoted would, of course, eliminate the dealer. It is 
to be borne in mind also tbat the text-books suggested for 
the schools of Iowa are of regular editions and are supplied 
under a system of sharp competition. There are at the 
present time about seventeen book houses competing for 
business in Iowa. 

From the comparison of the prices just presented it is 
apparent that State uniformity does not actually lower the 
cost of text-books to the pupil, or to the school corporation 
in case free text-books are furnished. Furthermore, no 
advocate of State uniformity has yet claimed or proved that 
under that system better text-books are placed in the hands 
of the pupils. 

A brief examination of the workings of State uniformity 
in a given Commonwealth will further illustrate the results 
of the plan. As a rule State uniformity laws either fix the 
maximum prices at which the school board can make con- 
tracts for each particular text-book, or they limit the board 
to a certain amount of money which can be spent for an 
entire set of books. Laws of this kind are wrong in prin- 
ciple since they make it impossible to take into considera- 
tion the merit of the text-book. 

The original law of Indiana establishing State uniformity 
specified the maximum price at which the State Board of 
Education could contract for any book. This law applied 
only to texts used in the grades. In 1913, however, the 
legislature provided for uniformity of text-books in the 
high schools.^^ This law did not fix the maximum price for 
any book nor did it limit the amount of money which could 
be spent for the entire set of high school text-books. As a 
result when the State Board of Education met to select 
high school text-books they were surprised to find most of 
the text-book publishing houses bidding their regular edi- 

62 School Laws of Indiana, 1913. 


tions of texts in regular bindings, instead of offering speci- 
ally constructed editions as^ they had done previously to 
meet the prices and qualifications of the law with respect 
to uniformity of texts in the grades. The letting of this 
contract proved conclusively that the publishing houses 
were anxious to submit regular editions wherever it was 

The charge had previously been made in Kansas that 
text-book houses were opposed to State uniformity and 
hence did not submit their best books. That their best 
books were not submitted in Kansas is true, because the 
prices of books were fixed by law at such low figures that 
the text-book houses could not offer their regular editions. 

The law of 1913 in Indiana was passed by a legislature 
which expected to secure greatly reduced prices on high 
school texts. The law required the publishers to give as 
good prices as they gave elsewhere in the United States — 
a feature which is also to be found in the legislation on text- 
books in many other States. In Ohio the discount which 
every publishing house must give to every school board in 
the State is fixed by law at twenty-five percent of the pub- 
lisher's list price; and the freight is paid by the boards, 
which also guarantee the payment of bills. Under the In- 
diana law the freight must be paid by the publishing house 
securing the contract. It was, therefore, found that pub- 
lishers could not sell books in Indiana at seventy-five per- 
cent of the list prices. Furthermore, the Indiana law at- 
tempted to control retail prices. As this was manifestly 
illegal the State Board of Education agreed with most of 
the publishers that the wholesale price should be seventy- 
six and one-half percent of the list price. This would meet 
the Ohio price and allow the publishing house one and one- 
half percent of the list price with which to pay freight 
charges on books sold in Indiana. 


The workings of this plan in Indiana may be seen in the 
case of a certain history text, which is one of the books 
adopted. The list price is $1.50, and wholesale price 
$1.1475 f. 0. b. Chicago. With the retail price the publish- 
ing house has nothing whatever to do. As a matter of fact 
the retail price on this book in Indiana is $1.35. The same 
history can be purchased under contract by any school 
board in the State of Iowa for $1.12, plus the freight 
charges which in Iowa are paid by the board. Thus, again, 
it can readily be seen that State uniformity does not reduce 
the prices of text-books. 

Another circumstance which is nearly always overlooked 
by those who advocate State uniformity as a remedy for 
the present high prices of text-books is the fact that in 
nearly all the States having State uniformity there is prac- 
tically an entire new list of books adopted once every five or 
six years, according to the length of the time for which the 
contract is written. No State has ever readopted more than 
approximately twenty-five percent of the list of books pre- 
viously in use. Such wholesale changes are obviously bur- 
densome to the people unless free text-books are furnished. 

The following arguments in favor of State uniformity 
are often advanced: (1) it makes possible the establish- 
ment of a State course of study, and (2) those persons who 
move from one locality to another in the same State are not 
called upon to buy new books. These arguments of course 
are valid ; and yet it may be objected that a State course of 
study is not desirable because it is not flexible or easily 
changed, thereby making it virtually impossible for schools 
to raise their standards if they wish to do so. Furthermore, 
the second advantage may be secured equally well by a 
State-wide adoption of the free text-book system. 

There is still another argument in favor of State uni- 
formity which seems not to have been advanced by advo- 


cates of the plan. Competition is as desirable in the sale 
of text-books as in the sale of any other commodity. One 
of the great objections to township adoption of text-books 
is the fact that there is no competition, or if there is it ap- 
pears to such a slight extent as to be negligible. The adop- 
tion of uniform text-books by the county makes possible a 
considerable amount of competition, since the size of the 
order makes it worth while for several book houses to be 
represented in the bidding. But of course the greatest pos- 
sible competition is secured under State uniformity. At 
the present time there are several publishing houses which 
never are represented at the time county contracts are let 
in Iowa. These are the houses which do not have a full line 
of school books to present, and therefore have compara- 
tively few agents who appear only in bidding for the very 
largest contracts. County uniformity does not offer these 
so-called smaller companies the prospects of sufficient re- 
turns to justify them in incurring the expense of competi- 
tion. Under these circumstances, if the smaller houses have 
books of greater merit than those of the larger companies, 
as is often the case, county authorities in Iowa seldom have 
opportunity to examine them. 

Before leaving the subject of the cost of text-books at- 
tention should be called to the fact that State printing of 
text-books has been advocated in several States as a method 
of securing relief from high prices. This plan is at present 
in operation in only one State in the Union, namely, in Cali- 
fornia. There is a law which will make State printing oper- 
ative in Kansas, but at the present time no school books 
have been produced by the State. Investigations conducted 
by Superintendent Sabin in 1889 showed that there was 
nothing gained by State printing at that time. It has been 
impossible to secure from the State printer of California 


at present a statement concerning his method of finding the 
cost of manufacturing text-books. Until such a statement 
can be secured attempts to draw helpful conclusions from 
the experience of California will prove fruitless. 

The objections to State printing of text-books are many. 
In the first place, there is no exchange price given under 
State printing. Therefore as soon as a State publication 
goes into use in the public schools no compensation can be 
offered for the displacement of the books previously used 
by the pupils. In the second place, there is no limit in 
Kansas as to the length of time during which State pub- 
lished text-books shall remain in use. The chances are that 
they will remain in use indefinitely. Again it would appear 
that the aim of the Kansas law is not so much to produce a 
good book as to produce a cheap one. And finally, it is be- 
lieved that the cost of administering the Kansas law will 
prove to be an excessive burden. 

In conclusion, it is evident that State uniformity will 
not result in the securing of better books than those now in 
use. Neither will it lower the price of books without lower- 
ing their quality, from the standpoint of both mechanical 
makeup and content. Text-books to-day are cheaper than 
they ever have been in the past because they are better and 
more carefully written, are more profusely illustrated, have 
more pages, are printed on a higher grade of paper, and are 
better bound. In other words, publishers are producing 
cheaper text-books not so much by lowering the price as by 
increasing the quality of the books. 



The foregoing study suggests at least two conclusions 
concerning the best methods of dealing with the text-book 
problem : 


First. In Iowa at present tlie conditions are such tliat 
county uniformity should be made compulsory if the bene- 
fits of competition are to be extended to nearly one-half of 
of the total population. Competition might not result in any 
material reduction of prices ; but in the end it might lower 
prices, and no doubt would result in the securing of better 
text-books than are now in use in many instances. 

Second. State uniformity has been thoroughly tried in 
other States and has failed to lower the prices of books or 
to raise the standard of the texts used in the schools. More- 
over, this system is limited, with the exception of Indiana, 
to two groups of States: (1) the southern States, which are 
notably backward in the cause of education; and (2) the 
so-called plateau States, most of which are not densely 

On the basis of the experience of educators in Iowa and 
in other States the following suggestions relative to the 
provisions which should be included in a compulsory county 
uniformity law are : 

First. The board authorized to adopt text-books for the 
schools of the county should be composed of not more than 
five members. The county superintendent should be the 
president of the board. The other members of the board 
should be : a town or city superintendent or a principal of 
a grade school located within the county; a teacher in the 
rural schools of the county who has had three years ex- 
perience in teaching in the rural schools of the State ; and 
the presidents of two rural school boards. All these mem- 
bers, with the exception of the county superintendent, 
should be chosen by the presidents of the boards in the dis- 
tricts which are to use the county uniformity books. Such 
elections should take place at a meeting at the county seat 
called for such a purpose by the county superintendent not 


later than ninety days prior to the letting of the contract. 

Second. No attempt should be made to fix the prices at 
which school boards may contract to purchase books. All 
such legislation has failed in practice, since it ignores the 
cost of producing a book of real merit. It has been shown 
that competition will lower the price by raising the quality 
of text-books. 

Third. The contract period should not be longer than 
five years. 

Fourth. All boards of education in school corporations 
not supplying free text-books should furnish books to pupils 
at cost. *^Cosf should be defined as the price f. o. b. 

Fifth. Independent districts maintaining a high school 
course of two years or more should be exempted from using 
county uniform text-books unless the electors of such an 
independent district so decide at the annual spring election. 

Sixth. Boards of education should be required to employ 
the most economical methods in the distribution of text- 

Seventh. The adoption of the system of free text-books 
should remain optional with the electors of the various 
school corporations. 

0. E. Klingaman 

The State University op Iowa 
Iowa City 

VOL. xni — 8 


Personal Becollections of President Abraham Lincoln, General 
Ulysses S. Grant, and General William T. Sherman. By Major- 
General Grenville M. Dodge. Council BMs: The Monarch 
Printing Co. 1914. Pp. 237. Portraits. Probably no lowan now 
living is better qualified on account of intimate associations, at 
least with Grant and Sherman, to write a book of recollections such 
as is here indicated. General Dodge rendered distinguished service 
to the Nation during the great conflict of the sixties, thereby win- 
ning high rank and the entire confidence of President Lincoln and 
his two greatest generals. In the first thirty pages of the volume he 
pays a tribute to Lincoln and emphasizes the terrible strain under 
which the President lived on account of the criticisms heaped upon 
Grant. The remainder of the volume is divided about equally be- 
tween recollections of Grant and recollections of Sherman — both 
of whom on many occasions depended largely upon General Dodge 
for the success of their plans. Numerous letters and official orders 
add to the value of these reminiscences which will be of interest 
and importance to all students of the military history of the Civil 

Readings in Indiana History. Bloomington : Indiana University. 
1914. Pp. 470. Portraits, plates, maps. This excellent volume, 
which is intended for use as supplementary reading in grammar 
and high schools, was compiled and edited by a committee of the 
History Section of the Indiana State Teachers' Association of 
which Oscar H. Williams was chairman. It contains, for the most 
part, original or first-hand material relative to Indiana history ar- 
ranged in such a way as to present a general outline of the history 
of the State. Care was taken to copy the materials verbatim except 
where clearness demanded slight changes ; and in each case there is 
a reference to the place where the original of each selection may be 




found, together with the date when it was written and the date of 
the events described. 

The contents of the books are grouped under five parts and thirty 
chapters. The materials in the chapters deal with such subjects as 
Indiana when the English first came, the conquest of the Old North- 
west by G^eorge Rogers Clark, Indian border wars, life in the wilder- 
ness about 1816, the coming of the settlers, clearing the forests, 
building the home, pioneer farming, disposal of the public lands, 
transportation and travel, pioneer society, hunting stories, the re- 
ligious life of the pioneers, pioneer schools, civic ideals of the 
pioneers, health of the pioneers, removal of the Indians, internal 
improvements, banks and banking, political parties, the slavery 
contest in Indiana, Indiana in the Civil War, camp life of the 
volunteers, and Indiana and the freedmen. Fully one hundred 
and fifty selections from official reports, journals, private cor- 
respondence, reminiscences, and historical writings are grouped 
under these headings, and there are numerous, well selected cuts 
and maps. The book should prove interesting to pupils in the 
schools, as well as to older persons and should therefore be an im- 
portant factor in extending a knowledge of Indiana history. 

The Winning of the Far West. By Robert McNutt McElroy, 
Ph. D. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1914. Pp. x, 384. 
Plates, maps. According to the preface, the book under considera- 
tion is '^a study of such national action and international relations 
as have resulted in additions, within the continent of North Amer- 
ica, to the territory of the United States. It is based upon authori- 
tative, and in part unpublished, sources, and was written, at the 
instance of the publishers, to constitute a continuation of Colonel 
Roosevelt's Winning of the West.'' It is to be feared, however, 
that readers of the volume will be disappointed at not finding a 
more adequate fulfillment of the promise implied in the title and 
the preface, especially in so far as the volume purports to be a con- 
tinuation of Roosevelt's Winning of the West. A mere glance at 
the table of contents reveals the fact that eleven out of the fourteen 
chapters deal with the independence and annexation of Texas and 
the Mexican War. The other three chapters are devoted to the 


Oregon question, the organization of the new West, 1848-1853, and 
the purchase of Russian America. Thus, it may be said that the 
book covers in a satisfactory manner the military and diplomatic 
aspects of the winning of the Far West ; but it has almost nothing, 
to say regarding exploration, emigration, or settlement — topics 
which the reader would surely expect to find discussed in a volume 
entitled The Winning of the Far West. 

South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Pierre, South 
Dakota: State Publishing Co. 1914. Pp. 603. Portraits, plates, 
maps. The chief contribution in this volume is a two hundred and 
twenty page article on The Verendrye Explorations and Discov- 
eries, by Charles E. De Land. It is to be regretted that in a study 
of this character the author did not give the reader the benefit of 
references to source materials. Along with this article may be 
found the Journal of La Verendrye, 1738-39; the journal kept by 
Chevalier de la Verendrye on the expedition of 1742-1743; some 
official correspondence relative to the expeditions; and Parkman's 
story of the Verendryes. The first three are without editorial 
notes or annotations. 

Following the material relating to the Verendryes there is pub- 
lished, with introduction and notes, Trudeau's Journal, containing 
a record of the activities of Jean Baptiste Trudeau on the Upper 
Missouri during the years 1794 and 1795. The first part of this 
journal is a translation of the French version which appeared about 
a year ago in The American Historical Review; while the second 
part is reprinted from the translation printed several years ago in 
the Missouri Historical Society Collections. 

An account of the South Dakota Department of History: Its 
Work; an article on Colonial Claims and South Dakota, by Charles 
E. De Land; and a description of The Black Hills Expedition, by 
A. B. Donaldson, are among the other contributions in this volume, 
which makes an important addition to the literature of South 
Dakota history. 



Articles dealing with various phases of education for the Indians 
appear in the July-September number of The Quarterly Journal of 
the Society of American Indians. 

The Macmillan Company are the publishers of a volume on 
Contemporary American History, 1877-1913, by Charles A. Beard. 

Three articles which appear in The South Atlantic Quarterly for 
October are: Thomas Jefferson as a Man of Letters, by Max J. 
Herzberg; The Black Code of Alabama, by George A. Wood; and 
Some Fallacies Concerning the History of Public Education in the 

In the January number of the Journal of the United States Cav- 
alry Association there appears, under the heading of Forgotten 
Cavalrymen, a biographical sketch of Edward Francis Winslow 
who was Colonel of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry and was prominently 
connected with railroad building and management in Iowa and in 
other sections of the country. 

A discussion of The Trust Legislation of 1914, by E. Dana 
Durand, is among the articles in the November number of The 
Quarterly Journal of Economics. 

Government Regulation of Water Transportation is the general 
topic of discussion in the September number of The Annals of the 
American Academy of Political and Social Science. In the Novem- 
ber number various phases of the feminist movement, public activ- 
ities of women, and woman and the suffrage are discussed by a 
number of writers. 

On November 7, 1914, there appeared the first number of a new 
weekly periodical called The New Republic : A Journal of Opinion, 
the publication office being at 421 West 21st St., New York City. 

The Virginia State Library has published a useful bibliography 
of Maps Relating to Virginia in the Virginia State Library and 
Other Departments of the Commonwealth with the 17th and 18th 
Century Atlas-Maps in the Library of Congress. Earl G. Swem is 
the compiler. 


Volume two of the Guide to the Materials for American History 
to 1783, in the Public Becord Office of Great Britain, compiled by 
Charles M. Andrews, has been published by the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington. The volume contains department and miscella- 
neous papers. 

Among the contributions in the September number of Americana 
is an unsigned article of special interest to students of Iowa history 
on The Territorial Supreme Court of Wisconsin and its Judges. 
In the October number there are some Post Bellum Letters from 
Ohioans taken from the Doolittle correspondence; and J. C. Pump- 
elly is the writer of an article on Enoch Crosby, the Continental 
Soldier, the Original of Cooper's Harvey Birch, the Patriot Spy. 

Articles which appear in The American Political Science Beview 
for November are: The Parliament of the Bepublic of China, by 
F. J. Goodnow ; The Balkan Question — The Key to a Permanent 
Peace, by Arthur W. Spencer ; Our Belations with Japan, by John 
Holladay Latane; and The City Manager Plan, the Latest in 
American City Government, by Herman G. James. The Legislative 
Notes and Beviews, conducted by John A. Lapp, deal with such 
subjects as special municipal corporations, the removal of public 
officers, the codification and revision of statutes, the constitutional 
convention commission of New York, the recall of judicial decisions, 
and special courts. 


Bulletin No. 5 issued by the Municipal Division of the Nebraska 
Legislative Reference Bureau contains a great variety of facts and 
statistics relative to Nebraska municipalities. 

A recent number of the University of California Publications in 
American Archaeology and Ethnology consists of a monograph on 
Chilula Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. 

Volume fifteen, number twenty-four of The University of Mis- 
souri Bulletin contains a brief monograph on The Loan Office Ex- 
periment in Missouri, 1821-1836, by Albert J. McCuUoch. 



Among the articles in the October number of The Quarterly 
Journal of the University of North Dakota is one by Harvey Ells- 
worth French on The Medicine Man and Some of His Modern Suc- 

Persons engaged in research in Mississippi Valley history will 
find use for a pamphlet by Edward A. Henry on The Durrett Col- 
lection, Now in the Library of the University of Chicago, containing 
a check-list of the newspapers in that splendid collection. 

A considerable amount of historical data is to be found in a 
pamphlet on the Limitation of Armament on the Great Lakes pub- 
lished by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. It 
consists of a report made in 1892 by Secretary of State John W. 

J. "Walter Fewkes is the writer of a profusely illustrated treatise 
on the Archaeology of the Lower Mimhres Valley, New Mexico, 
which has been published in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 

The Indian Rights Association has published a pamphlet on The 
Indians of the Yukon and Tanana Valleys, Alaska, by Matthew K. 
Sniffen and Thomas S. Carrington. 

Senate Document, No. 522 of the second session of the Sixty- 
third Congress consists of A History of Guaranty of Bank Deposits 
in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota from 
1908 to 1914, by George H. Shibley. 

Gerhard A. Gesell is the compiler of a statistical work on Minne- 
sota Public Utility Bates, Gas-Elect ric-W at er, which has been pub- 
lished by the University of Minnesota. 

Volume five in Green's Historical Series prepared and published 
by C. R. Green of Olathe, Kansas, contains a number of Tales and 
Traditions of the Marias des Cygnes Valley. The same publisher 
issued in November a pamphlet dealing with the band of Sac and 
Fox Indians which remained in Kansas for sixteen years after the 
remainder of the tribe had departed. 


Otto A. Rothert is the author of a meritorious little volume con- 
taining A History of Unity Baptist Church, Muhlenberg County, 
Kentucky, which has been published by John P. Morton & Company 
of Louisville. The volume is worthy of study by persons planning 
to write similar works on local history. 

Bank Deposit Guaranty: An Historical and Critical Study is the 
subject of a monograph by Z. Clark Dickinson which appears as a 
number of the Nebraska History and Political Science Series. 

lowans will be specially interested in volume fourteen, part one 
of the Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural 
History which contains Vilhjalmur Stefansson's account of The 
St efansson- Anderson Arctic Expedition of the American Museum: 
Preliminary Ethnological Report. There are a number of cuts, 
drawings, and maps ; and in addition to the formal report there are 
about two hundred and forty pages of selections from the journals 
of the expedition. 

The Book of Words of the Pageant and Masque of Saint Louis 
performed in St. Louis in May, 1914, has been published by the St. 
Louis Pageant Drama Association. This was without doubt one of 
the most pretentious and successful enterprises of the kind that has 
been carried out in the Middle West. The words of the pageant 
are by Thomas Wood Stevens, while Percy Mackaye is the writer 
of the words of the masque. 

The December number of the Bulletin of the Indiana State Li- 
brary contains brief notes and bibliographies on the following sub- 
jects: Indiana in the Civil War, Indiana novelists, the poets of 
Indiana, the historians of Indiana, Indiana artists, Indiana states- 
men, Indiana educators, Indiana business men, Indiana scientists, 
the natural resources and industries of Indiana, the institutions of 
Indiana, picturesque spots in Indiana, and Indiana's rank in the 

Volume nine, number one of the Nebraska Academy of Science 
Publications consists of a brief study of The Nebraska Aborigines 
as they Appeared in the Nineteenth Century, by Michael A. Shine. 



Besides this paper there is an outline of the University of Nebraska 
Seminar Studies in Nebraska History, Political Science and Eco- 
nomics, and a note on Early Maps of the Nebraska Country, by 
C. E. Persinger. There are reproductions of De L 'Isle's map of 
1722 and the map made by Perrin du Lac in 1802, besides cuts of 
the Verendrye plate found in South Dakota in 1913. 


In Memoriam is the title of a pamphlet published by the Clayton 
County Bar Association which contains a biographical sketch of 
and a tribute to the late Hon. G. H. Schulte, who was born on 
January 21, 1866, and died on June 17, 1914. 

Among the contents of The American Freemason for November 
are some extracts from letters relative to The War as Viewed by 
Brothers in the Countries Engaged. 

An article by Emlin McClain, Dean of the College of Law of the 
State University of Iowa, on the Liability in Tort of Carriers of the 
Mail, has been reprinted in pamphlet form from the Columbia Law 

A pamphlet containing a concise discussion of Workmen's Com- 
pensation Laws, by Henry E. Sampson, has been issued by the Iowa 
Industrial Commissioner. 

The Northwestern Banker for October opens with an article on 
War, Bankers and Commerce, by George Woodruff. Among other 
things in the December number M. B. Hutchinson tells How the 
Currency Law will Help Us. 

An address on Home Rule for Cities in Iowa, delivered by Alfred 
C. Mueller before the Contemporary Club of Davenport, Iowa, has 
been printed, in pamphlet form. 

In November there appeared in pamphlet form the Recommenda- 
tions of the Committee on Retrenchment and Reform making cer- 
tain suggestions relative to the reorganization of State government 
in Iowa. 


In the October number of The Alumnus of Iowa State College 
there is a tribute to W. 0. McElroy, by Dean E. W. Stanton. 

In the December number of The Iowa Alumnus there is an article 
on The Early Days of the Alumni Association, by Alice Remley 

A brief article entitled Rebuilding the Old National Pike, by 
M. A. Berns, which is printed in the November number of The Boad- 
Maher contains a small amount of historical data. 

The concluding installment of the Autobiography of Elder Alma 
Booker appears in the October number of Autumn Leaves. In the 
November number there is a brief Autobiography of Apostle C. A, 
Butterworth. Two articles in the December number are : Yoca- 
tional Education in the United States, by George N. Briggs; and 
Trained Men and Their Relationship to the Modern Social Problem, 
by S. A. Burgess. 

G. A. Gesell is the writer of a brief outline of Municipal Owner- 
ship in Minnesota which appears in the November number of Amer- 
ican Municipalities. Three articles which are to be found in the 
December number are : Compensation of Municipal Officers, by. J. 
D. Glasgow; Iowa Bureau of Municipal Information, by 0. E. 
Klingaman; and Municipal Development and Issues, by A. E. 

The first number of the Iowa Law J5w??efm, published quarterly 
by the faculty and students of the College of Law of the State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, appeared in January, 1915. This is in reality a 
new series or a revival of the Bulletin of a similar character pub- 
lished regularly from 1891 to 1901. Herbert F. Goodrich is the 
editor-in-charge. Twenty-five pages of the Bulletin are occupied 
by an article by Emlin McClain containing a survey of the history 
and contents of The Iowa Codes. The remaining pages are taken 
up with editorials, notes, and digests of recent Iowa cases. The 
enterprise deserves the hearty support of the legal profession in 

Besides continuations of biographical and autobiographical ma- 
terial the October number of the Journal of History, published at 



Lamoni, Iowa, by the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter 
Day Saints, contains some new material. Under the heading of 
Pioneer Days there appears a biography of Ebenezer Miller, writ- 
ten by Robert Miller. Then follows a transcript of the remarks of 
Mr. Backenstos in the House of Representatives of Congress in 1845 
against a bill repealing the Nauvoo charter. Furthermore, there is 
printed a Petition of 'William Smithy Isaac Sheen, et al, against the 
formation of the proposed State of Deseret in 1849. 

The Blue Book of Iowa Women: A History of Contemporary 
Women, compiled by Winona Evans Reeves, represents a new and 
worthy undertaking in Iowa. It is a volume of three hundred pages 
containing brief sketches of the lives and activities of about two 
hundred and twenty-five Iowa women, most of whom are now living, 
who have attained positions of leadership as writers, educators, 
civic and charitable workers, club members, and in various other 
walks of life. Of course any selection of this kind must be more or 
less arbitrary; and the compiler denies any claim "that all the 
women deserving recognition'' are mentioned in the book. But the 
work deserves hearty commendation and encouragement. 

The October number of Midland Schools contains a brief article 
on School Administration and Secondary Schools, by "W. A. Jessup ; 
and a discussion of Ohio's New School Laws, by Lester S. Ivins. 
Articles in the November issue are : Permanency of Farming as a 
Vocation and its Educational Significance, by G-. M. "Wilson; The 
Prevailing Occupations of Iowa in Relation to the Problems of 
Vocational Education, by E. E. Lewis; and Early History and 
Development of the Consolidated School in Iowa, by J. A. Wood- 
ruff. The last article is continued in the December number where 
may also be found an account of the organization of the ex-presi- 
dents of the Iowa State Teachers' Association. 


Aurner, Clarence R., 

History of Education in Iowa. Vols. I and II. Iowa City: 
The State Historical Society of Iowa. 1914. 


Beckman, J. W., 

The Touchstone. Waterloo, Iowa: Stewart-Simmons Press. 

Carver, Thomas Nixon, 

European Food Situation (Review of Reviews, November, 
1914) ; Work of Bural Organization (Journal of Political 
Economy, November, 1914). 
Devine, Edward Thomas, 

Neutrality (Survey, October, 1914) ; Truth on the Scaffold 
(Survey, November, 1914) ; Belgian Belief Measures (Re- 
view of Reviews, December, 1914). 
Downey, Ezekiel Henry, 

Professor Hoxie's Interpretation of Trade Unionism (Amer- 
ican Journal of Sociology, September, 1914) ; Workmen's 
Compensation in the United States (Journal of Political 
Economy, December, 1914). 
Ficke, Arthur Davison, 

Fathers and Sons (Century, September, 1914). 
Gillin, John Lewis, 

History of Poor Belief Legislation in Iowa. Iowa City : State 

Historical Society of Iowa. 1914. 
Community Institute in Town Development (American City, 
June, 1914). 
Griffith, Helen Sherman, 

Letty's Good Luck. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Co. 1914. 
Hart, Irving H., 

History of Butler County, Iowa. Chicago: S. J. Clarke Pub- 
lishing Co. 1914. 
Hornaday, William Temple, 

Wild Life Conservation in Theory and Practice. New Haven : 
Yale University. 1914. 
Hughes, Rupert, 

The Last Bose of Summer. New York : Harper Brothers. 1914. 
Hutchinson, Woods, 

Civilization and Health. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 1914. 
Sound Bodies for Sound Minds (Good Housekeeping, Sep tern- 


ber, 1914) ; Vaccines and Vaccination (Good Housekeeping, 
November, 1914) ; Our Internal Laboratory (Good House- 
keeping, October, 1914) ; When it Hurts to Swallow (Good 
Housekeeping, December, 1914). 

Kaufmann, Charles Beecher, 

Iowa Employers' Liability and Workmen's Compensation Act 
in Effect July 1, 1914. Davenport, Iowa: Kaufmann & 
Willis. 1914. 

Keyes, Charles Rollin, 

Quantity and Bank of University Attendance (Science, Octo- 
ber 16, 1914). 

Kruse, Paul J., 

Problems of the Evening School (School Review, November, 
Newton, Joseph Fort, 

What Have the Saints to Teach TJsf New York and Chicago: 

Fleming H. Revell Co. 1914. 
The Builders. Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press. 1914. 
Norton, Roy, 

The Boomers. New York : W. J. Watt & Co. 1914. 
Parrish, Randall, 

The Bed Mist: A Tale of Civil Strife. Chicago : A. C. McClurg 
& Co. 1914. 
Reeves, Winona Evans, 

The Blue Book of Iowa Women. Mexico, Missouri: Missouri 
Printing and Publishing Co. 1914. 
Richardson, Anna Steese, 

Better Babies (Woman's Home Companion, September, 1914) ; 
What Every Mother Wants to Know (Woman's Home Com- 
panion, October, 1914) ; Better Babies Work in Two South- 
ern Cities (Woman's Home Companion, November, 1914). 
Robbins, Edwin Clyde, 

Bailway Conductors: A Study in Organized Labor. New 
York : Columbia University. 1914. 
Ross, Edward Alsworth, 

The Old World in the New. New York : Century Co. 1914. 


Russell, Charles Edward, 

Doing us Good and Plenty. Chicago : Charles H. Kerr & Co. 

Sabin, Edwin Legrand, 

Scarf ace Ranch, or the Young Homesteaders. New York: 

Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1914. 
Buffalo Bill and the Overland Trail. Philadelphia : J. B. Lip- 
pincott Co. 1914. 
Sabin, Elbridge Hosmer, 

Prince Trixie, or, Bahy Brownie's Birthday. Chicago and New 
York: Rand, McNally & Co. 1914. 
Steiner, Edward Alfred, 

From Alien to Citizen. New York and Chicago : Fleming H. 
Revell Co. 1914. 
Stuart, I. L., 

History of Franklin County, Iowa. Chicago : S. J. Clarke Pub- 
lishing Co. 1914. 
Wardall, Ruth A. (Joint author), 

A Study of Foods. Boston: Ginn & Co. 1914. 
Whitcomb, Seldon Lincoln, 

Autumn Notes in Iowa. Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press. 1914. 
Wyer, Malcolm G., 

Bookplates in Iowa. Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press. 1914. 


The Register and Leader 

Rev. G. G. Rice of Council Bluffs, Pioneer Congregationalist Min- 
ister, October 7, 1914. 

''Jimmie" Barry, Oldest Member of University Faculty, October 
11, 1914. 

C. M. Overman, Founder of Irving Institute, October 12, 1914. 

Irving Institute Fifty Years Old, October 18, 1914. 

Clinton, Iowa, Terminus of the First Railway Postoffice in the 

United States, October 18, 1914. 
Washington Baptist Church Seventy-three Years Old, October 25, 




Van Buren County Pioneers were Iowa History Makers, October 25, 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. P. M. Casady, November 14, 1914. 
Iowa Towns' Names Closely Linked with History, November 15, 

Ten Years' Growth of Iowa Insurance Companies, November 26, 

Equitable Life a Pioneer Insurance Company in Iowa, November 
26, 1914. 

Sketch of the life of General Edward F. Winslow, December 6, 1914. 
Keokuk, the Home of Pioneer Iowa Wholesale Dry Goods House, 

December 13, 1914. 
Three Veterans of Mexican War in Adams County, December 13, 


Des Moines in 1855, December 13, 1914. 

A Ride to Des Moines Fifty Years Ago, by Mrs. Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, December 20, 1914. 

John Clarke, Father of Governor Clarke, a Pioneer of Southern 
Iowa, December 27, 1914. 


First Days of Webster County, in the Fort Dodge Chronicle, Sep- 
tember 26, October 3, 10, 24, 1914. 
Recollections of the Civil War, by Hugo Huffbaur, in the Davenport 

Democrat, September 27, 1914. 
Sketch of the life of George Stroeber, in the Muscatine Journal, 

September 30, 1914. 
Old System of ''Binding Out" Recalled by Aged Document, in the 

Cedar Rapids Gazette, September 30, 1914. 
Sketch of the life of Mary E. Hagy, in the Sioux City Journal, 

October 3, 1914. 
Indian Fight of 1864, in the Mapleton Press, October 8, 1914. 
Sketch of the lives of Amos and Ruth A. L. Taylor, in the Osha- 

loosa Herald, October 8, 1914. 
Nevada's Centenarian — James Carr, in the Nevada Representative, 

October 9, 1914. 


John Inslee Blair, Railroad Builder, in the Clinton Herald, October 
9, 1914. 

Sketch of the life of Captain Henry D. Williams, in the Waterloo 
Courier, October 12, 1914. 

Early History of Delaware County, in the Earlville Phoenix, Octo- 
ber 14, 29, November 5, 1914. 

History of the 28th Iowa Volunteer Infantry, in the Marengo Be- 
publican, October 14, 1914. 

Sketch of the life of Judge F. W. Eichelberger, in the Bloomfield 
Bepuhlican, October 15, 1914. 

Anniversary of John Brown ^s Raid on Harper's Ferry, in the Dav- 
enport Democrat, October 18, 1914. 

Sketches of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. Thaddeus Binford, in the 
Marshalltown Times-Republican, October 19, 1914. 

Kelly's Bluff, Its Ancient Cemetery and Foundation of Proposed 
but Abandoned Seminary, in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, 
October 25, 1914. 

Judge Oliver P. Shiras, Citizen, in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, 
October 25, 1914. 

Meaning of the Name ''Iowa", by L. F. Andrews, in the Webster 
City Freeman-Tribune, October 27, 1914. 

A Pioneer Brighton Family, in the Brighton Enterprise, October 
28, 1914. 

Fundamental Characteristics of the Lives of the Pioneers, by 

Charles F. Clarke, in the Adel Record, October 29, 1914. 
Frontier Sketches, in the Burlington Post, November 7, 1914. 
Review of Early History of Dubuque County and the Dubuque 

County Bar Association, by Oliver P. Shiras, in the Dubuque 

Times- Journal, November 8, 1914. 
Settlement of Amherst Township, in the Cherokee Times, November 

9, 1914. 

John Ruble Writes of a Visit with Neighbors of the Early Seventies, 

in the Le Mars Sentinel, November 13, 1914. 
Love Affair of Julien Dubuque; Romance of Little White Cloud, 

in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, November 15, 1914. 
Old Marion County, in the Knoxville Express, December 30, 1914. 



Robert J. Burdette — Recollections by Those who Knew Him, in 
the Burlington Hawk-Eye, November 21, 1914. 

Early Work of Robert J. Burdette on the Burlington Hawk-Eye, in 
the Burlington Hawk-Eye, November 22, 1914. 

Clinton Will Soon be Sixty, in the Clinton Herald, December 4, 

Late Fort Dodge Physician's Story, in the Fort Bodge Chronicle, 

December 4, 1914. 
Recollections of a Pioneer Bride, in the Algona Advance, December 

16, 1914. 

A Pioneer Boy's Story, by Albert Reed, in the Algona Advance, 
December 16, 1914. 

Jacob P. Alfrey, a Pioneer of Southern Iowa, in the Keokuk Con- 
stitution-Democrat, December 19, 1914. 

Memoirs of Quaker Divide, by D. B. Cook, running in the Dexter 

Death Roll of Pioneers of Kossuth County, in the Algona Repuh- 

lican, December 23, 1914. 
Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. John Quist, in the Council Bluffs 

Nonpareil, December 27, 1914. 
Sketch of the life of A. F. Bond, Oldest Resident of Denison, in the 

Denison Review, December 30, 1914. 
John Melrose, a Pioneer of Black Hawk County, in the Waterloo 

Courier, December 3, 1914. 
William Sturgis, Black Hawk County's First Settler, a Life Long 

Pioneer, in the Waterloo Courier, December 31, 1914. 
Reminiscences of Waterloo by a Pioneer Attorney, in the Waterloo 

Courier, December 31, 1914. 

VOL. XIII — 9 



The New Hampshire Historical Society has published a booklet 
containing the proceedings of the Dedication of a Memorial to Rev- 
erend John Tuche, 1702-1773. In the booklet there is also an ad- 
dress on Captain John Smithy by Justin H. Smith. 

An Old Medford School Boy's Beminiscences, by Thomas M. 
Stetson; and Medford Steamboat Bays, by Moses W. Mann, are 
articles in the October number of The Medford Historical Register. 

A memoir of William Sanford mils, by Thomas B. Hitchcock; 
and an account of Some Recent Investigations Concerning the An- 
cestry of Capt. Myles Standish, by Thomas C. Porteus, are among 
the contents of The Neiu England Historical and Genealogical 
Register for October. 

The Proceedings of the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of 
the Bangor (Maine) Historical Society on April 8, 1914, have been 
published by the Society. 

Tract No. 94 of the Western Reserve Historical Society contains 
the annual report of the Society for the year 1913-1914, and the 
Journals of Seth Pease to and from Neiv Connecticut, 1796-98, with 
an introduction by Elbert Jay Benton. 

Part two of A Study of Military Operations on the Frontier of 
Loivcr Canada in 1812 and 1813, by E. A. Cruikshank, is to be 
found in the June, 1914, number of the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Canada, which now appears as a quarterly publication. 

Volume three, number three of the Publicaiions of the Academy 
of J*arif,c Coast Hislory, issued in December, 1914, is taken up with 
tin; /Hary of Nelson Kingsley, a California Argonaut of 1849, edit(Ml 
by Frederick J. Teggart. 



The October number of Historia, published by the Oklahoma His- 
torical Society, contains the charter and constitution of the Society. 

Catalogue No. 4 of the Kentucky State Historical Society, com- 
piled by the Librarian, Miss Sally Jackson, has recently been pub- 
lished by the Society. 

An address on The Treaty of Ghent, delivered before the New 
York Historical Society on its one hundred and tenth anniversary 
by William M. Sloane, has been printed in neat pamphlet form by 
the Society. 

The December number of the Journal of the Presbyterian His- 
torical Society is taken up with a continuation of the Letters and 
Reports of the Bev. John Philip Boehm, translated and edited by 
"William J. Hinke; and an article on the Church Records in the 
Preshytery of New Castle, by Joseph Brown Turner. 

The journal of T. Turnhull's Travels from the United States 
Across the Plains to California, edited by Frederic L. Paxson, has 
been reprinted from the Proceedings of the State Historical Society 
of Wisconsin. 

The July-September number of the Quarterly Publication of the 
Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio contains a second in- 
stallment of Selections from the Follett Papers, edited by L. Belle 
Hamlin. The papers here printed consist entirely of letters which 
passed between Thomas Corwin and Oran Follett through the years 
from 1842 to 1851. 

The Maryland Historical Magazine for December opens with a 
biographical sketch of Governor Richard Bennett, by Mary N. 
Browne. The remainder of the Magazine is taken up largely with 

Volume thirteen, number two of The James Sprunt Historical 
Publications, published under the direction of the North Carolina 
Historical Society, contains some letters from the collection of Gen- 
eral Henry W. Harrington, a prominent Revolutionary soldier, edit- 
ed with introduction and notes by Henry M. Wagstaff. 



The chief contribution in the November-December number of the 
German American Annals is an interesting article on Emigration to 
America Reflected in German Fiction^ by Preston A. Barba. 

An address on The Lincoln and Douglas Debates delivered before 
the Chicago Historical Society by Horace White has been hand- 
somely printed by the Society. Mr. White heard these debates in 
the capacity of a newspaper reporter. 

The Youthful Recollections of Salem, by Benjamin F. Browne, 
are continued in the Historical Collections of the Essex Institute for 
October, where may also be found an article on Brookshy, Salem, in 
1700, by Sidney Perley. 

Contributions in volume twenty-four, part one of the Proceedings 
of the American Antiquarian Society are the following: Notes on 
the Calendar and the Almanac, by George E. Littlefield; The Early 
Migrations of the Indians of New England and the Maritime Prov- 
inces, by Roland Burrage Dixon; Poinsett's Career in Mexico, by 
Justin H. Smith ; a Check List of Connecticut Almanacs, 1709-1850, 
by Albert Carlos Bates. 

Among the contents of The Virginia Magazine of History and 
Biography for October are some Letters of Richard Adams to 
Thomas Adams, scattered through the years from 1771 to 1778 ; a 
legal argument of the year 1718 involving the subject of Church 
Patronage in Virginia; and an original paper bearing the title 
Animadversions on a Paper Entituled Virginia Addresses, Printed 
in Philadelphia. 

The Origin of the Feudal Land Tenure in J apan, by K. Asakawa ; 
The Government of Normandy Under Henry II, by Charles H. 
Haskins; Colonial Commerce, by Charles M. Andrews; The An- 
glican Outlook on the American Colonies in the Early Eighteenth 
Century, by Evarts B. Greene; and The Creative Forces in West- 
ward Expansion: Henderson and Boone, by Archibald Henderson, 
are articles in the October number of The American Historical Re- 
view. Under the heading of Documents may be found some Letters 
Relating to the Negotiations at Ghent, 1812-1814. 



Among the articles which are to be found in The Journal of 
American Folk-Lore for July-September are the following: Negro 
Folk-Lore in South Carolina, by Henry C. Davis; Some Negro Folk- 
Songs from Tennessee, by Anna Kranz Odum; The Play-Party in 
Northeast Missouri, by Goldy M. Hamilton; and Folk-Lore from 
Schoharie County, New York, by Emelyn E. Gardner. 

Three excellent articles are to be found in the Missouri His- 
torical Review for October, namely : A Sketch of Missouri Constitu- 
tional History During the Territorial Period, by Floyd C. 
Shoemaker; Travel into Missouri in Octoler, 1838, by Edward Zim- 
merman; and Indian Mode of Life in Missouri and Kansas, de- 
scribed by George Sibley in a letter written in 1820. 

The addresses delivered at the unveiling of the memorial to the 
North Carolina women of the Confederacy, presented to the State 
by the late Ashley Horne, have been printed by the North Carolina 
Historical Commission as Bulletin No. 16. The principal address 
was one on The Women of the Confederacy, by Daniel Harvey Hill. 

The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine for 
July opens with Six Letters of Peter Manigault. There is also an- 
other installment of the Order Book of John Faucheraud Grimke, 
August, 1778, to May, 1780; and some extracts from the Parish 
Register of St. James Santee, 1758-1788, copied by Mabel L. Web- 

The Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly for October 
opens with an illustrated account of the Dedication of the Ohio 
State Archaeological and Historical Society Museum and Library 
Building on May 30, 1914. Among the addresses delivered on this 
occasion was one by Isaac J. Cox on Ohio and Western Sectionalism. 
In this number of the Quarterly there is also to be found a repro- 
duction of the archaeological map of Ohio which has been made 
with great care under the direction of the Society. 

Continuations of The Early Sentiment for the Annexation of 
California, by Robert Glass Cleland; The First Session of the Se- 
cession Conventions of Texas, by Anna Irene Sandbo ; and British 


Correspondence Concerning Texas, edited by Ephraim Douglass 
Adams, appear in The Southwestern Historical Quarterly for Octo- 
ber. There is also an article on Harris County, 1822-1845, by 
Adele B. Looscan; and A Letter from Vera Cruz in 1847, contrib- 
uted by Eobert A. Law. 

The opening contribution in the Records of the American Cath- 
olic Historical Society for September is an article on The First 
Three Catholic Churches of Zanesville, Ohio, by Robert J. J. Hark- 
ins. In the December number some documentary material is pub- 
lished under the heading, An Echo of the Old Order of Church and 
State in Louisiana; and there is a biographical sketch of The Bev. 
Theodore Brouwers, Missionary in the West Indies, and Pioneer 
Priest in Western Pennsylvania, by Felix Fellner. 

Under the heading Penn versus Baltimore in the October number 
of The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography there is; 
printed the journal of John Watson, assistant surveyor to the com- 
missioners of the Province of Pennsylvania in 1750, edited by John 
W. Jordan. Following this there is an article by John E. Potter on 
The Pennsylvania and Virginia Boundary Controversy. Under the* 
heading A Local Incident of Early Colonial Days, 1722-1723, there' 
are presented some documents dealing with early land policy. 

The commencement address delivered in June at the University 
of Washington by Frederick Jackson Turner, on The West and 
American Ideals, occupies the opening pages in The Washington. 
Historical Quarterly for October. Then follows the concluding in- 
stallment of the Journal of John Work, Dec. 15th, 1825, to June- 
12th, 1826, with introduction and annotations by T. C. Elliott. 
Edwin Eels is the writer of a brief article entitled Eliza and the 
Nez Perce Indians; and there is a continuation of A New Vancouver- 
Journal, with introduction and notes by Edmond S. Meany. 

The Mississippi Valley Historical Revieiv for December opens; 
with an article on Richard Henderson and the Occupation of Ken- 
tucky, 1775, by Archibald Henderson. Some Aspects of British 
Adminislralion in West Florida are discussed by Clarence E. 
Carter. Arthur C. Cole writes on The South and the Right of Se- 



cession in the Early Fifties. The third paper in the series of sur- 
veys of historical activities in the Mississippi Valley is presented by 
St. George L. Sioussat who discusses Historical Activities in the Old 
Southwest. Under the head of ''Notes and Documents" will be 
found William Clark's Journal of General Wayne's Campaign, 
edited by R. C. McGrane. 

Among the contributions in the Missouri Historical Society Col- 
lections, volume four, number three, are the following : The Removal 
of the Judges of the Supreme Court of Missouri, in 1865, by Thomas 
K. Skinker; Founding and Location of William Jewell College, by 
L. M. Lawson; Instructions of Jacques Toutant Beauregard to his 
Son Concerning a Voyage to the Illinois^ translated by Nettie Har- 
ney Beauregard ; and a continuation of the Recollections of an Old 
Actor, by Charles A. Krone. Two communications deal with The 
Two Forts at Sandusky Bay, and the question, Has the Site of Fort 
Orleans Been Discovered? 

A Memorial Address Commemorating the Life, Character and 
Services of Francis Xavier Matthieu, by Charles B. Moores, occupies 
the opening pages of The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Soci- 
ety for June. Then follows a discussion of First Things Pertaining 
to Preshyterianism on the Pacific Coast, by Robert H. Blossom. 
The concluding installment of the Journal of David Thompson, 
edited by T. C. Elliott, contains the record of Thompson's activity 
in the Columbia valley from July 16 to August 13, 1811. Finally, 
under the title A Tragedy on the SticJceen in '42, Mr. C. 0. Erma- 
tinger contributes a letter from John McLaughlin in 1843 telling of 
the murder of his son by an employer of the Hudson's Bay Com- 

Constitution Making in Early Indiana: An Historical Survey, by 
James A. Woodburn; Jackson County Prior to 1850, by John C. 
Lazenby; Indiana History in the Schools, by Oscar H. "Williams; 
and the concluding chapters of the study of Home Life in Early 
Indiana, by William P. Yogel, are contributions in the September 
number of the Indiana Magazine of History. The chapters of the 
last named article here printed deal with sickness and physicians, 


clnirehes and preachers, teachers and schools, and social life. The 
December number of the Magazine likewise contains four excellent 
articles, namely: The Academies of Indiana, by John Hardin 
Thomas; Early Methodist Circuits in Indiana, by William W. 
Sweet; Indiana's Growth 1812-1820, by Waldo F. Mitchell; and 
The Old Chicago Road, by Jesse S. Birch. 

The Acts and Proceedings of the ninth annual meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies, held at Harris- 
burg on January 15, 1914, have been published in a book of over 
one hundred pages. A perusal of the report will reveal the possi- 
bilities of cooperation between the historical agencies of any Com- 
monwealth. An especially noteworthy feature of the report is a 
table showing the names of the various societies, clubs, and associa- 
tions forming the Federation ; the names of officers and the number 
of members of each organization; and a statement of the publica- 
tions issued, papers read, and work accomplished during the year 
ending January 15, 1914. This table presents an excellent and 
complete view of historical activities in the State of Pennsylvania 
during the year indicated. 

The installment of The Writings of Judge George G. Wright, 
which is printed in the October number of the Annals of Iowa con- 
tains brief sketches of the life and character of Henry Clay Dean 
and Daniel Lane. An interesting article on John J. Blair and his 
Associates in Railway Building in Iowa is written by B. L. Wick. 
Charles Keyes discusses the Life and Work of Charles Ahiathar 
White; some incidents in connection with The Engagement at 
Jenkin's Ferry are described in an extract from the diary of Wil- 
liam L. Nicholson; and there is an installment of a list of Iowa 
Authors and their Works, compiled by Alice Marple. In the edi- 
torial department may be found notes on the discovery of coal in 
America, and chiefly in the Mississippi Valley, by the French; the 
naming of the city of Le Mars; the organization of Wapello and 
Monroe counties, and the discovery and interment of the remains 
of Joel Howe, a victim of the Spirit Lake Massacre. 




During the year 1914 the Missouri Historical Society at St. Louis 
added about ninety names to its membership roll. 

At the annual meeting of the Minnesota Historical Society on 
January 18, 1915, the principal address was delivered by Professor 
Clarence "W. Alvord on The Relation of the State to Historical 

William H. Gilstrap, Curator of the Ferry Museum and Secretary 
of the Washington State Historical Society, died at his home in 
Tacoma on August 2, 1914. 

The formation of an historical society is being advocated in Ma- 
haska County and it is to be hoped that the movement will be 
successful. Every county in the State has a history that is interest- 
ing and well worth a determined effort to record. 

On November 11, 1914, in response to an invitation from Mayor 
A. R. Biddle a large number of old residents of Storm Lake, Iowa, 
met and formed a definite organization. The following officers were 
elected: J. M. Russell, president; J. W. Gilbert, secretary; A. C. 
Smith, A. R. Biddle, and E. E. Mack, board of directors. 

Miss Ethel B. Virtue of the Historical Department of Iowa read 
a paper on the Principles of Classification of Archives before the 
Conference of Archivists of the American Historical Association in 
Chicago during the holidays. Her paper presented an excellent 
outline of the plans followed in Iowa for the preservation and 
classification of the State archives. 

At a meeting of the Historical Society of Marshall County on the 
evening of November 16, 1914, Mr. Johnson Brigham, State Libra- 
rian of Iowa, delivered an address on Pioneering in Iowa'\ 
Memorial addresses on George F. Kirby and Mrs. A. Janney, both 
of whom were charter members of the Society, were presented by 
Mr. Thaddeus Binford and Mrs. R. E. Sears, respectively. Several 
interesting additions have recently been made to the collections of 
the Society. 


The Fifth Biennial Report of the North Carolina Historical Com- 
mission, covering the two years from December 1, 1912, to November 
30, 1914, reveals progress in all lines of activity. The work of the 
Commission has been greatly facilitated since the removal, in Janu- 
ary, 1914, of the collections from the rooms formerly occupied in 
the capitol building to much more commodious quarters in the new 
State Administration Building. 

In March, 1906, a county historical society was organized in 
Hardin County, officers were elected, and membership fees were 
collected; but nothing further was ever done. Recently the treas- 
urer called the attention of the members of the society to the fact 
that the fees collected still remained in his possession; and at a 
called meeting it was decided that the money should be used in pur- 
chasing some historical work for the Eldora public library. It is to 
be regretted that the society was not revived and aroused to activity. 

The Kossuth County Historical Society held its annual meeting 
at Algona on December 8, 1914. Among the papers read at the 
meeting were ' ' A Pioneer Boy 's Story ' ' . by Albert Reed ; and ' ' Rec- 
ollections of a Pioneer Bride", by Mrs. Joseph Thompson. The 
officers who served during the past year were reelected. President 
B. P. Reed presented a list of the pioneers of Kossuth County who 
died since the preceding annual meeting, giving, the year in which 
each individual came to the county. The list shows four who came 
in the fifties, fourteen in the sixties, eighteen in the seventies, 
eighteen in the eighties, and six in the nineties. 

The Pioneer Club of Des Moines, an organization of pioneer busi- 
ness men of that city, held its twenty-first annual meeting on Jan- 
uary 2, 1915. A resolution urging the General Assembly to make 
provision for the proper marking of the grave of William Alexander 
Scott, who donated to the State a part of the land included in the 
present grounds and personally built and paid for the first State 
house at Des Moines. The following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : C. A. Dudley, president ; William Lowry, vice presi- 
dent; Craig Wright, secretary and treasurer; C. L. Gilbert, E. E. 
Clark, and J. B. Weaver, members of the executive committee. 


The sixty-second annual meeting of the Wisconsin Historical 
Society was held on October 22, 1914. The annual address was 
delivered by Dr. Worthington C. Ford on The Treaty of Ghent and 
After. The report submitted by the Superintendent, Dr. Milo M. 
Quaife, reveals progress during the preceding year. The capacity 
of the library, which now contains over 375,000 titles, has been 
greatly increased by the completion of a new book-stack wing. The 
historical museum has also been given additional room in which to 
expand. Bequests amounting to $25,000 have been received by the 
Society. The letters and papers pertaining to the Civil "War which 
have hitherto been preserved in the Governor's office have recently 
been turned over to the Society. 

The Mississippi Valley Historical Association held a joint meeting 
with the American Historical Association in Chicago on December 
28-31, 1914. On the evening of December 28th there was a dinner 
at the Fort Dearborn Hotel, after which preliminary reports were 
presented by the various committees of the Association. On the 
afternoon of December 31st the following papers were read at a 
joint program: English Relations in the Northwest , 1789-1794, by 
Royal B. Way; and The Agrarian History of the United States as 
a Subject for Research, by William J. Trimble ; and there was an 
extended discussion of The Genesis of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, 
based on a paper by that title by Frank H. Hodder. 

The Historical Department of Iowa is making a special effort to 
build up its collection of books by Iowa authors, as well as to com- 
pile a complete bibliography of such publications. On October 7th, 
in connection with the home-coming of Iowa authors, a meeting of 
pioneer editors of the State was held in the rooms of the Depart- 
ment. Among the speakers were John P. Irish, Harvey Ingham, 
Henry Wallace, Lafayette Young, William H. Fleming, Alex Miller, 
and C. M. Junkin. Recent additions to the collections of the De- 
partment include a file of the minutes of the Iowa Conference of the 
Methodist Church from 1855 to 1900; a set of catalogues of Iowa 
Wesleyan University from 1854 to 1901; and a number of Civil 
War relics donated by Mrs. Georgia Wade McClellan of Denison. 
The Department will cooperate in the plans for the proper repre- 


sentation of the State of Iowa at the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition at San Francisco. 

The thirtieth annual meeting of the American Historical Associ- 
ation was held at the Auditorium Hotel in Chicago on December 
29-31, 1914. Among the papers which were read on subjects in 
American history were : One Hundred Years Ago, by Max Farrand ; 
Tennessee and National Political Parties, 1850-1860, by St. George 
L. Sioussat; Cabinet Meetings Under Polk, by Henry Barrett 
Learned ; the presidential address on American History and Amer- 
ican Democracy, by Andrew C. McLaughlin ; and The Significance 
of Sectionalism in American History, by Frederick J. Turner. At 
the Conference of Historical Societies Otto L. Schmidt outlined the 
history of the Chicago Historical Society; Dunbar Rowland pre- 
sented the report of the committee on the cooperation of historical 
departments and societies, and there were discussions of the subjects 
of research in State history in State Universities, and restrictions 
on the use of historical materials. Legislation for archives, prin- 
ciples of classification for archives, and the cataloguing of archives 
were topics discussed at the Conference of Archivists. 

On November 10, 1914, Dr. Solon J. Buck was elected Superin- 
tendent and Secretary of the Minnesota Historical Society. Mr. 
Warren Upham who has for many years occupied the position of 
Secretary has assumed the position of Archaeologist for the Society, 
a line of work which he especially enjoys and for which he is well 
qualified. The new Superintendent, Dr. Buck, was graduated from 
the University of Wisconsin in 1904 ; and he later pursued graduate 
work at that institution and at Harvard University. After teach- 
ing for two years at Indiana University, in 1910 he accepted a re- 
search position on the faculty of the University of Illinois. He 
remained in this work for four years, being engaged in research in 
Illinois history and especially in the preparation of a Centennial 
History of Illinois. In 1914 he was called to the University of 
Minnesota to teach American history, and he will continue to give 
courses in that institution, along with his new work. Dr. Buck is 
well qualified, both by training and ability, to guide the activities 
of the Society of which he has been elected Superintendent. 




Miss Ethyl E. Martin, after spending a year in New York City, 
has resumed her former position on the staff of the Society as Secre- 
tary to the Superintendent. 

Dr. Fred E. Haynes of Morningside College has a leave of absence 
and is spending the year in Iowa City pursuing researches along the 
line of the third party movements in Iowa history. The results of 
his investigations will be published by the Society. 

Mrs. W. P. Coast of Iowa City, a member of the Society, died on 
December 14, 1914. 

Two volumes of Dr. Clarence R. Aumer's History of Education 
in Iowa have been distributed to members. The third volume is 
about ready to be put to press. 

On January 17, 1915, Judge Smith McPherson, for many years 
a member of the Society, died at his home in Red Oak, Iowa. 

Dr. Frank E. Horack, Secretary of the Society, read a paper 
relative to the proposed Reorganization of State Government in 
Iowa before the American Political Science Association in Chicago 
during the holidays. He also presided over a conference on the 
teaching of American government. 

The first volume in the Iowa Social History Series^ namely, a 
four hundred page History of Poor Belief Legislation in Iowa, by 
Dr. John L. Gillin, has been received from the binders and will be 
distributed in the near future. A History of Social Legislation in 
Iowa, by Mr. John E. Briggs, which will also appear in this series, 
is now in press. 

Dr. John C. Parish, who is well known to readers of the Society's 
publications, is the writer of an address on The Need of Mutual 
Understanding which appears in the January-March (1914) num- 
ber of The Quarterly Journal of the Society of American Indians. 
In an article entitled A Seventeenth Century Council which is pub- 
lished in The Southern Workman he tells of a great Indian council 
at Quebec in 1678. 


The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society: Mr. George E. Farmer, Mason City, Iowa; Mrs. 
G. E. Anderson, Red Oak, Iowa; Mr. J. E. Holden, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa; Mr. Addison G. Kissel, Council Bluffs, Iowa; Mr. E. E. 
Lewis, Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. Hugh H. Shepard, Mason City, Iowa ; 
Mr. Louis M. Marks, Davenport, Iowa ; Mr. C. Ellis Williams, Iowa 
City, Iowa ; Mr. W. H. Kegley, Osage, Iowa ; Dr. Irving King, Iowa 
City, Iowa; Mr. H. Y. Moffett, Osage, Iowa; Mr. Frank Reyburn, 
Pocahontas, Iowa. 

The Society will soon distribute to members the second volume in 
the Iowa Applied History Series, a book of about seven hundred 
pages. Besides the editor's introduction by Benjamin F. Sham- 
baugh, devoted chiefly to the subject of Scientific Law-making, the 
volume contains the following papers : Reorganization of State Gov- 
ernment in Iowa, by Frank E. Horack; Home Rule in Iowa, by 
0. K. Patton ; Direct Legislation in Iowa, by Jacob Van der Zee ; 
Equal Suffrage in Iowa, by Frank E. Horack; Selection of Puhlic 
Officials in Iowa, by Henry J. Peterson; Removal of Puhlic Of- 
ficials in Iowa, by 0. K. Patton; The Merit System: Its Application 
to State Government in Iowa, by Jacob Van der Zee; Social Legis- 
lation in Iowa, by John E. Briggs; Child Labor Legislation in Iowa, 
by Fred E. Haynes; and Poor Relief Legislation in Iowa, by John 
L. Gillin. 


The annual meeting of the Association of American Law Schools 
was held in Chicago during the holidays. 

New histories of Lee, Buchanan, and Jefferson counties have re- 
cently appeared ; and histories of Madison and Clarke counties are 
being prepared. 

On October 21, 1914, at Dubuque occurred the death of Alexander 
Simplot, who was born in Dubuque on January 5, 1837. 

The Pioneers of Van Buren County held their annual meeting 
late in September, 1914. Nearly ninety old settlers were registered, 
many of whom came to the county during the forties. 

The Iowa survivors of the battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas, 
celebrated the fifty-second anniversary of the battle on December 7, 
1914, at Columbus Junction. 

The thirty-sixth annual reunion of the Old Settlers* Association 
of Jefferson County was held at Fairfield on October 1, 1914. 

At the Butler County Fair last fall a reunion of old settlers was 
held, and there were registered twenty-five persons who have lived 
in the county for more than fifty years. 

Mr. Alonzo C. Parker, a prominent Iowa attorney, died at his 
home in Des Moines on November 7, 1914. 

The Grinnell chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion has installed a bronze tablet on the site of the first house in that 

The European war was the cause of the postponement of the 
meeting of the Nineteenth International Congress of Americanists 
which was to have been held at Washington, D. C, in October. 



The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Iowa Library Association 
was held at Marshalltown on October 20-22, 1914. 

The recent finding of a Spanish coin, bearing the date 1787, near 
McGregor, Iowa, recalls the fact that this region was a Spanish 
possession from 1762 until 1800 ; and that one Basil Giard for sev- 
eral years occupied a Spanish land grant covering the present site 
of McGregor. 

Mr. E. E. Johnson, residing near Homer, Iowa, has discovered on 
his land an Indian mound containing a number of relics, among 
which is an Indian pipe, made not of pipestone, but of slate and 
having a short mouthpiece instead of merely an opening for the 
insertion of a reed stem, as is the case with most of the Indian pipes 
found in this region. 

The American Political Science Association held its annual meet- 
ing in Chicago on December 29-31, 1914. Papers on constitutional 
guarantees, the reorganization of State government, and the city- 
manager plan, and a conference on the teaching of American gov- 
ernment were among the features of the meeting. 

Early in December there was installed in the rooms of the Daven- 
port Academy of Sciences a collection of relics and other material 
illustrative of the history and customs of the Fox Indians. The 
collection was made by Dr. Truman Michelson of the American 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

Interest in the marking of historic spots and highways in Iowa is 
being promoted by the various chapters of Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution in this State. Special attention has been given to 
the Mormon Trail across the southern part of the State, the mark- 
ing of which was begun in October, 1913, by the erection of a tablet 
in the city of Keokuk. 

A newspaper item reports that early in October the ferry between 
Dubuque and East Dubuque was discontinued because there is no 
further demand for it. This was one of the earliest ferries across 
the Mississippi between Iowa and Illinois and has been in operation 
for nearly eighty years. Its discontinuance marks the passing of 
another reminder of pioneer days. 



Students of Mississippi Valley history will be interested to know 
that after much investigation Professor Herbert E. Bolton has 
located the site of La Salle's settlement on the Gulf coast after his 
disastrous expedition to found a colony at the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi River. Professor Bolton places the settlement on the Garcitas 
River about five miles from its mouth ; and he has proved that La 
Salle was murdered at a place near the present town of Navasota, 
Texas, instead of on the Trinity or Neches River, as is usually 

On October 22, 1914, at Canandaigua, New York, occurred the 
death of Edward F. Winslow, who was the colonel of the Fourth 
Iowa Cavalry until promoted to a higher rank and who was one of 
the most prominent and successful officers in the western army. 
After the war he was for many years prominently engaged in the 
building and management of railroads in this country, his last 
position being the presidency of the Frisco Railway system. Gen- 
eral Winslow was born in Maine on September 28, 1837, and in 1856 
he came to Iowa and engaged in mercantile business at Mt. Pleasant. 

SMITH Mcpherson 

Judge Smith McPherson was bom at Mooresville, Morgan Coun- 
ty, Indiana, on February 14, 1848. In June, 1870, he was graduated 
from the Law Department of the State University of Iowa, and 
soon thereafter began the practice of law at Red Oak, which has 
been his home down to the time of his death. Many official honors 
came to Judge McPherson as is indicated by the following list of 
positions which he held : District Attorney of the third judicial dis- 
trict of Iowa, 1874-1880; Attorney General of Iowa, 1880-1885; 
Representative from the Ninth Congressional District of Iowa, 
1899-1900 ; United States Judge for the southern district of Iowa, 
1900 to the time of his death. During the period of his service in 
the latter position he rendered many decisions of far-reaching im- 
portance. Judge McPherson died at his home in Red Oak on 
January 17, 1915. 



A monumental work on the history of the Congregational Church 
in Iowa is being written by the Rev. Truman 0. Douglass of Grin- 
nell, who has spent many years in the service of that church in this 
State and who is the author of several books and articles dealing 
with various phases of Congregational history. At present he is 
engaged in writing biographical sketches of Congregational minis- 
ters in Iowa from pioneer days down to comparatively recent times. 
He has already completed eight manuscript volumes, each contain- 
ing from three hundred and fifty to six hundred pages and it is 
expected that there will be three more volumes. 

The first volume is entitled "The Patriarchs and Their Associ- 
ates The ''patriarchs" are Asa Turner, Reuben Gaylord, Julius 
A. Reed, Oliver Emerson, and John C. Holbrook; and among the 
"associates" are William P. Apthorp, the first Congregational min- 
ister in Iowa, Zeriah K. Hawley, Thomas P. Emerson, Allen B. 
Hitchcock, Charles Burnham, Aaron Dutton, Charles Granger, 
Israel Holmes, and Thomas Dutton. 

Volume two is devoted to the lives of the members of the famous 
"Iowa Band"; and the succeeding volumes deal with the men who 
built and served the Congregational churches in Iowa from 1840 
down to the eighties; after which the writer proposes to "leave the 
younger men to some other hand." "My principal reason for 
writing these sketches", says Rev. Douglass, "is to put into shape 
a great mass of material which is lying around loose, and which is 
likely to be lost unless I gather it up." It is not possible to com- 
mend too highly a work such as that in which Rev. Douglass is 


Jacob Vak dee Zee, Eesearch Associate in The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa, and Instructor in Political Science in 
the State University of Iowa. (See The Iowa Journal, of 
History and Politics for January, 1913, p. 142.) 

Okie Eeb Klingaman, Acting Director of the Extension 
Division of the State University of Iowa. Member of The 
State Historical Society of Iowa. Born in Indiana on July 7, 
1874. Received the degree of B. A. from Highland Park Col- 
lege in 1912 ; and the degree of M. A. from the State University 
of Iowa in 1914. Taught four years in the rural schools, and 
for three years in the grade schools at Guthrie Center, Iowa. 
Principal of the grade schools at Creston, Iowa, for two years ; 
and superintendent of schools for three years at Afton, Iowa. 
Representative of the Macmillan Company, 1905-1910; and 
representative of the D. C. Heath Company, 1910-1913. In 
extension work at the State University of Iowa since 1913. 
Editor of the University Extension Bulletins. 



Established bt Law 'in thk v -.-i 1857 
lNOORPO.RAi':ffi.D : 18 67 a n -' 18 92" 
L c A T 3! B ..VI? Iowa Ci"^ I ^ a 

F. H. LEE 









Elected by the Society 
Geo. W. Ball Makvin H. DbY 

J. W. Rich Heney G. Walkee 

Euclid Sandees Heney Albeet 


Chaeles M. Dutches 

Appointed by ike Governor 
Maesh W. Bailey Byeon W. Nbwbirey 
M, F, Edwabds a. C. Savage 
J. J. McCoNNELL E. W. Stanton 
John T. Moffit W. H. Tbdfobd 



Any person may become a member of The State Histoeical Sooxity m Mwa apoa 
election by the Board of Curators and tbe payment of an entrance fee of $3.00* 

Membersbip in this Society may b© retained after the first year npon the payment ef 
$3.00 annually. 

Members of the Society shall be entitled to receive the quarterly and all othef publicatioaji 
of the Society during the continuance of their membership. 

Any public, school, or college library in the State of Iowa may be enrolled as a library 
member upon application and the payment of a fee of $1.00. Such library membership may be 
retained after the first year upon the payment of $1.00 annually. Libraries enrolled as library 
members of The State Histoeical Society of Iowa shall be entitled to receive the quarterly 
and all other publications of the Society issued during the period of their membership. 

Address all Communicatiom to 
The State Histoeical Society Iowa City Iowa 


Iowa Journal 


APRIL 1915 

Published Quarterly by 


lowec City lowev 

Entered December 26 1902 at Iowa City lo-vva as second-class matter under act of Congress of J 

,/■: I) I TOE 
Assistant Editor, DAN E. CLARK 


APRIL. 1915 

No 2 


The Half breed Tract . J acob - Vai^ der Zee .151 

The Career of Jacob Rich . George Evai^ Egberts 165 

Some Episodes in the Early History of Des Moines 

Dan Elbert Clark 175 

The Oldest Land Titles in the State of Iowa 

Jacob Va^^ der Zee 238 

The Indians of Iowa in 1842 . . . . „ 250 

Some Publications . . . . , . . 264 

Western Americana ...... 273 

lowana 275 

Historical Societies 288 

Notes and Comment 302 

Contributors ......... 307 

CopyrighA lull] hy The State Historical Society of Iowa 


li L I 8 li E D Q U A E T E K L Y 

•i'^'^f^-i Single Numbeu: 50 Cent 

Address all OommunioQtiom to 
i iistobical SocebitV Iowa City 



VOL. XIII — 10 


In the summer of 1824 occurred an event of significance 
in the history of the Iowa wilderness before its occupation 
by the pioneers. Ten chiefs of the Sac and Fox Indians 
left their village homes upon the banks of the Mississippi 
River and made a long business journey eastward to the 
national capital to see their Great Father'', the President 
of the United States. For the sake of perpetuating peace 
and friendship with the government this deputation of head 
men on the 4th of August relinquished the claims of their 
tribes to land within the limits of the new State of Missouri, 
with the understanding **that the small tract of land lying 
between the rivers Desmoin and the Mississippi, and the 
section of the above line [the northern boundary of Mis- 
souri projected eastward] between the Mississippi and the 
Desmoin, is intended for the use of the half-breeds belong- 
ing to the Sock and Fox nations ' \ 


Among the men who accompanied the chiefs to Washing- 
ton and witnessed the signing of this treaty were such 
well-known westerners as A. Baronet Vasquez, Maurice 
Blondeau, Louis Tesson (nicknamed Honore), and John W. 
Johnson. Vasquez, a trader licensed by the government to 
operate among the Sacs and Foxes at this time, acted as 
interpreter during the treaty negotiations. He had served 
the United States as ensign at old Fort Madison before its 
evacuation and destruction in September, 1813. Maurice 
Blondeau, a Fox half-breed, had long maintained an estab- 
lishment of some sort within the boundaries of the new 



reservation. By this treaty the government indemnified 
him to the extent of $500 for property taken from him 
during the War of 1812. Tesson had probably spent most 
of his life npon the Spanish land grant made to his father 
in 1799. Johnson had served as agent for the sale of gov- 
ernment goods at old Fort Madison and later at Prairie du 
Chien.^ In fact all these individuals, as inhabitants or 
previous residents, were familiar with the country em- 
braced in the triangular tract which was now established 
for the half-breeds and they were intimately acquainted 
with all the Sac and Fox villagers, including those of the 
small Sac village on the reservation itself. 


The treaty ostensibly effected for the benefit of the Sac 
and Fox half-breeds was ratified by the United States 
Senate on the 18th of J anuary, 1825.^ No one has yet been 
able to ascertain the number of half-breeds for whom the 
government made such generous provision. They probably 
did not exceed fifty persons in all. If the facts were known, 
it might be asserted that the white fathers of the half- 
breeds were the ones chiefly interested and instrumental in 
persuading the government to establish the new reserva- 
tion. Indeed, at his home in St. Louis, John W. Johnson, 
the most influential of the men above mentioned, had a 
family of three daughters by an Indian mother. Other 
half-breeds no doubt dwelt in the villages of the tribesmen, 
many perhaps upon the tract itself which had been more or 
less frequented by the whites for a generation and more. 

1 For numerous references to these men the reader should consult the indexes 
to Volumes XI and XII of The Iowa Journal of History and Politics; also 
Vol. XIII, pp. 14, 17, 32. 

2 As to the authorship of this treaty and the legal diflSculties arising out of 
the Half-breed Tract, see Mr. Karl Knoepfler's unpublished monograph in the 
possession of The State Historical Society of Iowa. For the terms of the 
treaty, see Kappler's Indian A fairs, Vol. II, pp. 207, 208. 


During the French and the Spanish regimes in the Iowa 
wilderness fur traders resorted to this region, especially 
French Canadians, and they must have mingled quite freely 
with the natives, as has always been the case where two 
races come into contact. American troops and traders, 
John W. Johnson among them, took up their residence at 
Fort Madison in 1808 and remained for five years. 


Nothing definite is known of the events which took place 
in southeastern Iowa immediately after the War of 1812. 
Tradition has it that the first log cabin upon the present 
site of Keokuk was built in 1820 by Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a 
graduate of Edinburgh University. He is said to have 
married a young Sac woman who saved his life while en- 
gaged in the Indian trade, and it was while he himself was 
performing the duties of surgeon at Fort Edwards just 
across the Mississippi in Illinois that he constructed the 
cabin for the accommodation of his Indian wife and five 
children. Muir seems to have lived at the Illinois lead 
mines for some time : indeed, in 1819, he was there selling 
merchandise furnished by George Davenport of Eock 
Island. One year later, in August, 1820, the explorer, 
Schoolcraft, found him trading goods for lead on an island 
opposite the old mines of Julien Dubuque. Tradition also 
tells us that when officers and attaches of the United States 
army were ordered to break off their relations with Indian 
women, Muir resigned his post at Fort Edwards and after 
leasing his log cabin to Otis Eeynolds and John Culver 
practised medicine for several years in northern Missouri 
and later at the Galena mines. Certain it is that Muir 
traded with the Sac and Fox Indians for at least four years 
after 1820.^ 

3 A tangled mass of traditions lias been woven around the name of Muir in 
the Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. II, pp. 212, 224, Vol. X, pp. 491, 492, 


Another record of life in this region before it was set 
apart as the Half-breed Tract is that of Isaac R. Campbell. 
He visited the Iowa country along the Des Moines rapids of 
the Mississippi. Six miles above Muir's log cabin he came 
upon the post of a French trader, Lemoliese, and one mile 
farther north he found Blondeau's establishment. At the 
head of the rapids, on the site of the present town of Mont- 
rose, stood the village of Chief Cut Nose, near the remains 
of what were probably Tesson's house and apple orchard. 
During the years 1821-1825 Campbell frequently visited this 
region with ox-team and wagon, and finally settled down at 
the head of the rapids in Illinois. There his father-in-law, 
James White, kept several keel-boats for freighting cargoes 
between St. Louis and such points as the lead mines and 
Prairie du Chien. Owing to shallow, rocky rapids in the 
channel steamboat transportation on the Upper Mississippi 
was a difficult problem and cargoes generally had to be un- 
loaded and hauled around the rapids by land, especially 
upon the Iowa shore.^ 

**Puck-e-she-tuk'', *^The Point'', or ^^Foot of the Rap- 
ids'', as it was then variously called, during the decade 

and Vol. XIII, p. 287; Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. XVI, p. 100; Annals of 
Iowa, Vol. V, p. 889; and The History of Lee County, Iowa (1879), pp. 167, 
889. According to the Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. X, p. 364, Muir 
was born in the District of Columbia, and was dropped from the army in July, 
1819. See also The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 
532, 534, 536, Vol. XIII, p. 32. 

4 The History of Lee County, Iowa (1879), p. 333; Annals of Iowa, Vol. V, 
pp. 883-888. It is stated on doubtful authority that the ''Zebulon M. Pike" 
ascended the lower or Des Moines Rapids of the Mississippi in 1817. — Annals 
of Iowa, Vol. V, p. 887. Regular steamboat traffic on the Upper Mississippi 
seems to have begun early in the spring of 1822. The year previous many 
whites had commenced lead-mining operations upon the Galena River, and in 
the immense trade which then opened between the mines and St. Louis there 
were employed a large number of keel-boats and six steamboats. The first 
steamboat to go as far north as Fort Snelling was the ''Virginia" in 1823. 
See Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1911, p. 107; 
The Iowa Journal op History and Politics, Vol. XII, p. 539, and Vol. XIII, 
p. 35. 



after Muir is said to have built the first cabin, became the 
home of many white men. If Eeynolds and Culver lived 
upon the spot after 1820 as stated above, there is no record 
of what they did. Moses Stillwell with his wife, four chil- 
dren, and a brother-in-law named Vanorsdoll came early in 
1828 as their agents and representatives. They cut wood 
and sold it to passing steamboats and carried on trade with 
the Indians. Then, sometime before 1830 the American 
Fur Company set up a row of hewed log houses for the 
Indian trade. As manager, Eussell Farnham was assisted 
by three clerks, two interpreters, and four men, among 
them John Connolly and J ohn Forsyth, who served as itin- 
erant pedlers and collectors of furs. These men, it is said, 
all had Indian wives and gained much popularity as drum- 
mers in the various Indian villages. Several men with 
French names were also connected with the American Fur 
Company's operations at this place.^ 


TEACT IN 1829 

In the year 1829 President Andrew Jackson commis- 
sioned General M'Niel, Pierre Menard, and Caleb Atwater 
to treat with the Indians for the transfer of their mineral 
lands in Illinois and Wisconsin. As an incident of his 
steamboat journey from Circle ville, Ohio, to Prairie du 
Chien and thence to Washington, D. C, Atwater has left an 
account of his experiences upon the Half-breed Tract. On 
the morning of July 4th, 1829, amid the booming of cannon, 
men and women bound for Galena or Prairie du Chien dis- 
embarked at ^^Keeokuk",^ capital of the Half-breed Tract, a 

5 Annals of Iowa, Vol. V, p. 890; and The History of Lee County, Iowa 
(1879), pp. 167, 333, 334, 335. These two sources differ as to important de- 
tails. Such reminiscences, however, are the only materials on the early history 
of southeastern Iowa which the writer has been able to discover. 

6 Isaac E. Campbell is authority for the statement that the name Keokuk 
was given to the place at the suggestion of a few steamboat men in 1835. 


village containing about twenty Indian families, an Amer- 
ican Fur Company store, and a tavern. The half-breed 
reservation of timber and prairie land was then declared to 
be owned in common by about forty-two persons, only a few 
of whom had actually made clearings or settlements. On 
the opposite shore three miles below could be seen the white- 
painted buildings of Fort Edwards upon a high bluff, and 
from there northward the Illinois shore for many miles 
above the rapids was dotted with log houses and farms at 
half-mile intervals. 

After arranging for the conveyance of the government's 
goods over the rapids Atwater made his way on foot for a 
distance of twelve miles north of **Keeokuk*\ He saw the 
commission's provisions upon the beach exposed to the hot 
sun. He called upon Maurice Blondeau then ill and *4ying 
under a shade, out of doors ' \ His Indian family were said 
to be owners to a considerable extent of this fine tract of 
land'', the daughters being **well educated, well read, and 
accomplished young ladies." Atwater further declared 
Blondeau 's farm ' ' a fine fertile one, and his dwelling house 
is on the bank of the river, within a few rods of the water's 
edge. His corn is on the side hill, covered a great space, 
and looked finely. Here I ate as good a dinner as any one 
ever did, of venison just killed, and of fish just caught as I 
arrived here." 

Highly gratified with such a hearty reception Atwater 
pursued his twelve-mile walk to an island at the head of the 
rapids. On the site of Montrose, he and John W. Johnson 
visited the Sac village of forty or fifty persons and secured 
the chief's promise of aid in the coming treaty negotiations. 
After seven days ' work in getting the cargo over the rapids 
all passengers boarded the ^^Eed Eover" and steamed 

Isaac Galland declares that George Davenport proposed the name at a meeting 
which was held upon the steamboat to prepare for the Fourth of July celebra- 
tion in 1829. 



northward. Atwater's picture of the Iowa wilderness 
farther on is one of the few descriptions of the country be- 
fore its occupation by the pioneers within the next five 


Isaac Galland and his wife took up their abode in the 
Half-breed Tract and founded Nashville (now known as 
Galland), convinced that this spot was destined to become a 
great commercial center. Here in 1830, it is said, was born 
to them a daughter, the first white child of the Iowa country. 
In the same year Isaac Campbell brought his family from 
Illinois to help swell the population of Nashville, persuaded 
by the promoter of its future growth and prosperity.^ 
There must have been other accessions to the squatter 

7 Atwater's ternaries Made on a Tour to Prairie du Chien, pp. 57-61, 63, 64, 
73, contains tlie material on which this account is based. Maurice Blondeau 
died in the month of August, 1829, probably of the illness which Atwater noted 
in July. His farm fell to a brother-in-law named Andrew St. Amont, who had 
been a licensed trader among the Sacs and Foxes in the years 1824 and 1825. — 
The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 539, 545; Annals 
of Iowa, Vol. VII, p. 266. 

Describing the Iowa country Atwater wrote: 

''About thirty five miles below Eock island, the beautiful country on the 
west side of the river opened to view, and from the first moment we saw it, all 
eyes were turned towards it. At every turn of the river, as we moved along, 
new bursts of wonder and admiration were poured out by all the passengers. 
The ladies were enraptured at the numerous and beautiful situations for 
dwelling houses, where they wished one day to live, in rural bliss. . . . 
Nature had done all — man nothing — and not a human being was seen upon 
either shore, nor a human habitation. That such a beautiful country, was 
intended by its Author to be forever in the possession and occupancy of ser- 
pents, wild fowls, wild beasts and savages, who derive little benefit from it, no 
reasonable man, can for one moment believe who sees it. . . . Princes 
might dwell here .... fronting the Mississippi and along it, and possess 
handsomer seats than any of them can boast of in the old world. We could 
hardly persuade ourselves, many times, when we first saw any one of these 
beautiful spots, that all the art that man possessed, and wealth could employ, 
had not been used to fit the place, for some gentleman's country seat; and 
every moment, as we passed along one expected to see some princely mansion, 
erected on the rising ground.'' 

8 Annals of Iowa, Vol. V, pp. 887, 888. 


population of the new village, for the number of children 
soon warranted the organization of a school under Berry- 
man Jennings, who is now generally recognized as the first 
school teacher in the Iowa country.^ All these settlers 
were, of course, trespassers upon lands which the govern- 
ment had set aside for the use of the half-breed Sacs and 

In the years 1829 and 1830 the Sac and Fox Indians 
petitioned the President to order a survey and division of 
the reservation for the half-breeds living at the time of the 
treaty of 1824. They also asked their Father*' to remove 
all whites who had settled on these lands except a father, 
a husband, or wife of any of the half-breeds ' ' or any agent 
or trader licensed by the President, and they expressed a 
wish to see the sale of all spirituous liquors forbidden on 
the tract.^^ 


Dr. Muir, having returned to Keokuk with his family in 
the autumn of 1830, was joined in the following year by 
Isaac Campbell. As partners these men were no mean con- 
tenders with the American Fur Company for the Indian 
trade of the region.^^ A very interesting glimpse of fron- 
tier community life came from the pen of a foreign-born 
Frenchman, Charles Larpenteur. He had just come to the 
West from Baltimore in company with John W. Johnson, 
who was then conducting a party of slaves to Missouri. On 
his way to Prairie du Chien by the steamboat **Red Eover" 
in 1831 he formed the acquaintance of Maurice Blondeau, 
who took such a great fancy to him that nothing would do 
but he must go along to Blondeau 's farm, seven miles north 

9 Iowa Normal Monthly, Vol. XII, pp. 268-271. 

10 See Knoepfler 's manuscript on the Half-breed Tract ; Annals of Iowa 
(Third Series), Vol. X, pp. 454, 455. 

11 Annals of Iowa, Vol. V, pp. 888, 889, 893. 



of Keokuk. To quote Ms own words about a sojourn tliere 
of two months 

I consented, got a horse calop, and we started. The improvements 
consisted of a comfortable log cabin, and Blondo was indeed well 
fixed for the country at the time. After some little time he took me 
into the village and introduced me to several of the leading men, of 
whom a great many were drunk, and toward evening he. got so 
drunk himself that he frequently asked me if I did not want to 
"smell powder", but as I never felt like smelling powder as he 
proposed, I declined, not knowing why he used the expression. 
After the spree the old gentleman was very kind, took me all over 
the half breed reservation — as fine country as I ever saw — and 
finally remarked that he would give me all the land I wanted if I 
should happen to make a match with his niece, Louise Dauphin. 
That was said after I had given up the idea of going on to Prairie du 
Chien, where I was bound; but, thinking myself too young, I de- 
clined all overtures, although I confess that I came very near ac- 
cepting the offer, for Louise was one of the handsomest girls I ever 
saw — it cost me many long sighs to leave her, and more afterward. 

Early in the year 1832 Muir^^ died of the cholera and 
about the same time the American Fur Company left the 
field for better hunting-grounds, so that Isaac Campbell be- 
came ^Hhe successor, owner and occupant of their build- 
ings, .... supplying Indians, Half Breeds and 
whites with all the necessaries of life", besides furnishing 
entertainment for travelers and towing goods around the 
rapids for steamboats. During the summer of 1832 about 
twelve families were domiciled at Keokuk, Campbell and 
some thirty-four employees comprising most of the male 
population. Village life on the Half-breed Tract was noth- 
ing if not sociable : card-playing, dances, horse-racing, and 

12 Coues 's Forty Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri, pp. 4-6. Lar- 
penteur writes that the two stores at Keokuk then belonged to Stillwell and 

13 A writer in the Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. II, p. 224, said of 
him: ''Like most persons connected with the army he was too fond of liquor, 
otherwise he might have risen to distinction and usefulness." 


boxing matches afforded the mixed population their chief 
amusements. In the absence of criminal jurisprudence and 
punishments to fit the crime the worst penalty imposed for 
wrong-doing is said to have been temporarily depriving a 
person of his right to drink liquor.^ ^ 


The state legislators of Missouri, voicing the sentiments 
of their constituents, adopted a memorial to Congress de- 
claring that the Half-breed Tract had ceased to be Indian 
land, was then held by the United States for the use of 
individuals only, ^^some of whom have been reared among 
us, and are as civilized and as well instructed as any of our 
citizens and that therefore it should be annexed to the 
State of Missouri. Though Congress paid no attention to 
their request it is interesting to note that the memorialists 
insisted that the Tract was a wedge in a corner of their 
State, disfiguring the form, and destroying the compact- 
ness of our territory^', adding in conclusion: 

It borders upon the Mississippi for the greater part, perhaps the 
whole extent of the lower rapids of that river, and thus embraces a 
spot, which, in future times, will be of immense importance to the 
commerce and intercourse of the whole western valley. Your me- 
morialists anticipate the day when the obstructions to navigation 
will be overcome by a canal around those rapids; when the inex- 
haustible power of that mighty stream [will be applied] to almost 
every variety of manufacturing machinery, and when a commercial 
city, will spring up in that wilderness, to serve as the great entrepot 
of the Upper and Lower Mississippi. 

Annals of Iowa, Vol. V, pp. 890, 891; The History of Lee County, Iowa 
(1879), p. 335. 

15 Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 21st Congress, No. 71, p. 4. These words 
of the legislators of Missouri are prophetic of what has actually come to pass: 
the United States government in 1868 constructed a ship canal, free to all 
boats, around the rapids. Within recent years the Keokuk and Hamilton Power 
Company has dispensed with the necessity of a canal by constructing just 
opposite the city of Keokuk one of the largest river dams in the world. 





In the month of October, 1831, John W. Johnson, whose 
daughters were among the tenants-in-common of the Half- 
breed Tract, advised Lewis Cass, Secretary of War, that 
although Congress had appropriated $2,000 for a survey 
and division of the Tract, nothing had as yet been done. 
The claimants desired that the northern boundary be fixed 
and also asked that a town site be laid off where squatters 
were then in possession (Keokuk). Johnson suggested that 
each of the claimants, after being ascertained by three dis- 
interested men, should receive his share of the land and 
town lots valued according to quality, quantity, and situa- 
tion, each claimant to obtain an absolute title in the course 
of time. Furthermore, Johnson urged the propriety of 
having a school for about one hundred Indian and half- 
breed children.^^ 

John Connolly also wrote a letter similar to Johnson's, 
begging leave to obtrude his opinions on behalf of the sixty 
or more persons on the roll of claims. Many of the latter, 
he alleged, were afraid to make improvements upon or cul- 
tivate the tract until a survey and division were made. Of 
the need of a town in this region he declared : 

There is, at this point, Keokuck, the most eligible site for a town 
that the Mississippi affords north of St. Louis. In consequence of 
the uncertainty of the right of location among the claimants, where 
there ought to be a flourishing town, there is none ; and the farmers 
and merchants north on Fever river and Illinois, in general, suffer 
by having their merchandise exposed on the shores for weeks, in 
times of low water. Many of the half-breeds, Sacs and Foxes, are 
of mature age, and some of good education ; some have parents and 
guardians, and there are others have neither. . . . There can 
be no doubt but the survey and division of these lands would be a 
very popular measure in the adjacent States and Territories, as 

16 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 635, 636. 


there are many men of capital and high standing who feel anxious 
to settle themselves on these rapids.^"^ 

Thomas Forsyth, who liad just been removed from Ms 
post as Sac and Fox Indian agent at Eock Island, also 
wrote of discontent and dissatisfaction with the govern- 
ment's policy. He urged *Hhe employment of a Catholic 
priest, to teach a school and instruct the half-breeds in 
religion ; this would be pleasing to the Indians, and might, 
at no great distance of time, entice some of the Indians to 
embrace a civilized life. ' ' His reason for making this rec- 
ommendation was that nine-tenths of the fathers of the 
half-breeds were French Catholics.^^ 


In January, 1832, William Clark appointed Jenifer T. 
Sprigg to survey the tract at $5 per day and authorized him 
to buy horses, tent, camp equipage, and other necessaries, 
and employ chain-carriers, axe-men, and a flag-man. All 
the usual directions for doing the work were given.^^ 
Shortly afterward Clark received orders from Washington 
that a town plot should be laid ofP at the junction of the Des 
Moines and the Mississippi rivers, that the survey be 
pushed on, and that all half-breeds present their claims as 
rapidly as possible.^^ 

Sprigg, with all the necessary provisions and three em- 
ployees, shipped from St. Louis and arrived at Keokuk 
about the middle of March, 1832, while two other employees 
made the journey by horse and wagon. The surveyor set to 
work with the aid of two chain-carriers, an axe-man, and a 

17 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, p. 639. 

18 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, pp. 21, 22. For 
answers to Johnson's and Forsyth's letters, see Vol. VIII, No. 512, p. 764. 

i» Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, pp. 242-248. 
20 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, p. 760, and Vol. 
IX, pp. 219, 220. 



flag-man; while a hunter and camp-keeper prepared their 
meals. They projected the northern boundary of Missouri 
eastward, meandered streams in the Tract, and established 
section and township lines. Sprigg's men quit work when 
news of the Indian rising under Black Hawk was noised 
about, and they were discharged on June the 15th. Not 
until the following October did Sprigg resume operations 
and even then his men frequently deserted. 

The town site of Keokuk, one mile square, was laid out at 
the foot of the rapids, and a similar area was surveyed at 
Montrose on the old Spanish land grant of Tesson.^^ Both 
of these sites were extremely advantageous and valuable 
because steamboats on voyages up and down the river had 
to unload their cargoes here in order to be lightered over 
the rapids. By the 12th of March, 1833, the Half-breed 
Tract had been surveyed, and plats and field-notes were 
forwarded to Washington, D. C. But as late as the follow- 
ing September no division of the reservation had been ef- 
fected : John W. Johnson declared he could not account for 
this remarkable'' tardiness, and once more urged that 
each half-breed claimant be given title in fee simple to his 
share of the Tract which then amounted to about 120,000 


The later history of these lands, especially the story of 
the years of confusion and litigation over land titles, has 
already been fully told by another writer. The fact of 
special importance to be noted here is that, whereas tres- 
passers upon government lands to the north were religious- 

21 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 557, 558. For a 
deposition relative to land titles growing out of this grant to Tesson, see below, 
pp. 238-249. 

■22 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, p. 669. See also 
Knoepfler's unpublished monograph. 


ly excluded and driven out by United States troops before 
the 1st of June, 1833, squatters upon the Half-breed Tract 
were never once molested, though half-breed claimants had 
frequently raised objections to their presence. So large 
were the accessions to the population of the Iowa country 
along the Mississippi after June the 1st, 1833, that United 
States army men at Fort Crawford and Fort Armstrong 
admitted the hopelessness of the task of preventing these 
unlawful inti;usions upon the public domain. And so, al- 
though the occupation by the whites of southeastern Iowa 
began and continued in illegality, it nevertheless proved to 
be the first permanent settlement in the whole Iowa 

Jacob Van dee Zee 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 

23 Persons who squatted upon the tract just south of the site of old Fort 
Madison in 1832 are said to have been driven away by troops from Fort Arm- 
strong. — The History of Lee County, Iowa (1879), p. 170; Annals of Iowa, 
Vol. V, p. 892. 


The death of J acob Rich, which occurred at his home in 
Dubuque on September 11, 1913, closed the career of a man 
who during the period of his active life, from about 1860 to 
1900, had borne a very influential part in the political af- 
fairs of the State of Iowa. He was of the type of men, 
however, whose services are likely to be overlooked or 
undervalued by historians of a later date who are person- 
ally unfamiliar with the life of the times. He was never 
conspicuous in the public eye as a candidate for office, he 
was not a platform speaker, and he had no taste for pub- 
licity. The only office he ever held, or sought, to which he 
was not appointed was that of Chief Clerk of the Iowa 
House of Representatives, to which position he was elected 
by a unanimous vote in 1864, when he was thirty-two years 
old. It was characteristic of him that what he wanted to 
have done was usually brought about by common consent. 
Such men do not occupy as much space in written history 
as others who talk more and are more combative but less 
persuasive. His place was at the council table, and no man 
of his time was more sagacious or influential there. 

Jacob Rich was born of English parents in New York 
City on December 18, 1832, but from boyhood to manhood 
his home was in Philadelphia and he received his education 
there. His first choice of a profession was that of a 
physician, but after one year in a medical school the state 
of his health, always delicate, compelled him to alter his 
plans. He had intelligence of a high order, literary taste, 
and an aptitude for public affairs, all of which were quali- 
fications for journalism and inclined him to that occupation. 

VOL. xni — 11 165 


He came west in 1856, and stopped first at Dubuque. The 
interior of Iowa was a very new country at that time. The 
population of the State was about 500,000, but most of it 
was in a fringe along the eastern border. The construction 
of the trunk lines of east and west railway was just begin- 
ning. The Illinois Central railway reached the east bank 
of the Mississippi Eiver opposite Dubuque in 1855. On 
May 15, 1856, President Franklin Pierce approved a grant 
of public lands, voted by Congress, to aid the construction 
of four lines of railroad across the State of Iowa, to wit : 
from Burlington, from Davenport, from Lyons, and from 
Dubuque; and during that same year the Dubuque and 
Pacific Eailroad Company broke ground. 

In December, 1856, Mr. Eich formed a partnership with a 
Mr. Jordan and they established the Quasqueton Guardian 
at Quasqueton in Buchanan County. The first settlement 
in the county was here on the banks of the Wapsipinicon, 
gathered, as many settlements were in those days, about a 
water-power grist milL The valley of the ^^Wapsie'* was a 
beautiful country. When Mr. Eich went there the popula- 
tion of the county was about five thousand. Independence 
was a rival town and the county seat, and when it was 
settled that the railroad from Dubuque would pass through 
Independence instead of Quasqueton, the Guardian plant 
was removed to the former place and the paper became the 
Buchanan County Guardian. 

Mr. Eich was appointed postmaster of Independence by 
Abraham Lincoln, and he speedily became one of the lead- 
ing citizens of this young community. His contemporaries 
of those early years say that he was very popular, for, with 
all of his energy and decisiveness, he was always kindly, 
considerate and tolerant, above all pettiness, and his per- 
sonal character commanded respect. He was slight and 
delicate in physique, fairhaired and even in mature life 


almost boyish in appearance. As yet unmarried, and with 
keen intellectual interests, life in a small and remote town 
in those stirring times mnst have seemed rather dull for 
him. His partner, Mr. Jordan, enlisted in the army and 
died in the service. The winter of 1864-65 Mr. Rich spent 
in Des Moines as Clerk of the House and then, having sold 
the Independence newspaper, he went to Washington in 
1865 as clerk of the Naval Committee of the Senate, of 
which Senator J ames W. Grimes was chairman. He was an 
active factor in State affairs at this time and a very strong 
supporter of the Grimes-Kirkwood- Allison wing of the Re- 
publican party against the Harlan wing. 

Mr. Rich remained in Washington until 1869, through a 
period of intense political interest and excitement. The 
leading political and military figures of the war time were 
still there : it was the period of reconstruction in the South- 
ern States, and the policies of the President, Andrew John- 
son, were so unpopular that an open rupture with his party 
resulted. Mr. Rich was very close to the storm center, for 
in the impeachment trial the President escaped conviction 
by only one vote, with Senator Grimes voting in the nega- 
tive. There never was a better illustration of the untrust- 
worthiness of popular opinion when inflamed than is af- 
forded by the Johnson case. Everybody is agreed now that 
the conviction of Johnson would have been a mistake ; that 
it would have been just what Senator Grimes said of it, an 
act of revolution worthy only of some of the Latin republics 
to the south of us. But if Senator Grimes had committed 
an act of undisputed treason to his country the outcry 
against him in Iowa hardly could have been greater. Mr. 
Rich was a warm champion of Senator Grimes in his course 
and always maintained that the Senator was treated in a 
manner unworthy of the State. 

In the summer of 1869 Mr. Rich started on a long cruise 


with Ms friend, Captain John Grimes Walker (in later 
years, Admiral Walker, chairman of the Isthmian Canal 
Commission), in the old wooden man-of-war Sabine'', 
with a crew of Annapolis midshipmen. The ship was navi- 
gated by sails only, and the cruise was made for the purpose 
of teaching navigation to the midshipmen. They touched at 
the principal ports of Europe, and from there went to South 
America, returning home in the summer of 1870. 

Shortly after his return he bought a one-half interest in 
the Dubuque Daily Times, and entered upon the most im- 
portant work of his life. The fast mails were not then de- 
livering Chicago papers over eastern Iowa before breakfast, 
and the Times had an important circulation throughout the 
northeastern part of the State — not large, perhaps, as 
newspaper circulations go nowadays, for the era of cheap 
papers had not come, but an influential circulation. It 
reached the leading men of each community. Mr. Rich was 
a gifted editorial writer, and in those days editorial- writing 
was taken seriously by both editors and readers. In some 
respects the daily newspaper may be performing its func- 
tions more usefully now than it was then, but the editorial 
page has certainly diminished in importance. Under Jacob 
Eich the editorial page was the most readable part of the 
paper. He had a well-informed, well-ordered, penetrating 
mind, and the faculty of clear and concise statement. 
There was much of controversy in the papers of that day, 
and Mr. Rich with his direct and incisive style, was partic- 
ularly effective in discussions of that kind. He was averse 
to personalities, but appeared to advantage when pitted 
against an antagonist, for few men equaled him in cogent 

He now came quickly into a position of great influence in 
the Republican party of the State. William B. Allison, who 
had been six years in the lower house of Congress and at- 


tained high rank there, voluntarily retired from that body 
March 4, 1869, to seek a seat in the Senate. His first contest 
was with Judge George G. Wright for the Grimes seat in 
1870. He failed then but the Allison organization held to- 
gether and gained a sufficient number of accessions to make 
it successful over James Harlan in the legislative session of 
1872. Mr. Eich's genius as a political manager was re- 
vealed in these contests. He was placed at the head of the 
Allison organization, and to his methodical, painstaking 
labors, his tact, his judgment of men, and his personal in- 
fluence, the victory over the Harlan forces in one of the 
hardest fought political contests in Iowa history was in 
great degree due. From that time on Mr. Eich was gen- 
erally associated in the public mind with Senator Allison, 
as his confidential adviser and friend, as indeed he was. 
The friendship between these two men, however, had a 
broader and more certain basis than any political obligation 
or alliance. They were intimately and deeply attached to 
each other by feelings of mutual respect and regard as well 
as by common political views. 

Mr. Eich was also an earnest and indefatigable champion 
of Senator Allison for the presidency of the United States. 
In 1888, when the latter 's name was presented to the Ee- 
publican National Convention at Chicago, Mr. Eich was a 
member of the inner circle which directed the movement. 
How near it came to success was never known by the public 
until the late George Frisbie Hoar of Massachusetts told 
the story in his autobiography. It is sufficient here to say 
that the opposition of one man, Chauncey M. Depew, di- 
verted the choice of a final conference from William B. 
Allison to Benjamin Harrison. In 1896 Mr. Eich again did 
effective work in forming an organization to promote the 
nomination of Senator Allison for the presidency, but po- 
litical conditions were so favorable to the nomination of 


William McKinley that tlie choice of the latter was prac- 
tically certain before the convention met. 

As has already been indicated, Mr. Rich was never a man 
of robust health, and the strain of continuous work upon a 
morning newspaper was too much for him. In 1875 he sold 
his interest in the Times, and did not thereafter engage in 
any private business requiring close application. He was 
appointed pension agent at Dubuque and after the con- 
solidation of several pension agencies in one office at Des 
Moines, removed to that city and remained in charge until 
after the inauguration of a Democratic President in 1885. 

He was one of the organizers of the Iowa Trust and Sav- 
ings Bank at Dubuque in 1884, and served upon its board 
of directors up to the last year of his life, when on account 
of failing health he asked to be relieved. He was connected 
with other important Dubuque business corporations, and 
his advice was as much sought and valued in business as in 
political affairs. 

He was a man of exceptionally clear and practical mind, 
instinctively fair, candid, and free from prejudice. This 
was the secret of his powers of persuasion and of his in- 
fluence over men. The position in which he excelled and in 
which he probably rendered the greatest party service was 
that of peacemaker, and his qualifications for this work 
lay in his ability to see all sides of a question and find a 
common ground upon which the disputants could come to- 
gether. In this respect he was much like the statesman 
whom he admired so much — Senator Allison. His cool 
head, quick judgment, natural diplomacy, and power of 
convincing statement, were great factors in his influence, 
but his honesty, truthfulness, and sterling character gave a 
weight to his arguments that counted more than all else. 

The presidential campaign of 1872 looked rather unprom- 
ising for the Eepublicans at first, owing to the bolt of an 


important body of the party in what they called the ''Lib- 
eral Eepublican'' movement. In many respects the move- 
ment was quite similar to that of the so-called ''Progressive 
Eepublicans^' in 1912. It was an upheaval of discontent 
and rebellion in the party, prompted by various reasons, 
not all consistent with each other, and participated in by 
various more or less incongruous elements. Ex-Senator 
Grimes, who had resigned on account of a stroke of paraly- 
sis, and died in February, 1872, had no personal connection 
with the movement, but in a letter to Mr. Eich, which has 
become historic, he expressed some of the feeling and 
touched upon some of the controversies which were making 
trouble within the party. The letter appears in Dr. Salter's 
life of James Wilson Grimes under the date of January 9, 
1870, but from the references to the purchase of the Times 
and to the Franco-German War it is certain that the date 
was later, probably January 9, 1871. 

The letter as given by Dr. Salter reads as follows : 

It is a happy circumstance that you renew your professional 
calling so full of hope and faith. As you know, I do not share either 
your hope or faith. I do not pretend that the Democratic party is 
pure. "Where it has unlimited sway, as in New York, it is unques- 
tionably corrupt ; but not a whit more corrupt than the Republican 
party in Philadelphia and Washington. It is the possession of un- 
controlled power that makes every party corrupt, and almost every 
man. I notice that in your paper you cite, as evidences of corrup- 
tion in New York City, that some men received pay as officeholders 
who never rendered any duty. Why, I know a dozen men who re- 
ceive pay as clerks in the departments, who never entered them but 
on the last day of each month to receive their pay. No, no ; power 
makes all parties corrupt, and there is nothing more essential than 
a change ; especially is a change for the good of the country needed 
now. . . . 

Was there ever such an outrage as the attempt to foist upon the 
country, in the interests of the corruptionists, the annexation of 
San Domingo? This purchase was on the carpet when I was in 


New York last month two years ago, and I was advised with about 
it. A friend asked my advice as to investing money in the public 
debt, in buying up Baez, etc. ; and I dissuaded him from it. I could 
not imagine that there was a man in America who had the slightest 
quantum of brains, or an aspiration toward statesmanship, who 
would ever think of the annexation of San Domingo. 

The Iowa members-elect are not thinking men enough to study 
and comprehend the whole subject of revenue reform. They will 
say that we want one hundred and sixty-one millions, and must not 
take off anything ; when, if they would take off one-half, they would 
probably get twice one hundred and sixty-one millions. I am a 
revenue reformer, and I am for raising all revenues from imports. 
I therefore insist upon the highest rate that an article can stand, so 
as not to prevent its introduction. They say it protects people at 
home by preventing importations from abroad. It is enough to 
make the de'il laugh with glee, to see the farmers of Iowa voting to 
support a high tariff, which doubles the cost of railroad-iron, spikes, 
chairs, locomotives, tenders, cars, etc., the effect of which is to 
double the cost of transportation of all that they produce, and all 
that they consume, and then hear them growl about the high rates 
of passage and freight; not for a moment reflecting that they by 
their votes impose these high rates of freight on themselves. 

The country needs a terrible shaking up and shaking down, finan- 
cially, politically and morally. The war and the easy way of mak- 
ing money have demoralized everybody in America, and we need a 
discipline as much as the French did at the beginning of their war, 
and we shall get it sooner or later. 

The shake-up" in politics came in 1872 and the shake- 
down" financially in the panic of 1873. The spirit of the 
letter may be due in part to the harsh criticism to which 
Senator Grimes had been subjected by the leaders of the 

The negotiations for the annexation of San Domingo 
were conducted by President Grant, and an exceedingly 
bitter controversy developed over the proposition. At this 
day it would seem to have been at least a defensible policy 
to have gathered all of the islands to the southeast of us 
under the American flag as opportunity offered. While 


dissatisfaction with the high tariff policy of the Republican 
party undoubtedly contributed to the general discontent 
which brought on the Liberal Eepublican bolt, the nominee 
of the convention, Horace Greeley, was the champion par- 
excellence of protection. 

Mr. Rich was himself a firm believer in the policy of 
protection. He managed the campaign of 1872 with entire 
success, and was recalled to the chairmanship of the Re- 
publican State Committee in 1878, when hard times made 
the Greenback movement formidable. He managed those 
campaigns with an expenditure of money that would seem 
ridiculously small in these days. 

Mr. Rich was a conservative in his general attitude to- 
ward the emotional and spasmodic movements for the re- 
organization of society that are constantly forming and 
spending themselves, but his natural outlook was far from 
that of the habitual tory or reactionary. He was receptive 
to new ideas, an evolutionist from every standpoint, a be- 
liever in the constant and inevitable progress of society. 
He was in cordial sympathy with every effort to improve 
the condition of the people by educational means, to pro- 
vide good government, and to protect the rights of the 
humblest citizen. One of his most vigorous local contro- 
versies in the later years of his life was prompted solely by 
the public interest, in opposing what he considered an un- 
duly long franchise to the Dubuque street railway company, 
with the result that the term was cut down from seventy- 
five to thirty-three years. He also succeeded in adding to 
the ordinance a provision for lower fares for the benefit of 
workingmen during certain hours of the morning and 

The last important work to which his energies were di- 
rected was that of providing the city of Dubuque with a free 
public library. He was elected president of the board of 


trustees upon its organization and was the leading spirit in 
the work, establishing the organization on a sound basis, 
including the securing of the gifts and endowments which 
caused it to be named the Carnegie- Stout Library. He 
served as president of the board of trustees to the time of 
his death. 

Mr. Eich was married in 1877 to Miss Annie Smith, of 
Chicago, a union that proved most fortunate and congenial. 
Although not blessed with children the couple were in a rare 
degree suited to and happy in each other, and their home 
was a very attractive place to all who knew them. 

During the last ten years of his life Mr. Eich was a con- 
stant sufferer, and for most of the time without hope of 
relief, but he bore his pains and enforced retirement with 
the most patient fortitude and philosophy, maintaining a 
genuine interest in public affairs, as well as in the wide 
circle of his personal acquaintances to the last. He was a 
sincere and devoted friend, a loyal and earnest partisan, 
and a patriotic, clear-minded citizen of his city. State, and 

Geoege E. Eobeets 

New York City 



History at first hand, if the narrator has intelligence and 
an active conscience, has a charm of realism which it is 
very difficult for the detached historian to impart to his 
writings. Thus the section of the autobiography of John A. 
Nash which is printed below presents a picture of life and 
conditions in Des Moines in the decade before the Civil War 
which is both graphic and truthful because the writer played 
an active part in the events which he describes, and because 
his account is simple and straightforward, with no desire to 
exaggerate or misstate the facts. 

The entire autobiography occupies about two hundred 
sheets of foolscap paper in typewritten form. It was writ- 
ten, at least the greater part of it, during the early months 
of the year 1886 and bears the date of March 30th of that 
year. The purpose of the writer is stated at the outset in a 
brief note addressed to his children: ^^You have often asked 
me to write a sketch of my life. While this might seem use- 
less, as a matter of general interest, such a sketch might 
interest you when I am gone. I will, therefore, try and run 
over some of the leading events of my life. How imperfect 
this of necessity must be, you may judge when I tell you 
that I write almost entirely from memory.'' At the close 
he further states that ^ ' should my life and health be spared 
after the completion of other writing, I may rewrite this 
very hasty and imperfect outline. ' ' 

In spite of the fact that the autobiography was written 




hastily and almost entirely from memory, however, at least 
that part which is printed below has been found to be re- 
markably free from errors of fact. In preparing the manu- 
script for publication the only changes which have been 
made are occasional corrections of misspelled words and 
sentences which were faulty in construction — errors which 
were very obviously slips made in the process of transcrip- 
tion. Annotations have been supplied, sometimes for the 
purpose of identifying names and places, and in other in- 
stances for the purpose of offering a clue to additional 
information. In cases where there are no annotations to 
the names of persons either the text itself offers sufficient 
explanation or no further data could be found. 

The attention of Dr. Benj. F. Shambaugh, Superintend- 
ent of The State Historical Society of Iowa, was called to 
this interesting manuscript by the late Col. Alonzo Aber- 
nethy; while it was from Mrs. John Mac Vicar of Des 
Moines, a daughter of Eev. Nash, that permission was re- 
ceived to examine the manuscript and publish such portions 
of it as were deemed a contribution to the literature of Iowa 


John A. Nash was born near Sherburne, New York, on 
July 11, 1815. Left an orphan at an early age, he grew to 
young manhood in the home of an aunt and uncle by the 
name of Crydenwise, who lived on a farm in Otsego County, 
New York. During the fifteen years which he spent in this 
family he became accustomed to hard toil, for it was the 
creed of his honest, hard-working, frugaP' uncle that 
^^when children had learned to read, write, and cypher, they 

1 The data for this brief sketch was taken chiefly from the autobiographical 
manuscript, more than one-half of which is devoted to the period of Mr. Nash's 
life before he came to Iowa. Biographical sketches may be found in Andrews' 
Pioneers of Folk County, Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 33-37; and Brigham's History of 
Des Moines and Polk County, Vol. I, pp. 318, 319. 


had all needful education, and then they should bend every- 
thing to making money." So, from the time he was old 
enough to do chores and run errands about the house, he 
was put to work. Later, like most farmer boys of that day, 
he labored all day in the fields by the side of his uncle and 
the hired men, in addition to helping with the work around 
the barns early in the morning and late at night. 

Though his aunt was a patient and diligent teacher, there 
was but little opportunity for a boy to gain even an elemen- 
tary education under such circumstances. Besides the Bible 
and Watts ' Psalms the library in the Crydenwise home con- 
sisted of three books: a small work on natural history, a 
book called Practice of Piety'', and ^^Hervey's Medita- 
tions ' These, with an annual almanac, a newspaper which 
was taken for a few years, and such books as could be bor- 
rowed from neighbors, constituted the slender store of 
reading material. But the boy was eager to learn and the 
two or three months of schooling during the winters only 
served to increase his desire for knowledge. 

Thus it was that at the age of twenty-one young John 
Nash decided to enter the Hamilton Literary and Theolog- 
ical Institution^ (later known as Madison University) lo- 
cated at Madison, New York, about twelve miles north of 
his birthplace. His purpose, determined after a long period 
of religious struggle, was to prepare himself for the min- 
istry — a purpose which meant the abandonment of the 
prospect that he would inherit one-half of his uncle's valu- 
able farm if he should remain with his foster parents. The 
succeeding eight years were chiefly spent in study at Madi- 
son, first in the preparatory department, then in the regular 
collegiate courses, and finally in the theological school. 
Starting with a very small amount of money these eight 
years were marked by a constant struggle to earn sufficient 

2 Now Colgate University, located at Hamilton, New York. 


funds to enable Mm to continue Ms studies. But when the 
prospect seemed the darkest some opportunity always pre- 
sented itself. Vacations were spent at any work which 
could be found; while during terms of school odd jobs 
around the college, waiting on tables, supplying the pulpit 
in outlying communities, and other work brought in addi- 
tional funds. As a result he was able to remain in school 
practically without a break during the eight years, and in 
the summer of 1844 he was graduated from the theological 

Immediately he entered upon the pastorate of the Baptist 
Church at Watertown, New York, where for several pre- 
ceding months he had been preaching. On July 9, 1846, he 
was married to Miss Christiana Jane Calhoun of Pittsford, 
New York, who even at that time was in delicate health. 
Six years of successful ministry were spent at Watertown ; 
and then, partly because he had long cherished a desire to 
secure a pastorate in the then distant West and partly be- 
cause he hoped that a change of climate would be of benefit 
to his wife, Mr. Nash resigned and applied to the American 
Baptist Home Mission Society for a post in the West. 
Thus it happened that he was assigned to the frontier town 
of Fort Des Moines. The story of his journey to Iowa and 
of his early labors at Des Moines is best told in his own 
words in the pages which follow. 

Later, when leading Baptists determined to establish a 
college at Des Moines, he threw himself vigorously into the 
enterprise and was instrumental in raising funds which 
permitted the opening of the school now known as Des 
Moines College. At intervals during the first two decades 
of the school's history he acted as its head, giving generous- 
ly both of his time and scanty supply of money in the effort 
to place the institution on a firm foundation.^ His interest 

3 In a later number of The Iowa Journal of History and Politics it is 
planned to publish another installment from the autobiography, dealing chiefly 
with the labors of Mr. Nash in behalf of Des Moines College. 


in education also resulted in his election for two terms as 
County Superintendent of Polk County; while he also 
served for a time as deputy to the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. Meantime, he had resigned his pas- 
torate of the Baptist Church in Des Moines, but throughout 
the remainder of his life he continued to take an active part 
in church affairs in and around the capital city, organizing 
churches, soliciting funds, supplying pulpits, and acting as 
a wise and sympathetic counsellor to younger ministers. 

Mr. Nash died at his home in Des Moines on February 14, 
1890, after having lived there for nearly forty years, during 
which time he witnessed its growth from a rude frontier 
village to a city of over fifty thousand inhabitants. 

Dan Elbekt Clakk 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 


Accustomed to incessant activity, my two or three months 
of vacation and promised rest [following his resignation at 
Watertown] soon became irksome and more fatiguing than 
hard work. Nor did occasional preaching on Sunday fur- 
nish the needed employment. I not only longed to be at 
work but to be at work with reference to my future field 
and plans. 

I therefore held an interview with Rev. B. M. Hill, then 
Secretary of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, 
and stated my wishes and plans. He was an absolute 
stranger to me and my work. He told me that there were 
just then no such place open as they would prefer to send 
me to; but to put in my application to the Society and if 
possible find temporary employment for the autumn and 


winter, for it was doubtful whether they would be ready for 
me before Spring. I told him I could probably find steady 
employment for the time being in the service of Rochester 

So I virtually gave up going West for the time being, 
ready to go on call. I entered upon the work of raising 
funds for Rochester University, and went into Northern 
New York. While I was away, a telegram came from the 
Home Mission Society, that I was appointed to go to Des 
Moines, Iowa, and if on reaching the state Des Moines was 
occupied, Dubuque or some other important position in the 
State would be open for me. And they urged me by letter 
to hasten my departure so as to reach my destination ere 
winter should set in. This reached me while at work in 
Oswego, N. Y. I finished up my work there, took the first 
steamer, and hastened to Pittsford. A check for $100.00, 
to defray my expenses, was forwarded. I settled with the 
Board of Trustees at Rochester University, packed my ef- 
fects and shipped them per Chicago, and on the 19th of 
Nov. 1850, we were en route for our Western home. We 
took the cars from Rochester to Buffalo, thence by steamer 
to Detroit, thence by railroad to a point on Lake Michigan 
— thence by steamer to Chicago.^ We reached Chicago on 
Friday. I called on Dr. Elisha Tucker, then pastor of the 
First Baptist Church, for advice and direction. He was 

4 A Baptist institution located at Rocliester, New York, wMcli first opened 
its doors to students in the fall of this same year (1850). 

5 The route taken by Mr. and Mrs. Nash was undoubtedly the most expe- 
ditious means of communication between New York and Chicago in 1850. 
From Detroit trains left daily on the Michigan Central Eailroad, passing 
through Ann Arbor, Jackson, Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, and Niles, and reach- 
ing Lake Michigan at the town of New Bulfalo, which was then the terminus 
of the road. From this point passengers were conveyed sixty-five miles by 
steamboat to Chicago. The fare from Buffalo to Chicago, if paid through, was 
$6.50, and the time required to make the journey was about forty-five hours. — 
See Appleton's Southern and Western Travellers' Guide (1850), p. 91, also 
map facing p. 9. 


acquainted with the West, and knew what Western winds 
on December prairies mean. He said to me: Brother 
Nash, I should be glad to have you stay and spend the Sab- 
bath with me. But I advise you by all means to hasten, and 
if possible get to your journey's end ere the autumn storms 
strike you. ' ' It was then Indian Summer. And I had never 
seen anything more delightful and fascinating. I hastened 
to make arrangements for the storage of my goods when 
they should arrive. There was one railroad running West 
at the time that extended forty-one miles from Chicago, 
and at the terminus good stages would take us through 
Dixon to Eock Island.^ I purchased our tickets, and at four 
P. M. of the same day we were on our way across the open 
prairie. What a new scene to us both! We glided along 
broad prairies, stretching as far as the eye could see, with 
scarcely a tree or bush, one wide scene of grass. I had 
heard of the prairie hens. With what interest I watched 
the motions of the first one startled by the passing train. 

It was about eight or nine o 'clock when the stage started 
from the terminus of the railroad. And we went on until 
about midnight. Having travelled some sixteen miles by 
stage, we reached a little town, I think called Little Rock,"^ 
but in true Western style they took us thro the town to a 
log cabin, where the stage horses were kept, and there left 
us to stay until Monday morning's stage should arrive. 
There were only stages passing once in two days, and she 
felt too much fatigued to go on that night. And yet had we 
known it, it would have been far better to have incurred the 
fatigue and reached Eock Island in advance of the autumn 

6 This was undoubtedly the Chicago and Galena Eailroad, which was then 
being built, and which in 1850 was in operation at least as far west as Elgin. — 
See Appletons' Southern and Western Travellers' Guide (1850), map facing 
p. 9. 

7 This is apparently an error. On a map of Illinois, made in 1850, there is a 
town called Little Eock, but it is between Dixon and Eock Island. 

VOL. xin — 12 


storm. We were shown to our room, in wMcli were two 
beds, the one already full, the other for us. Here we had 
our first introduction to Western life. Two young women 
occupied the other bed. They arose long before we did. 
They were in no haste to doff their night attire. They were 
before the mirror combing their hair, and marching about 
the room, etc. My wife wondered if that was a fair speci- 
men of womanly modesty in the West. 

We were as kindly cared for as the skill of our host could 
call up. He, learning that we would like to eat some prairie 
chickens, soon brought in a couple, which were' cooked and 
on which we feasted with greedy relish. 

As we were to remain over Sunday, I thought I would 
ascertain if there was any arrangement for meeting in the 
town. I learned that there was none. 

I inquired if there were any Baptists, and learned that on 
the other side of town there was a family, husband and 
wife, who were Baptists. I called on them and suggested a 
meeting. He replied that he thought it hardly worth while 
to attempt a meeting, thought it would be difficult to get out 
a congregation. I told him if he would give notice to his 
neighbors on the side opposite, I would give notice to the 
families in town, and on the way from town to our stopping 
place. To this he assented. So I started back and gave 
notice that there would be good gospel preached at the 
school-house at ten-thirty A. M., Sunday. Much to the 
astonishment of my Baptist friends, the house was filled by 
an attentive audience, and so it was decided to hold a second 
service, which was also well attended. Our Baptist friends 
took us to their home and entertained us with great warmth 
of hospitality. 

That night a heavy rain storm burst upon us. And it did 
rain with an unction. My wife retired and was asleep. I 
was still sitting up and was disturbed beyond measure. 


The stage was due about two o'clock in the morning. For 
my wife to get up at that time of night, and start in the rain 
without breakfast seemed awful. In my distress I fell on 
my face on the floor and agonized in prayer. I prayed that 
the stage might be held back until daylight. And then I 
went to bed and sleep. We awoke in the morning, had an 
early breakfast, when the stage came along and called for 
us. When I inquired of the driver the cause of his delay in 
coming, he replied that the stage was upset in the darkness 
and broke the leg of one of the passengers. Alas, thought I, 
it is awful and perhaps selfish business to pray, where the 
answer may involve as great or greater inconvenience and 
suffering in others than those from which we seek to escape ! 
We travelled all day without discomfort. It was rainy and 
muddy. But the mud, while retarding our speed, caused 
less jolting of the coach, and made it easier for the sick. 
We rode until night when we stopped for supper some thir- 
ty miles out of Dixon. We there met the sub-agent of the 
stage company, residing at Dixon. The weather was rainy, 
the prospect was a night of pitch darkness. The agent 
ordered the coach to be left and an open lumber wagon tak- 
en for the advance. I expostulated with the agent, and told 
him that on purchasing my ticket at Chicago I was assured 
of a covered coach all the way to Rock Island. And I asked 
him to lie over, as the travel was attended with danger to 
all, and in that open wagon impossible to my wife. He said 
the mails must go on, or at least they must try. * ^ But, ' ' said 
he, ^^I have here a buggy and team, which I wish to send 
back to Dixon. You stay all night, send on your baggage to 
Dixon, and in the morning take my buggy, and drive 
through at your leisure. We thanked the Lord and him, 
accepted his offer, and took hope and courage. 

We passed a comfortable night, my wife resting well 
after the long journey of the preceding day. After break- 


fast, we started. The weather still rainy, but warm. We 
rode comfortably, and arrived at Dixon towards evening. 
I sought out a Baptist family, and the lady with true wom- 
anly sympathy took us to her house and lovingly cared for 
my wife, whom she made much more comfortable than was 
possible at the far Western Hotel. The storm subsided, the 
skies cleared, and the weather changed to freezing cold, and 
the lady invited us to lay over a day, and rest. This we 
thought prudent to do. And it was Providential that we 
did, for the stage was troubled with a balky horse, was de- 
layed, and I think compelled to return. The succeeding 
morning, however, we got aboard. The air was rather cold, 
the road frozen, with hubs rough and hard. But we went 
on until we met the stage from Eock Island in the shape of 
an open lumber wagon. We were ordered out of our coach 
into the lumber wagon, that it might be sent back to Eock 
Island. I expostulated with the driver, but his orders were 
imperative. I claimed the higher authority of the company 
at Chicago, who had taken my money with an unconditional 
pledge. There were several gentlemen of apparent stand- 
ing. They also interposed, saying that the lady was unfit to 
travel in an open lumber wagon. This turned the scale, and 
we were permitted to go on without further molestation. 

We reached the Mississippi river at and before 

sundown we were landed at Eock Island. The air was cool, 
the skies clear and the wind fresh. We went to a hotel, 
where they had a warm coal fire, and we were very warm, 
too warm as it turned out in the end. It was Saturday, the 
last day of November, and I longed to step on Iowa soil, — 
the field of my future labor, to see the local committee with 
whom I was directed to consult, and learn my positive des- 
tination. There was still time to cross before dark. The 
Mississippi at that point was about a mile wide, and was 
crossed by a rowboat, with a single man to propel us across. 


There was a bell suspended near the bank of the river, with 
an appended rope. Any one wishing to cross had simply to 
ring the bell and wait. If the ferryman was on your side, 
the delay was short. If he were on the other side, it would 
be a delay of perhaps half an hour. Unfortunately, he was 
on the opposite side. So there was the long waiting in the 
chilly wind, without shelter by the river side, the slow 
transit across, and the necessary delay in getting to our 
stopping place. In all this exposure my wife took a severe 
cold, which rendered her unfit for travel, and the physician 
thought she would not recover. This delayed us nearly 
three weeks. 

Eev. W. H. Turton of New Jersey, also under appoint- 
ment by the Home Mission Society, arrived in Eock Island 
the same day, but stayed at Rock Island all night and came 
over the next day. The question of assigning us our respec- 
tive locations came before the Local Agency for decision. 
There were only two points just at this time to be filled. 
Farmington, a small town some forty miles from Keokuk 
west, which had not then, and never has since had prospec- 
tive importance beyond a small village with the surround- 
ings of a farming population. The other, Des Moines, as 
yet a small village of some 500 inhabitants, living chiefly in 
log cabins. It was centrally located, in one of the best posi- 
tions in the west. In the center of a farming country of 
wondrous fertility, exhaustless beds of coal, situated at the 
junction of the Des Moines and Raccoon rivers, and the 
destined future capital of the state. There were Baptists 
there, but no Baptist church, and 180 miles from Davenport 
or Keokuk. Mr. Turton was an older and more experienced 
minister than myself. The brethren of the Local Agency 
felt a delicacy about deciding between us, although I was 
satisfied as to their judgment in the matter. A happy 
thought relieved them of the responsibility. I was the first 


on the ground, and they conceded to me the right of choice. 
It did not require a minute to decide. Des Moines (then 
Fort Des Moines) was the point to which I was directed. I 
cared not if the people were few, so that there would cer- 
tainly be a large population in the near future. To be early 
on the promising field, to organize the church, to grow up 
with a rising community and to organize churches and 
Sunday Schools in all the region around seemed to make 
Des Moines a point exactly suited to my feelings and in- 
spirations. Farmington, as far as I could learn, was just 
the place that would not suit me. Of course I chose Des 
Moines and Mr. Turton went to Farmington. 

My wife slowly rallied, and as soon as she dared venture 
we prepared to start. 

But how should we go? There was no stage running 
through to Des Moines. If we could get to Muscatine — 
thirty miles distant, we could take stage thence to Iowa 
City, thirty miles more. From Iowa City to Des Moines a 
boy went on horseback and carried the mail every other day. 
I sought out a man owning a team and asked him what he 
would ask to take us to Des Moines. He thought he could 
do it for $75.00. I supposed I should have to pay him that, 
if we went at all. But he backed down from his first offer, 
and wanted $4.00 per day. Then, if we were delayed by 
sickness, it would be at our own expense. Pending these 
negotiations, our Davenport friends made a happy sugges- 
tion, viz: for me to buy a horse and conveyance and go 
through on our own independent vehicle. Then, if delayed 
by sickness, we would have only our own private expenses 
to pay. Added to this, they said, our horse and buggy would 
be worth more at Des Moines than the cost in Davenport, 
and so we could have our entire fare across the country. 
And I could care for my sick companion thus much more 


This plan once suggested, and Providence favored me at 
every turn. A man had a large, powerful horse that he was 
very anxious to sell. Would get it shod and ready for the 
road for $60.00. A young man had taken a strong buggy 
wagon with a long box, covered with canvas, capable of hold- 
ing our trunks and luggage, he also had a harness. He 
would sell it all for $50.00. It would require some $5.00 to 
fix it ready for use. I closed these bargains, loaded up our 
effects, and, one afternoon we started on our long, lonely 
trip to Des Moines.^ We went about twelve miles, and found 
kindly quarters for the night. We were up in the morning 
and again on our way. I should have remarked that the 
roads were free from snow, and in good condition. We 
travelled during the day, and excepting the fatigue, my wife 
endured the outdoor air far better than in the house. The 
road generally was well travelled, and we generally found 
our way without difficulty. Along towards sundown our 
road seemed to be more obscure. But we were not aware of 
having turned from the beaten track, and as there were no 
houses at which we could inquire, we concluded to go on, 
but getting more and more uneasy. At length we met a 
solitary man, who told us we were several miles off our 
road. We inquired if we could get back on to the Iowa City 
road by night. He said he thought not, as the road across 
was very obscure. We inquired if there was any place 
ahead where we could stay for the night. He said there 
was a house not more than a mile ahead. Yes, anybody 
would keep strangers. **Well, is it a pretty good stopping- 
place Oh, nothing to boast of, but they will keep you. ' ' 

We went on, I knocked at the door and inquired if we 
could stay for the night. *^0f course, come in, come in." 
We gladly accepted the hearty offer, and were inducted into 

8 From Davenport to Iowa City the wagon road ran on a direct line through 
Moscow and West Liberty, a distance of about fifty miles. 


a smoky cabin, but there was a good fire, with warmth and 
welcome. When putting out the horse, I asked one of the 
men, if our trunks and effects would be safe left out in the 
streets in the wagon. *^0h yes, perfectly safe, nothing will 
harm them.'' So we had supper, and breakfast, the best 
they had. Before going to bed at night and after breakfast 
in the morning, the Bible was brought out and the family 
came together for evening and morning prayers. During 
our stay the man said to me: ^^Mr. Nash, why not settle 
down here with us? Land is plenty, good and cheap, and 
we have no minister in all this region, and we should be very 
glad to have you among us. " I thanked him, but told him I 
was on my way to Des Moines by appointment, and I was 
compelled to go on. On calling for my bill, they spurned the 
idea. ^ ' Why, do you think we would charge a minister any- 
thing! No, when you pass this way, call and be welcome.'' 
So we started on, and found our way to the main road. The 
air was crisp and cold, and about eleven o 'clock we stopped 
at a house to warm and rest. A very fine, intelligent gentle- 
man was enjoying his easy chair by a comfortable fire. 
When we arose to start, he remarked, ^^I see your lady is 
ill. Stay and let her rest and get some dinner. ' ' To this we 
gladly assented. With true Western freedom he soon drew 
out, who we were, whence we came, whither we were going. 
I referred to our losing our way the afternoon before. He 
made some inquiry about the place where we got back on the 
road, and of the country around where we stayed, the house, 
etc., all of which he recognized at once. As it dawned upon 
him, he leaned back into his chair and burst into a hearty 
laugh. ^'Why, Mr. Nash," said he, '^you stopped with a 
family of notorious horse-thieves!^' ^^Why," I said, ^^I 
asked them if my trunks would be safe in the streets, and 
they assured me they would be, and I found them so. " * ^ Of 
course you did. Of course, they were safe. If they said so, 


none of the gang would touch them, if they said they were 
safe. ' ' ^ ^ But ' said I, ^ ^ they wanted me to settle with them 
and be their minister ! ' ^ * ^ Yes, of course, they want to keep 
up a show of honest respectability.'^ The event, as it 
passed off safely and well, became very amusing when the 
real facts of the case came to our knowledge. 

After a good dinner and a long rest, by easy travel we 
passed the remaining eleven miles and reached Iowa City at 
an early hour. There we were greeted by Rev. Dexter P. 
Smith^ and family, a former schoolmate in Madison Uni- 
versity, though he was nearly through his course when I 
entered school. We were most affectionately welcomed, 
and as it was now Thursday evening, no excuse would avail, 
we must stay over the ensuing Sunday. And so we did. 
And I preached to the Baptist congregation at morning and 
night, and by invitation at the Old School Presbyterian 
(Rev. Mr. Hazard Pastor) Church in the afternoon. 
Some thirty years afterwards, travelling on the Rail Road, 
I met a Methodist presiding elder. While conversing with 
him he remarked, ^^It may be pleasant for you to know that 
while preaching in Rev. Hazard's church in Iowa City, as 
you were speaking on the subject of the Resurrection, a 
young lad found a hope in Christ." Rev. Smith (now D. P. 
Smith, D. D.) had been the pastor of the Baptist church for 
years. The church under his labors and those of his hard- 
working companion, had become strong and influential, had 
erected a fine house of worship, which with some enlarge- 
ments and improvements, is in use at the present time. 
The Capitol of the State was then there, and the Legis- 

s Dexter P. Smith became pastor of the Iowa City church in 1845 and re- 
mained in that capacity until 1851, although he continued to reside in Iowa 
€ity for many years afterwards, while he served as State agent for promoting 
the interests of the Baptist Church along various lines of activity. — Aurner's 
History of Johnson County, Iowa, pp. 360-363. 

10 S. H. Hazard was the second pastor of the church, coming to Iowa City in 
1849. In 1853 his health failed and he died soon afterward. 


lature was in session. And Dr. Smith took great pains to 
introduce me to the officers of State and to the Legislators, 
which was of much benefit to me. There was no attempt to 
disguise the expectation that the Capitol would be removed 
to Des Moines, which of course was a very grateful piece 
of information to me. 

Soon after our arrival at Rev. Smith's two of the prom- 
inent ladies of Iowa City called and were introduced to us. 
One of them — Mrs. Fales, wife of Hon. J. T. Fales, Audi- 
tor of State, and afterwards so widely known for her activ- 
ities in connection with the Women's Aid Society during the 
War, and for her work in the hospitals in Washington,^^ 
sat talking with my wife. While inquiring where was her 
former home, found out that they were both from the same 
township in New York, that she was very well acquainted 
with my wife 's father. With her spirit of warm impulsive 
benevolence and womanly intuitions, she at once divined 
that my wife's Eastern wardrobe was not adapted to a 
December passage over the prairies, where sometimes from 
eighteen to thirty miles had to be crossed without an inter- 
vening house. She called some of the ladies together, and 
secured some material for a wrapper or coat extending 
almost to the feet. It was made outside of common calico, 
with heavy flannel lining, and heavily stuffed with cotton 
or wool batting. It was double breasted, so that it buttoned 
with double laps over the chest. She told her she could not 
eat the food at the cabins on the route. So they filled a pail 
with such choice preparations as they foresaw would tempt 
an invalid's appetite. Nice bread, with chicken, meats, 
cake, sauce, sugar and tea. ^^Now", they said, while you 
cannot eat the food which these Western women may cook, 
you can, by taking some hot water, soon make yourself a 

11 "I believe that Mrs. Fales is entitled to the praise of being the first lady in 
the United States to visit the camps of our soldiery and minister to the wants 
of the sick. ' ' — Ingersoll 's Iowa and the Bebellion, p. 740. 


cup of tea, and have a relishable meal." Of the value of 
this we had ample experience day after day during the 
balance of our journey. 

So at the beginning of the week we were again on our 
way. I saw the mail-boy and he gave me the stations where 
we could stop for the night, as the distances between settle- 
ments were often so great that one might not safely pass 
one of these stations after noon, without danger of being 
overtaken by night far out on the open prairie.^^ The 
Western people showed us no little kindness. Not only by 
entertaining us and positively refusing pay, but were glad 
to circulate the news of our arrival and invite their neigh- 
bors to hear me preach. Some of them, rough and profane, 
manifested the most profound respect for the ministry. At 
one point on the route, when it was mentioned by the mail 
boy at Iowa City, I was told that the men would be glad to 
have us stay over night, and to have me preach. The mail 
boy told him, as he passed in advance of me, that I was 
coming. So they were looking for me. When we arrived 
they were expecting us, and asked permission to notify the 
neighbors, and invite them to come in for preaching. Be- 
fore we were through eating supper, they began to come in 
and there was a goodly number for a cold winter night and 
a sparsely-settled neighborhood. They seemed to listen at- 
tentively, and in due time scattered to their homes. Before 
going to bed, I asked my host if the goods in our carriage 
would be in danger for the night. ^^No'', replied he, **no 
harm will come to them. ' ' He inquired, * ^ Did you notice the 
man with wife and child who were the first who came in to 

12 The road from Iowa Citj to Fort Des Moines followed much the same route 
as that traversed at present by the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad. 
On a map drawn in 1852 the only towns indicated along the road are a place 
called "Copi", Marengo, Newton, and an unnamed station between Newton 
and Fort Des Moines. — Map in Curtiss 's Western Portraiture, and Emigrants ' 
Guide (1852). 


meeting I replied ' ' Yes ' \ He said, ' ' That man is ring- 
leader of all the mischief in the settlement. He will take 
wheels off the wagons of travellers and hide them and cause 
all sorts of annoyances. So before he left I asked him if he 
thought there would be any trouble with Mr. Nash's things 
during the night. ^^No'', he replied with emphasis. *^Do 
you think when a minister comes along and preaches to us 
we would harm him or his effects? No Sir/' So our host 
assured me that if that man gave his word not one of the 
gang would touch a thing, if he gave his word for security. 
And so we found all things safe in the morning. Thus we 
had completed a third day from Iowa City, which third day 
was the 1st of Jan. 1851. 

The travelling so far had been good, and our strong horse 
had brought us with our baggage with ease and safety. It 
was seventeen miles to Newton. We, with difficulty, passed 
over the first part of the trip. There were some very steep 
bluif s to descend and ascend, the ground was hardly frozen, 
the shoes of our horse had become very smooth by long 
travel. Ascending one of those steep places the horse 
slipped, fell to her knees, and the carriage commenced 
running back and dragging the horse, and as the road ran 
along a high precipice, it seemed for a moment that horse 
and carriage would be dragged over the precipice to certain 
destruction. Fortunately I was walking by the side of the 
carriage, and seizing the hind wheel held it firmly, until the 
horse regained her footing, and by our united strength she 
took her load to the top of the hill in safety. It was one of 
those events when the anxieties or fears of an ordinary 
year are crowded into a few seconds of time. Standing on 
the safe side of that place, the danger of which we had been 
warned before coming to it, we felt the most profound rea- 
sons to thank God and take courage. 

We arrived at Newton about mid-afternoon. It was eight 


miles thence to Parker's Ferry,^^ and if we could reach 
there, we would be only twenty-five miles from Fort Des 
Moines, and we felt so anxious to end our journey in an- 
other day that we were tempted to go on. The roads near 
Newton were fine, the weather was not unpropitious. But 
our sagacious horse, wiser than we, was displeased with 
going farther that day, and was with difficulty urged for- 
ward. When we were about half way the roads grew worse, 
the sky became overcast with clouds, the wind arose, and it 
was rapidly growing cold. On inquiry we were told that 
the low ground ahead of us was covered with ice in places, 
and that a horse, in attempting to get across, had fallen and 
broken his leg. We became alarmed, and asked at a cabin 
for shelter for the night. But a sick one there prevented, 
and diligently inquiring the road, we hastened on. By the 
time we descended into Skunk Bottom, it was so dark that 
we could not see the road at all. In these low places, during 
the fall rains, wagons had been turning out on either side 
of the regular roads to find better going, and thus the 
ground being cut up and frozen, rendered the road undis- 
cernible, and our angry horse, who could have piloted us 
safely, seemed to act as if she did not care whether she kept 
the road or not. We were informed that the road * ^forked" 
at a certain point, and if we took the wrong road we should 
be led out to an indefinite distance from the settlements. I 
got out, and without exposing my alarm to my wife, would 
stop the horse, and work back and forth across the track, 
feeling with my feet, and then going a few rods further, 
and then repeating the pedal examination. It was one of 
the most awful hours of my life. With the possibility, nay 
almost probability, of staying out on the prairie in a Jan- 

13 On the maps of Iowa made during the fifties there is a town called Park- 
ersburg in Jasper County on the Skunk Eiver southwest of Newton. This town, 
which has entirely disappeared, no doubt was located at the place designated by 
Mr. Nash as ''Parker's Perry". 


nary night, with a piercing north wind blowing strong, and 
with an invalid companion, my fears were almost agony. 

I do not know how long we were in this bewildering con- 
dition. In such a state a half hour is an age. I knew we 
must be near the river, but the wrong road turned up the 
river bottoms. Where were we 1 

Suddenly a bright light ahead and somewhat to the left or 
south blazed out for a few seconds, and then totally dis- 
appeared. To me it was the Star of Bethlehem. It threw 
the halo of hope into the darkness of almost despair. I 
knew well enough it must be the light from or near the 
dwelling we were seeking. I noted the direction and aimed 
for it, using the direction of our horse and carriage for a 
general guide. We soon reached a small bridge, which had 
been named to us where we were to bear to the left, and 
where the other bore to the right. With the bridge, we 
reached higher ground, the road became smooth and easily 
followed, and with a heart lighter than the song of a Spring 
bird, we in a few moments were at Skunk river.^^ I left the 
horse standing, and went to ascertain whether the river was 
so frozen that we could pass over on the ice, or whether we 
should have to ford. I walked across on the ice, and in a 
few rods up the bank reached the cabin, which had no win- 
dows fronting the road. I asked for lodgings, which were 
granted. And with a guide and lantern, we crossed on the 
ice, and soon were ushered into a cabin, where a huge wood 
fire was blazing. Our jaded horse being cared for, a warm 
supper eaten by ourselves, our hearts swelling with grati- 
tude to our Heavenly Father whose loving Providence had 
been so marked in fulfilling his gracious promise, **In all 
thy ways acknowledge him, and he will direct thy path.'^ 
And so we went to bed, for the last night of our long and 
anxious journey. The secret of the momentary light which 

14 At "Parker's Ferry", to which reference is made above. 


guided us became apparent. It was a double cabin, and an 
open space roofed over ran between the two rooms. Some 
one for a moment passing through this open space to the 
next room with a light, threw its heaven-sent beams to us. 
Our every hour — every day mercies are too often forgotten 
by our wondrous deliverances. 

Our bed for the night was in the room where the fire was. 
But the head was by the doorway into the open night, which 
was minus a door, excepting a suspended blanket. My wife 
slept well after the fatigues of the day, and without taking 
cold. In the morning at breakfast we were treated for the 
first time in our lives to wild turkey. It is needless to say 
how much we both enjoyed it. 

In fair time we started. The weather was no worse. It 
was crisp and cold, but not stormy. The roads were most of 
the way quite good. The day passed without particular 
incidents except once we got a short distance out of the way, 
and then broke partially the cross-piece of our shafts. But 
with halter strap and nails I repaired it so that it lasted to 
the end of our journey. 

When we reached Four Mile^^ the creek was fordable, but 
ugly pieces of ice made it troublesome to cross with a single 
horse and carriage. But we got over it at last, and we 
reached the Des Moines river about sundown. Below the 
Dam the river was crossed on the ice. "We looked at the 
steep banks, and preferred to risk the ice above the dam.^^ 
The approaches to the river on each side were not easy but 
passable, and we crossed comfortably. The slightly-trav- 
elled road from the mill to the town was very narrow along 

15 Four Mile Creek flows southward almost centrally tlirougli Polk County 
and empties into the Des Moines Eiver. It received its name from the fact 
that the point where it was crossed by the road to the east was about four 
miles from Fort Des Moines. 

16 Possibly this was a dam constructed in 1850 by E. and E. Hall to furnish 
power for their saw mill. See The History of Folk County, Iowa (Des Moines, 
1880), p. 371. 


the bluff, and a bonfire was built in the road near the mill. 
With much vexation, I succeeded in passing it. And so, 
near nightfall, on Jan. 3rd, (Friday) 1851, we entered Des 
Moines, happy and glad to rest from our travels, having 
made the trip from Iowa City in five days, or an average of 
twenty-four miles per day. And from the 19th of November 
to Jan. 3rd in making the whole trip from Pittsford, or 
forty-five days. 

Upon the whole, Mrs. Nash had endured the journey with- 
out any serious drawback, excepting the severe cold caught 
in crossing the Mississippi. 


The appearance of Fort Des Moines at the time of our 
entrance was anything but inspiring. But it was our El- 
dorado, and we were here. 

The exploring agent had given me the names of several 
Baptists in Des Moines. Both the hotel keepers were Bap- 
tists. Hence we deemed it wise to call on some of the other 
Baptist families, as there might possibly be rivalries be- 
tween them, and we might thus avoid jealousies. 

I called at the first house we came to, and inquired for the 
home of Judge McKay, the Judge of the District Court, 
who lived on the plat of ground now occupied by Messrs. L. 
Sherman, E. Clapp, K. Clarkson and J. A. Elliott.^^ The 

17 In a footnote Mr. Nash says: ''The town was originally a military station, 
and hence called Ft. Des Moines. The troops had been removed before we 
came and the Indian title became extinct. As the name of the town was subse- 
quently written by dropping the word Fort, I shall hereafter use the present 
name Des Moines. 

By an act of the General Assembly approved on January 28, 1857, the omis- 
sion of the word 'Tort" in the name of the town was legally recognized. — 
Laws of Iowa, 1856-1857, p. 281. 

18 For a sketch of the life of Judge William McKay see Andrews' Pioneers 
of Folic County, Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 345-350. 

19 Judging from Bushnell's Des Moines Directory, 1886-1887, this land was 
on what is now Pleasant Street. 


cabin where I first called was occupied by Mr. John Hay,^^ 
and was on a lot now covered by Eeeds Leather Store, Com- 

paret and Starke's Hardware Store^^ and store 

on Walnut street. 

I enquired of him where J udge McKay lived. He stopped 
and studied, in order to describe the route. It was away out 
of town. *'Let me see — you go west some distance, then 
turn diagonally through a long strip of wild plum-trees, 
crab-apple trees and hazel ruff — a very blind path, then 
turn west and you will see a one-story brick house, and you 
will there find the Judge." *^Do you think I can find the 
way tonight T ' * * No, I don 't think you can. ' ' 

While this perplexing dialogue was going on, and we were 
getting anxious as to our whereabouts for the night, a gen- 
tleman and lady approached us diagonally, and asked me if 
I was the Baptist minister who was expected in Des Moines. 
I told them I was. They told us to go with them, for the 
night — they were Baptists. They were none other than 
Brother and Sister Eeickeneker,^^ our very dear friends 
now for near thirty-five years. By them we were welcomed 
with Christian love to the hospitalities of a Christian home. 
An ample, luxuriant supper was set before us, and there- 
after two travellers, worn by travel and anxiety, laid our 
weary bodies to rest, with feelings such as we had not pos- 
sessed for six weeks of care and worry. The next morning 
we awoke, and life in Des Moines was fairly inaugurated. 


1. As a town. When the secretary of the Home Mission 
Society wrote me, he sent me a paper which contained a 

20 Probably Joliii Hays, a sketeb of wbose life may be found in Andrews ' 
Pioneers of Folic County, Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 363-368. 

21 These stores were located at 313 and 315 West Walnut Street, respectively. 
— BushnelPs Des Moines Directory, 1886-1887. 

22 The name Eeichenecker is to be found in the Des Moines directories during 
the eighties. 

VOL. xm — 13 


report from the Exploring Agent of the Society of a visit 
to Des Moines in the preceding March, which spoke of Des 
Moines in the most glowing language. Amid other remark- 
able things, about the din of rolling machinery, and the 
wondrous business developments. He spoke of the popula- 
tion as being 1500, and doubling annually. I naturally sup- 
posed, as the real immigration of the spring and autumn of 
1850 had since that report come in, that there should be in 
Des Moines at the time of my arrival at least 2000 inhabit- 
ants. Now, as I was informed after my arrival, that in 
June, which was after the spring immigration, by actual 
census the town contained 494 inhabitants, perhaps when I 
arrived it may have had 550. And the din of rolling ma- 
chinery were two old saw-mills, which probably by no 
amount of urging could each count up a month of work 
during a year, and one grist mill, which semi-occasionally 
could be made to run long enough to grind a few bushels of 
corn. Also a hominy pestle run by a spring pole, by which 
a live Kentuckian managed to crack corn enough to furnish 
the natives with hominy when the aforesaid mill failed to 
supply the constantly-recurring demand. All this struck 
us as a stupid joke about two or three thousand inhabitants, 
and the din of rolling machinery. However, there was one 
apology. The agent was very imperfect of sight, and his 
report was less based on what he saw than what he heard, 
which were emphatically Western yarns, spun to snare 

The population for the most part were dwellers in the 
cabins, which once were occupied by the soldiers. They 
were double with an open space or hall between, covered by 
a roof, which united the two together. A family usually 
occupied one of these divisions. But sometimes two fami- 
lies were crowded into one. There were two rows of them, 
one built westward from the junction of the rivers, called 


Coon Eow.2^ The other, extending north along the Des 
Moines river, was called the Des Moines Eow. Besides 
these, scattered on each side of the rivers, officers' cabins, 
the dispensary, the store-houses, guard house, etc. etc. In- 
dependent of these, there were two small hotels, two one- 
story brick residences, a few small frame houses, several 
cabins built after the soldiers' barracks, several small 
stores and offices, and one small frame church, capable, by 
packing, of sheltering some hundred persons, and belonging 
to the Methodists. Also a small brick court house, two 
stories high, used for court house purposes, for meetings on 
Sundays, and political and other lectures during the week, 
and sometimes for school. The houses were scattered, and 
the people discarding right angles, instead of following the 
streets, by constant tramping made diagonal paths all over 
the town. 

We came in midwinter. The ground was bare and the 
streets dusty. And everything seemed still and dead. But 
little was going on. And to say that we were disappointed 
is but a feeble expression of our feelings. But I did not 
feel disheartened. I did not particularly care how small 
and new the town then was, but what were its prospects and 
possibilities. And in our entire trip from Davenport to 
Des Moines, there seemed among the people but one con- 
viction, and that was that Des Moines had a great future 
before it. If this should prove true, I was not here a month 
too early, not a day too soon. 

2. The churches. When we arrived here, the Metho- 
dists^^ had a society, the first organized here, I believe. 
Then there was the Old School Presbyterian church, then 

23 For a drawing and a chart giving a very good idea of the appearance of 
Fort Des Moines while occupied by the garrison, see Brigham's History of Des 
Moines and Folic County, Vol. I, facing p. 98. 

24 For some data relative to the early history of the Methodist Church in Des 
Moines, see Brigham's History of Des Moines and Folic County, Vol. I, p. 437. 


without a preacher. The New School Presbyterian church, 
with Eev. Thompson Bird^^ as preacher. Eev. Mr. Hare^^ 
was pastor of the M. E. church, and preached here once in 
two weeks. There had once been a small organization of 
Baptists. But it had ceased to exist. Besides these, the 
United Brethren, Protestant Methodists, the Universalists, 
and perhaps others had occasional services. All these, ex- 
cepting the Methodists, held services in the court house. 
The county authorities gave the use of the court house free 
to all applying denominations, and each was entitled to 
equal share of the Sundays. When I came, the court house 
was regularly used by the New School Presbyterians, and 
only once in two weeks. That left a place for the Baptists 
also once in two weeks. But each of us was liable to be re- 
duced at any time to one Sunday in each month. 

A Union Sunday School was held each Sunday at the 
court house, chiefly made up of the Presbyterians and the 
Baptists. The Baptists having active male members in 
town, and the Presbyterians having none, filled most or all 
the offices in the school. This school was kept up harmo- 
niously until the two congregations separated to go to their 
own houses of worship. 

3. The schools. The public school system of the State 
at that time was very imperfect. In Des Moines, at that 
time, they usually had about three months school during 
the winter, and it was conducted by anyone whom chance 

25 For a sketch of the life of Thompson Bird, see Andrews ' Pioneers of Folic 
County, Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 17-20. 

26 < ' Michael H. Hare, an Ohio man, in his early ministry traveled the large 
circuit of those days. In 1850, at the age of thirty-three, he was appointed to 
the Fort Des Moines mission, and 'did much pioneer work, visiting and plant- 
ing societies in the region for forty or jfifty miles north and west of the Fort. 
In '62, he was appointed chaplain of the 36th Iowa Infantry. With his com- 
mand he was captured in '64 and imprisoned in Camp Taylor, Texas,' where 
his confinement developed tuberculosis from which he died July 27, 1868." — 
Brighara's History of Des Moines and Polk County, Vol. I, p. 437. 


threw in the way of the directors, and generally that chance 
presented an extremely poor specimen. A sample is given 
in the early school records. The directors usually asked 
some one or more to act in examining the applicants. A 
person applied for the school and was cited before the wise 
board. They were most of them about as well qualified to 
act as the teacher was to pass examinations. Among other 
questions they asked him what he thought of Fractions. He 
replied that he did not believe in them, and if he could have 
his way, they should be taken out of the arithmetics. It is 
needless to add that the teacher secured his place, and who 
may argue **a priori that owing to his influence in shoot- 
ing ideas into our early youth Des Moines ever since has 
been purely an integral and not a fractional town? 

When I came here a young lady was teaching a select 
school in the meeting house. She was sent out under the 
auspices of Gov. Slade,^'' of the Vermont organization for 
furnishing teachers for the West. She was a Baptist lady, 
a fine woman, but the house was very cold, and she froze 
her feet, the patronage was not great, and she became dis- 
couraged and left. 

4. The people. Among a heterogeneous population from 
the East and Southeast and from the Southwest, there were 
many fine families, and young women were a great rarity. 

New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, the Carolinas, Tennessee, Indiana and Missouri, and 
of course some other States were represented. But Indiana 
and Missouri had turned loose on Iowa. It was estimated 
that we had one hundred single young men in Des Moines, 

27 William Slade was a member of Congress from Vermont from 1831 to 
1843; and was Governor of the State from 1844-1846. During the next ten 
years he was secretary of what was known as the National Board of Popular 
Education, among the objects of which was to furnish teachers for schools in 
the western States, including Iowa. In some cases the pioneers did not take 
kindly to the plan which seemed to them obnoxiously missionary in spirit. 


representing the professions and all departments of busi- 
ness. Many of them made themselves very successful in 
business, and rose to wealth and distinction in the town and 
State. A goodly number have remained in Des Moines to 
this date, and it gives me great pleasure to bear testimony 
to their enterprise and public spirit. And to them Des 
Moines owes much of the prosperity and greatness to which 
it has attained. They stood by the missionaries and aided 
liberally in church and Sunday School enterprises. 


Immediately on arriving in town, the Baptists came to- 
gether and decided to organize for work. Eev. Thompson 
Bird, Pastor of the N. S. Presbyterian Church, had an ap- 
pointment in the court house on the Sunday succeeding our 
arrival, but he preached in the morning and kindly invited 
me to preach in the evening, which I did ; and my first ser- 
mon was preached in Des Moines, Sunday, January 5th, 
1851, and as the court house was not promised to anyone 
for the next Lord's Day, I preached morning and evening on 
that day. We appointed at once, prayer meetings, holding 
them then in private houses. On the 18th of January, 1851, 
we met and formally organized our Church, which, includ- 
ing my wife and myself, numbered fourteen members, — 
seven males and seven females. Of these fourteen charter 
members, three died soon, of whom my wife was the first ; 
she dying within two weeks after our organization; and 
Miss Perkins the teacher already mentioned left to accept a 
position in Fairfield. 

In February, we received a visit from Eev. B. F. Bra- 
brook and S. B. Johnson,^^ Pastor of the Baptist Church at 
Muscatine, Iowa. At this time, the Church was formally 
recognized. The membership, while small, was made of the 

28 Some data concerning these two men may be found in Abernethy's A His- 
tory of Iowa Baptist Schools, by consulting the index. 


best families in town, and therefore gave ns a good influence 
at the start. Our congregations were good and we started 
off hopefully. 

The uncertainty with which we held a place for worship, 
even for every alternate Lord's Day, caused us to canvass 
the question of building a house of worship. To do this and 
give anything which would support a minister, would be 
out of the question. 

The Church, immediately after organization, had called 
me to the pastorate. Then came the question of arrange- 
ment for support. They decided that I ought to have 
$450.00 a year. Of this, they would in consideration of 
building a meeting house, ask the Home Mission Society for 
$400.00 and they would pay fifty dollars, and put their chief 
energies on the building enterprise. To this the Home Mis- 
sion Society agreed. 

I drop the history of our church matters in order to speak 
of some personal items of history. 

[Here follows an account of the final sickness and death of Mrs. Nash.] 

I now resume my history in Des Moines. The machinery 
of our church was fully put in motion. Our public services 
were held on every alternate Sunday, when we could have 
the Court House. Besides, there were weekly prayer-meet- 
ings, and monthly covenant meetings. I continued to board 
in the family where my wife died until spring. My board 
and lodging cost me $2 per week. But in those days, except 
in sleeping hours, it was necessary to occupy my room in 
common with the family where I boarded. My books and 
household goods were still in Chicago. I had little there- 
fore to occupy my time indoors. I began therefore, throw- 
ing out appointments in the surrounding neighborhoods. 
This became personally advantageous in many respects. 
It occupied my mind, and kept me from loneliness, and from 
ennui ; also as a matter of health it was good for me. For 


between four and five years I had been in the room with one 
slowly dying with consumption, and I seldom had a night of 
undisturbed sleep. This was added to daily care and cor- 
roding anxiety. In such a condition, to be out of doors in 
the bracing winter air on the prairies, with homely fare, the 
rude state of society, sometimes rather rough, often super- 
latively ridiculous and amusing, always with a hearty wel- 
come to the best in the house, it is needless for me to say 
that the work was an exhilarating tonic to me. My appetite 
became ravenous and my sleep sound and refreshing, and 
such health! 

I could start before dinner and walk 15 or 20 miles to an 
appointment, preach in the evening without a mouthful of 
food, and then about ten o'clock find a warm supper, eat 
ravenously, go to bed, and sleep soundly, and the next 
Morning be as fresh as ever for work. A few months of this 
work was a physical regeneration, renovation to me. In a 
small town, and in new and sparsely settled neighborhoods, 
events produce profound impressions, and sensations, which 
in older and larger cities make scarcely a ripple on the sur- 
face of society. Two such events transpired during my first 
winter in Des Moines, and nearly simultaneously. Just 
across our county line on the north, two young men got to- 
gether at a private house to enjoy a Sunday afternoon 
together. They were associates and friends, meeting I 
think, at the home of one of them. The friendly ( ?) bottle 
was of course on hand. They drank, and finally quarrelled, 
and one stabbed and killed his friend. The murderer was 
arrested, and because there was no jail in that County, was 
brought to Des Moines and confined in our jail. He was 
soon brought before the Judge on a writ of habeas corpus, 
and strange to say, was turned loose on society. Only a 
few rods from the jail was a saloon, a doggery, as they 
termed it ; and soon he was wild again. He drew and flour- 


ished a Bowie Knife, and threatened any one who should 
dare to interfere with him. Bnt he finally left town without 
doing any one any harm. 

About the same time a young man by the name of 

who was living here, although he had not lived here long, 
got a fancy that he was not properly appreciated by the 
young people, and especially by the young ladies. He had 
at a ball invited one or two young ladies to dance with 
him, and had been refused. He became so melancholy, pur- 
chased some strychnine, went to his boarding house, — the 
Astor Hotel, took the poison, went to his room hastily, took 
off his boots, saying that he would not need them again, 
sprang into bed, and in a few moments was dead. 

Thinking that I might say something beneficial to young 
men, I announced that on my next preaching day, at night, 
I would preach a sermon on the occasions. When the time 
came the Court House was crowded with attentive listeners. 
I took for my text, Eomans 6: 21. **What fruit had ye in 
those things of which ye are now ashamed for the end of 
those things is death. ' ' 

During the ensuing week a deputation of young men 
called on me, presenting a request from the young men of 
the town, for a copy of the sermon for publication. I fur- 
nished it, and it was published in The Journal, the Whig 
paper of the town. 

My children will probably find a copy or two among my 
papers. With probably some good things, as I now remem- 
her, there are one or two points decidedly in bad taste. But 
upon the whole, I think it did good, and was well received. 


Spring was now at hand, and with resolution and full of 
hope, we betook ourselves to preparation. When the Coun- 
ty Commissioners laid out the town they made an offer of a 


lot to any denomination that would build a meeting house 
within a specified time. Fearing that the time would run 
out before the Baptists could become organized and build, 
Judge Wm. McKay for a nominal sum bought a lot and held 
it for the future church. When we were ready to build we 
found that the selected lot near the present site of the 
Depot, was not desirably situated, for the appar- 
ent trend of population. And so we exchanged with one of 
our citizens, paying, I think, about $100 difference. We got 
a lot on the north side of Court House Square. This is on 
the north side of Mulberry St., and where the Journal 
Printery is now situated.^^ I desired the square, or two 
lots on which the Kirkwood Hotel now stands. They were 
then vacant. But the owner, a non-resident, said that he 
would never sell the lots for less than $500. They formed a 
square of 132 ft. each way on fourth and Walnut Streets. 
This of course, was so far beyond all reason, that we aban- 
doned it. We would have paid $300 for the two lots ; and so 
we purchased as above. After we had located the owner 
changed his mind, and we were informed, sold them for 

The site selected and paid for, we next decided on a plan 
for the house. We concluded to have it 30x40 feet, and that 
it should be a frame building. But the question arose, was 
that more certain of accomplishment than if we made it of 
brick I Saw mills in that region were very few and of the 
poorest construction ; and the owners without capital could 
not be relied upon, either to get saw logs, or to saw them if 
furnished. Pine lumber, hauled from the Mississippi, 180 
miles away would cost nearly $100 per thousand. 

About two miles south of the Raccoon river was a brick 
kiln which had been burned the preceding year, and unused. 

20 In 1886 what was called the Journal Printing Company occupied its own 
building at 513 Mulberry Street. — Bushnell's Des Moines Directory, 1886- 
1887, p. 631. 


Could we not purchase that, and go immediately to work 
with the first opening of spring? The small amount of 
lumber necessary to enclose such a brick structure seemed 
so small that we did not apprehend any difficulty in getting 
that. So we resolved to build with brick. The owner of the 
brick was seen and a contract made, provided the brick 
should prove good on opening the kiln. So far, all went 
well. We secured the services of a brick mason, and went 
over and examined the kiln, and he pronounced the brick 
unfit for the building. And so we refused to take them. I 
think that afterwards it turned out that he was mistaken. 

We, however, were not disheartened ; for was there not a 
whole spring and summer and autumn to have more brick 
made and put up our house! We felt almost certain that it 
would all be done before cold weather in autumn. 

The spring opened early, and in March and April it be- 
came warm and almost like summer. But in early May a 
rainy season set in unparalleled in the 35 years that I have 
been in Iowa. I will turn aside to speak of it. 

It was Sunday. I had preached in the Court House in the 
morning, and was to preach again at candle lighting. I had 
an appointment in the country about four miles from town 
for the afternoon. I had invited two of the brethren to go 
out with me. We started and the Des Moines river was low 
enough to ford it with ease. We went, attended meeting, 
and then we were invited to stay until after supper. 
We did so. The day had been clear and pleasant. When we 
got our horse and started homeward, there were ominous 
clouds at almost every point of the compass. One of my 
companions remarked, that there was an appearance of an 
Indian shower. I enquired, what kind of a shower that was 1 
^*It comes up from all sides and comes down in the middle. 

We had not driven far before the style of a shower that 
he described was approaching, and with no laggard steps. 


It was literally flying on the wings of the wind. Streams of 
lightning were in every part of the horizon, and the moan- 
ing thunder every moment nearer, sharper, and louder, and 
the roar of the storm more awful. We urged our horse on- 
ward in order, if possible, to reach town before it burst 
upon us. Our faithful and intelligent animal seemed to 
comprehend the situation, and put forth all her power to 
speed us along. Our road veered to the south, and we 
struck the Des Moines timber south of Governor's Square,^^ 
and the present Capitol site, and then followed nearly along 
the track of the present rail roads. The road again left the 
timber near the present Coal Works where it was again 
open prairie. Just as we came out of the timber the storm 
burst upon us in all its fury. A rail fence near us was 
picked up like a feather and scattered. We could not make 
headway against the wind. I tied the horse to a small tree 
and then we drifted along with the wind towards the timber 
again. I saw a pen built of logs and I made my way to- 
wards it and got on the lea side. Fortunately it resisted the 
wind, and behind it (it was roofless) I stood until the worst 
of the wind had passed. The rain descended in a deluge. 
I do not remember ever before or since being out in such a 
storm. The lightning was almost constant ; the air seemed 
pregnant with electricity, blazing with blinding light, shim- 
mering in the rain drops, all set off by the black back-ground 
of the tempest clouds, above and all around us. The ter- 
rible crashes of thunder, almost simultaneous with the 
lightning, followed each other with almost uninterrupted 
succession, all united in rendering a scene of surcharged 
grandeur and awfulness. Such a baptism in watery tem- 
pest, in wind and fire in this latitude is seldom experienced 
more than once in a lifetime. And strange to say, as fearful 

30 About four blocks east of the capitol building. 

81 It has not been possible to identify the ''Coal Works '\ 



and dangerous as it was to ns, after a little wMle the sense 
of almost paralyzing fear passed off, and tlie sublimity and 
grandeur of this war of the elements, steadied our nerves, 
and allayed our apprehensions and lifted us out and above 
our fears. 

It is said that the wind is tempered to the shorn lamb. Is 
not the human mind prepared for appalling moments and 
enabled to pass thru them bereft of all alarm ! 

Had we been in a mountainous region we might have had 
a realization of Byron's description of the storm in the 
Alps. ^^From peak to peak, the rolling crags among, leaps 
the live thunder. Not from one low cloud, but every moun- 
tain has found a tongue and Jura answers from her misty 
shrouds back to the echoing Alps which calls to her cloud. ' ' 

As soon as the worst of the storm was over, which I sup- 
pose was less than an hour, we started home. Yet in that 
short space of time the Des Moines Eiver had risen so that 
it was nearly swimming for our horse, rising up to, if not 
flowing into the high bed of our vehicle. 

Thus began the rainy season of the spring and summer 
of 1851.^2 Commencing in early May, it continued until the 
first of July. Not absolutely every day and night, but so 
nearly so, that the prophets of the diluvian type, after about 
a month of rain, began to predict that it would rain forty 
days and forty nights, which of course when so near that 
time had expired already, the foresight was remarkable. 
But this was not the only example. Scientific as well as 
prophetic abilities were remarkably developed during that 
rainy season. It is easy to imagine that there is naturally 
something highly suggestive by the law of association in a 
great club. Thus it is one of the easiest of flights of the 
imagination that Noah or one of his sons prophetically 

32 A picture supposed to represent the flood at Fort Des Moines in 1851 is to 
be found in Brigham's History of Des Moines and Folic County, Vol. I, between 
pp. 48 and 49. 


foresaw that both IngersoU or some other profound scien- 
tist would question the correctness of the statement of the 
great height to which the waters arose during the deluge, 
took the precaution to register the highest flood point. This 
he conceived could be easily done by opening the window 
which Noah had thoughtfully provided and making a mark 
on the ark at the highest rise of the water. This he did by 
cutting a notch with his pocket knife, or if he carelessly left 
that ashore in his haste to get into the ark, he saw a pebble 
which he had hurled at a truant animal which he was driv- 
ing aboard and which fell within the ark and picking it up, 
and reaching the water's edge, scratched a deep line paral- 
lel to the water 's surface and the most skeptical of Biblical 
Readers have never entertained a doubt that that line was, 
if made, at the highest point of the highest rise of the wa- 
ters of the deluge. 

Forty-two hundred years after the Noahkian deluge, a 
less pretentious deluge occurred in the region of Des 
Moines and beyond. A boat also was launched, less pre- 
tentious it may be, but still an ark of safety over the raging 
billow of the Des Moines river. 

Now there lived in Des Moines at this time, a direct de- 
scendant of Noah, of the legal persuasion, who, if the above 
vagary be true, had inherited by direct transmission from 
the first great ancestral voyager a great interest in floods 
in general, and a scientific feature of this later one in par- 
ticular. He was a graduate. He was graduate from Union 
College, and had not only imbibed the spirit of that great 
College, but also the inspiration of its great President, the 
venerable Eliphalet Nott,^^ at whose feet he had so long sat. 
Some of the Registrars had driven stakes into the mud, and 
as the waters rose or fell, cut a notch in the stake. But our 

33 An excellent biographical sketch of Eliphalet Nott is published in the 
Beport of the Commissioner of Education, 1895-1896, pp. 231-240. Union 
College at Schenectady, New York, is now known as Union University. 


better educated collegian, with his head full of Noahkian 
lore, and armed with the most approved instruments of 
modern science, a hammer and a nail, in lofty contempt of 
the ignorance of his neighbors, marched down to the river 
bank, boarded the aforesaid Ferry boat, and drove in at the 
water's edge, firmly, a nail in the side of the boat. The 
triumph of education was apparent. If in the generations 
of the present or the far future, the progress of improve- 
ments should be sinking piers for bridges, and someone 
should examine the hull of some long forgotten Ferry boat, 
whether lying a hundred feet below water level, or lifted 
high in air, that nail would appear and reveal to the won- 
dering observer, with more than geological exactness, the 
precise height to which the waters rose in the raging flood 
of 1851. 

But to the lasting disgrace of the age, and the culpable 
and inexcusable ignorance of the western people, who never 
saw a college, nor heard of President Nott, there are those 
who to this day, like the Noahkian scoffers, in fourth of 
July speeches refer to this act with all manner of ridicule, 
the act of this eminent scientist, although he, long since, 
went to sleep with his fathers. 

The rainy season continued until about the first of July. 
Sometimes it would clear off with every apparent sign of 
fair weather; and then perhaps in an hour the rain would 
be pouring down in torrents, with intense lightning and 
crashing thunder. Sometimes I would be kept awake nearly 
all night, by the blinding lightning from all parts of the 
horizon, even when so distant that the thunder was scarcely 
heard. I do not think, that I ever before, or since, in an 
equal amount of time, ever witnessed such fearful displays 
of electrical disturbances. The weather was warm, and 
corn-plowing continued until about July 4th. But as the 
soil was new and fertile, and the season thereafter exceed- 


ingly favorable, and the frosts held off until late in the fall, 
the yield of corn per acre was enormous. 

With flooding rains continuing into July; with ground 
saturated ; the springs, and creeks, and ponds, and sloughs, 
all filled to overflowing, it is not strange that the rivers 
kept high all the season. The rains continued so late that 
no one attempted to make a kiln of brick sufficient for our 
wants. And so the year passed in helpless impotency, so 
far as church building was concerned. The streams were 
high, and the sloughs were often impassable. Sometimes 
ten or twelve miles of travel became necessary to find a 
crossing in order to get a few rods ahead. But little preach- 
ing could be done in out stations until late in the season by 
reason of their inaccessibility. Our church building was 


Of course the elevation of the streets now known, or seen, 
were unknown then. The East bank of the Des Moines 
river was considerably higher from about the locality of 
the Locust St. Bridge and below than farther back where 
the North Western Eailway track now is. And a strong 
current of high water ran back as far as the first bluff, and 
passed again into the Des Moines river below its junction 
with the Raccoon. South of the Bluff, where the Capitol 
now stands, the waters overflowed, extending out as far as 
Four mile creek. 

South of the Raccoon and West of the Des Moines river, 
the waters submerged all of south Des Moines, and extend- 
ed out to the bluffs south and south-east to where Sebasto- 
pol is now located. On the West side of the Des Moines 
river there was a depression back from the higher bank of 
the river, starting just above the site of the Arsenal, and 
extending south, or south-west, running across Court Ave., 


near Sherman's Hall and Dr. Baker's Drug store,^* extend- 
ing South-westerly to Seventh St., near the present Eail- 
way crossings, and extending to about the site of the 
Freight Depot of the C. B. & Q., almost to First St. Bridge 
across the Eaccoon. North and West from the converging 
gulches in rainy weather, streams, which uniting from 12th 
along down to seventh St., formed a creek known as Bird's 
Eun. It was named from Eev. Thompson Bird, through 
whose ground it ran into its final exit into the Des Moines 
Eiver near the Arsenal. This creek in ordinary seasons 
was an unpretentious rivulet, even becoming dry in rainless 
weather. But when a dashing rain would come, in a few 
minutes it would rise to a crazy pitch, — a rushing stream, 
tearing out bridges, submerging cellars, and making- wild 
havoc with every thing it could lay hold of in its way. 

The depression back of the Des Moines Eiver just men- 
tioned, extended almost to Bird's Eun, and only a few rods 
"West of its inflow to the Des Moines river. The basin 
formed by this depression during the first heavy rains had 
become filled with water ; and as a matter of course, was a 
great detriment to the inhabitants of the town. For the 
Post Office was down on 2nd St., below Court Ave., only 
when the Post Master carried it in his hat when he went to 
meals, or was out on business. So nearly all the stores, 
shops, offices, etc., were South of Court Ave. on 2nd street. 
It is in times of great emergency that human genius shines 
forth so marvelously sometimes, as almost to reach the 

Eome's noblest patriot saved his city from threatened 
destruction, when mounted on a noble charger, armed with 
all the paraphernalia of war, he plunged into the gaping 
chasm, when the satisfied earth closed forever. 

So Des Moines ' most eminent and scientific Hydrawlicist 

34 On Court Avenue in the two hundred block. 
VOL. XIII — 14 


stepped to the front, all armed with spade in hand ; for had 
he not in visions and dreams, seen all of this basin of water 
drained off by causing it to run Northward, and beat a dis- 
graceful retreat by escaping into Bird^s Run? My children 
may draw upon their imaginations to see the hurrying wa- 
ters escaping as at ebb tide. And just imagine that the 
subsidence of Noah's flood was a vision of the past com- 
pared to the Stampede into and through Bird's Run; and 
the appearance of dry ground which would have transpired 
were it not for an event unforeseen by our philanthropic 
patriot. The river at this point had not reached its highest 
point, but when at a reasonable high stage would back 
water up Bird's Run at an altitude equal to its own. So 
when the river suddenly rose, our philosopher's canal was 
all ready, and through it the river poured a flood of water 
through the low basin already mentioned. The Marvin 
House, where most of the young men boarded, was on third 
St. on or near the site of Harbach's furniture store.^^ In 
getting to their meals from 2nd St. one of two alternatives 
was before them, — either to walk down to the Raccoon 
river, then turn west and out to about 7th St., and then come 
north to Walnut, and East to 3d again. Or they might go 
the shorter route by the Ferry. A Kentuckian had mi- 
grated to Des Moines with his family, and rented a cabin on 
the north side of Court Ave., and just East of Sherman 
Hall. Either to earn an honest nickel, or for their own con- 
venience, or both, this family constructed a raft of loose 
boards, and daily the brawny, stalwart daughters might be 
seen with settling pole in hand propelling the raft across 
the flood with any young man on board who might elect to 
spend a nickel in order to avoid a long walk, or for the 
privilege of a voyage with one of these Kentucky nymphs. 
Thus the water prevailed, not for 40 days and 40 nights, 

86 Located on the west side at 221 and 223 Third Street. 


but far into the mid- summer. I had rented a cabin on 1st 
St. between Walnut and Court Ave. My household effects 
had not yet arrived, and so I extemporised a lounge with a 
few blankets for a bed, with a table and a few chairs, slept 
in my solitary lair. Often for whole nights the blinding 
lightning blazing into my room, the crashing, or roar of 
thunder, drove sleep from my eyes, and intensified the soli- 
tude of my lonely cabin home. 

Our Dry goods. Groceries, Flour, Hardware, in short 
nearly all of our merchantile wares were brought with 
teams and wagons from the Mississippi, chiefly Keokuk, 
180 miles. The rains had swollen the streams, filled the 
sloughs, washed out, or rendered useless the crossings, so 
that this kind of transportation was nearly suspended. 
Flour was becoming very scarce, some families having 
none; some keeping a small reserve for a special need; 
while the omnipresent corn dodger and pone and hominy 
furnished the supply of daily food. The clouds overhead, 
and the water and mud under foot, gave small hope of relief 
by the overland route ; and it was reasoned that it was an 
ill flood that could not float a steamboat. And so it occurred 
to Col. J. M. Griffith to make an effort to charter a steamer 
and get a cargo of goods and provisions for the relief of the 
river towns, and especially for Des Moines itself. So the 
Col. and two other men, chartered a skiff, and with ample 
outfit of supplies of food and life preservers started down 
the river. A large crowd assembled to bid them good-bye, 
and God-speed, and see them off. 

The starting of an Ocean steamer from an Atlantic or 
Pacific port, could hardly awaken a deeper interest than 
this voyage of this trio from the wharf at Des Moines. This 
was the latter half of June. 

36 For a sketch of the life of Col. J. M. Griffith, see Andrews' Pioneers of 
PolJc County, Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 97-103. 


Meantime, the Fourtli of July was at hand. We were 
shut up within ourselves. Cannon, we had none. Bands of 
music were scarce. Spread Eagle orators had not yet ar- 
rived. Fire crackers had not reached us on account of the 
flood. A few shot guns, revolvers, and two or three Anvils, 
and a few dry preachers were all the resources at hand with 
which to make a noise and to celebrate. 

It occurred to me that we might get up a Sunday School 
celebration. The teachers and scholars could make a pro- 
cession; then some singing by the schools, some speaking, 
and then a free dinner provided by the citizens for all, old 
and young, might pass for a fourth of July celebration, at 
least be better than nothing. The scheme was adopted. 
There were two schools in the town : the union school, made 
of the Baptists and Presbyterians, and the Methodists' 
school. The plan was adopted, and I suppose that because 
I had proposed it that I was appointed as the first Speaker 
of the day, and Rev. Mr. Hare, Pastor of the M. E. Church 
the other. 

As the time drew near, the good ladies who had taken a 
willing interest in the matter began to feel scared as they 
considered the flour barrel, with scarcely the widow 's hand- 
ful of flour left. And some persons who had looked at the 
enterprise over their left shoulder, began to cry out against 
it, as an inevitable failure. Then my Yankee blood began 
to boil, and I determined that if possible to prevent it, it 
should not be a failure. 

Personal visitations with the Baptists and the Presby- 
terians, and others who wanted the matter to be a success, 
prevented a stampede. Corn, crackers, etc., still were at 
hand. Eepresentatives from the south, the east, and the 
west, ladies with all their varied appliances for making 
from corn the best and most tasteful edibles, threw together 
their wits and wills, and said we can carry it through. 


Some one sagely suggested that it would take no more to 
feed the crowd than it would to feed them separately at 
their homes. 

Still, there were many anxieties, lest the feast would not 
do justice and honor to the skill and willingness of their 
hearts and hands. 

At length the day came, and a bright and pleasant one at 
that. The stand had been erected, the tables extemporized, 
and all the preparatory work done. The procession 
marched and assembled at the speakers' stand. The ordi- 
nary singing by the Sunday School scholars was well done 
for the times and opportunities they had had for prepara- 
tion; then the prayer and then the first speaker. He 
thought he did the extra smart thing, and closed with the 
flush of a supposed great success. 

The Eev. Mr. Hare arose and took the wind all out of his 
predecessor by remarking that the former speaker had ran- 
sacked the heavens above and the earth beneath, and said 
all there was therein to be mentioned, and therefore there 
was nothing left for him, as he did not care to go down to 
regions farther below. Of course, I shrunk into myself 
most humbly. However, he contrived to fill up his time. 

Then came the dinner ; and such a dinner ! The meal and 
oil in the widow's barrel, and cruse, had not held out better 
than those of our sisters. Added to all the plentiful corn, 
there were pies, and cakes, wheat bread, sauces, fruit, — 
dried and canned, rice and puddings, hominy, and things 
too numerous to mention. And after the hungry crowd of 
children, women and men had filled themselves to the ut- 
most capacity, the baskets full that were carried away were 
great in number, but the exact number is lost to this his- 
torian ; it is safe, however, to say, that they did not exceed 
the number of baskets and pockets present. A smile of 
self-satisfied triumph wreathed the faces of the ladies who 


had worked so hopefully, and yet with fear and trembling. 
And there were men who showed their joyful triumph. 

Thus ended my first fourth of July in Des Moines. This, 
I think was Thursday. 

On the following Lord^s Day I succeeded in reaching 
Carey's Grove,^^ some 15 miles away, north-east of Des 
Moines, where I preached. On the 6th of July, and while I 
was gone, the steamer arrived from below, to the great joy 
of our inhabitants. 

The gentleman who went below, to secure the advent of a 
steamer, had been successful.^® She was loaded with 
freight, and among other things, my goods and furniture, 
which in the spring had been forwarded to Keokuk from 
the store-house in Chicago, where they had been all winter. 
When the steamer reached Bonaparte,^^ it was unable to get 
farther up the river, to the sore disappointment of all who 
were interested, and had to unload her cargo; and there 
being no store-house, it had to be set out on the ground in 
open air, to the great danger of serious injury. Another 
steamer, with sufficient power to make headway against the 
current was secured, which took up the cargo, which by the 
way, had escaped essential injury, and brought it safely on 
to Des Moines, and arrived, as I have said, July 6th, 1851. 

My bedding, clothing, books, and other effects, which had 
been boxed for about a year, and about which I felt great 
solicitude, were comparatively uninjured. 

I had abandoned my cabin on 1st St. and rented one on 
the corner of Fourth and Walnut, directly across the street 

37 Probably this reference is to Cory 's Grove, a small settlement in the south- 
eastern corner of what is now Elkhart Township in Polk County. J. C. Cory 
came from Indiana in 1846 and settled in that region. 

38 This steamboat was the ' ' Caleb Cope ' Captain Joseph Price, For an 
account of this episode, see Brigham's History of Des Moines and Polk County, 
Vol. I, pp. 99, 100. 

89 The present town of Bonaparte in Van Buren County. 


from where the Kirkwood now stands. This was much 
more airy, roomy, and healthy. I opened out my bedding, 
books, and furniture, and began to really feel more at home 
than I had since I had been in Des Moines. To read and 
write and study, seemed like resuming, in part, my old 
student habits. 


I decided before coming west, that in whatever place I 
should settle I would buy me a lot, or a small parcel of 
ground, where I could with trees, fruits, and flowers, make 
a pleasant home. To this end I looked around to see where, 
with not much means, I could get such a site. Up near the 
Cemetery and directly west of the present site of the Cath- 
olic Cemetery, I was offered eleven acres of land for $25 
per acre. There was some timber on it, and I thought it 
would furnish for a time, an ample supply of wood, and 
eventually would make a nice pasture for my horse. So I 
bought it. I also bought an acre and half of Dr. Grimes, 
fronting on Sycamore Street, just east of the present Cath- 
olic School building, and extending back to Cherry St,^^ 
Sycamore Street was the northern limits of Fort Des 
Moines at that time. I agreed to pay $300 for it, or at the 
rate of $200 per acre. Business men laughed heartily at me 
then for paying $200 per acre for land. I went up to a 
water mill on Walnut creek and engaged some lumber, for I 
intended to build a small house in which I could finish off a 
study, and a sleeping room. Some of this was sawed and 
delivered on my lot during the winter and spring before the 
rains set in. Of course the spring rains set in and upset all 
my plans for building as well as the plans for the church. 

40 According to Bushnell's Des Moines Directory, 1886-1887, Sycamore Street 
in 1886, when this autobiography was written, was the street now known as 
Grand Avenue. St. Ambrose School (p. 544) was located on the northeast 
corner of Sixth Avenue and Sycamore Street. 


During the snmmer and autumn a lot on Walnut St., be- 
tween 3d and 4tli streets, with a hewed log cabin, and a log 
barn on it, was offered for sale. Reed's leather store, the 
Hardware store of Comparet and Starke are now located 
on it. It was 66x132 feet, and was offered for $180. A 
party was talking of taking it, but to my joy he backed out. 
Then the owner offered to take my horse, with her young 
colt, and buggy and harness, the small amount of lumber 
which I had, and which by the stoppage of the water mills, 
became valuable, and give me the property. Thus my horse 
and outfit, which cost me $115 in Davenport, netted me 
about $160 in the trade. I made the deal and moved into 
the property, and for the first time in my life owned a home. 
And so I went on foot to my appointments thereafter. 

Subsequently I had it weatherboarded and plastered, and 
it made me a very comfortable house for some time ; fully as 
comfortable, or more so, than were most of the families in 

At the time of my coming to the state, there were two 
Baptist Associations in the state; the Davenport, and the 
Des Moines Associations. The Annual meeting of the lat- 
ter was held at Agency City, about 90 miles from Des 
Moines, and convened, I think, in August. This I attended. 
It was a meeting of considerable interest, and I enjoyed it 
very much, isolated as I had been since my coming to the 
State. They desired the Des Moines Church to unite with 
them. But I opposed it, as there would, as I believed, as 
events afterwards justified, be an Association soon in Cen- 
tral Iowa. 

At that time our State Convention had been in the habit 
of meeting in the spring. The high water of the spring of 
1851 had prevented me, and most of the churches from be- 
ing there, as it met in Muscatine. So those who went there 

41 See above, note 21. 


arranged for an adjonrned session, to meet in Burlington 
in, I think, October. I attended that also, meeting there a 
large representation of the churches and the ministers of 
the state. 

At this meeting a Committee was appointed, of which I 
was made a member, to consider the question of making a 
move towards founding an Educational Institution, under 
the care of the Baptists. We were authorized, if we should 
deem it best, to call an educational Convention. After due 
consideration and consultation, the Committee issued a call 
for such a Convention to meet in Iowa City, in March (!) 
1852. Propositions were solicited from towns in the state 
which might want to secure the location in their midst. We 
met there, as by the call, and after due deliberation, decided 
to locate at Burlington. It was deemed best by the Board 
of Trustees, as far as possible, to meet at Burlington, and 
to organize, and start the machinery as soon as possible. 
I therefore went to Burlington and attended the first meet- 
ing of that School. 

At that meeting it was decided to send the Burlington 
pastor, Eev. G. J. Johnson, east to collect funds. I was re- 
quested to visit some of the churches in this state and solicit 
subscriptions. And the Burlington church wished me to 
supply their pulpit for several Sundays, while I was so 
doing. I thought I might leave home for a few weeks dur- 
ing the latter part of summer, or autumn, and the more so 
as we had let the contract for the Brick work of the church, 
which could not be finished before autumn. 

So I left to be absent for several weeks, visiting most of 
the churches in the eastern part of the state. This I did 
during week days, and came around so as to preach at 
Burlington on Sundays. The small per diem for Sunday 
covered most of my traveling expenses during the week, 
excepting of course, my fare from Des Moines to Burling- 


When I returned in the fall, I found that the walls of the 
church had been carried up to the window sills, and then 
abandoned. The contractor found a great demand for 
brick for flues and other small uses at enormous prices, and 
this with the greater charges for work on these small and 
imperative jobs, made the profits of the use of brick much 
greater than putting the same material and labor in the 
common work of a building. The temptation was too great 
to be resisted, and the kilns of brick could not thereafter be 
made, and so the work was laid over another year. The 
keenness of the disappointment may be well imagined. 
Whether, if I had stayed at home I could have prevented 
this mishap or not, I am unable to say. And so another 
winter must pass with hope deferred. 

There were some Baptists in Hartford,^^ ^nd I had 
preached there endeavoring to collect them together and 
organize them into a church. But in so sparsely a settled 
section it was difficult to get them all together at the same 
time. In the region about Avon was an extensive neighbor- 
hood known as Keokuk Prairie so named because the 
Indian chief Keokuk once had a village there; and there 
was also at that time an Indian burying ground. I had 
heard that there were Baptists there, but could not ascer- 
tain just what they were. So on one of my trips to Hart- 
ford, I started early enough to reach there in time to be 
present at their monthly meeting, which I supposed would 
commence at about 2 o'clock P. M. When I arrived, how- 
ever, I found that their meeting had convened in the fore- 

42 A small village in Eichland Township, Warren County. Until 1853, how- 
ever, it was included within the limits of Polk County. 

43 After the treaty of 1842 Keokuk and his band of Sac and Fox Indians re- 
moved from their home on the lower Des Moines and located further up the 
river to a place about five miles southeast of the spot where Fort Des Moines 
was soon afterwards erected. The prairie upon which the Indian village was 
located retained the name Keokuk's Prairie for many years after the Indians 
had departed from the region. 


noon, and had just adjourned on my arrival. I had a 
conversation with one of them, and learned that they were 
a colony from Indiana, Anti-mission Baptists. However, I 
received a not very pressing invitation to meet with them 
some future time. I had arranged to be at Hartford on a 
certain Saturday to perfect an organization of a church. 
I went down prepared to stay, and if things were favorable, 
to remain and hold a series of meetings. On my way down 
I stopped at the meeting at Keokuk Prairie ; and after the 
meeting was cordially invited to come back and preach for 
them Sunday night, which I promised to do, if I did not 
remain at Hartford. When I arrived at Hartford I found 
my way blocked. Some were to be away on business, others 
were absent. So with Saturday, Sunday morning, and 
afternoon, I wound up work for that visit, sprang into my 
saddle and rode rapidly so as to reach Keokuk Prairie for 
night meeting. I felt sad in the extreme, for I left home 
full of expectation that we were to see a glorious revival; 
and everything had gone so contrary to my expectation, and 
I could not explain it in connection with my feelings. 

When I reached Keokuk Prairie the people were assem- 
bled. I tried to preach, and seldom in all my life have I 
been so impressed with the presence of the Divine Spirit. 
After the sermon there was a lengthy social service. Be- 
fore we separated, I spoke to the brethren who had charge 
of the meeting, and advised them to follow up the meeting 
with nightly meetings for a week. It did not seem to strike 
them very favorably. So after awhile I suggested it again. 
**WelP', said the man to whom I spoke, ^*I think we shall, 
after awhile, have a series of meetings, as soon as we have 
a moon shiny time. I replied, the moon may shine, but the 
Spirit may be absent. ^^Well,'' said he, ^^will you stay and 
preach tomorrow night! " I told him I would. So he made 
an appointment for Monday night. We continued from 


that time every day and night for three weeks. On Monday 
evening the work developed, and the interest broke out. 
Inquirers were manifest, and the work went forward with 
power. As a result of the meetings some 30 were baptized. 
How many united with other denominations, I cannot tell. 
Of course I soon learned that the doors were shut at Hart- 
ford to be opened at Keokuk Prairie. 

I adopted the unusual course of baptizing the converts 
into that church. I did not feel that it was best to imperil 
the revival work in which all were working by attempting 
to organize a missionary Baptist church at that time. I 
trusted that such a revival with careful and aggressive 
teaching, with Sunday Schools, etc., would bring things 
around all right; and in the main results were more than 
could have been reasonably expected. The anti-mission ele- 
ment almost entirely disappeared, and the regular Baptists 
took the place. 

At this point began a difference of opinion between my- 
self and the Secretary of the Baptist Home Mission Society, 
(Dr. B. M. Hill), under whose patronage I was laboring. 
I had to report regularly in order to draw my salary, in 
which my work in Des Moines and elsewhere was itemized. 
The rules of the mission Board were that no one could leave 
his field without permission. Whenever my report showed 
absence from Des Moines, I was called to account for it, 
and a copy of the rules was sent underscored. Sometimes 
i^y pay would be kept back to allow me to confess and re- 
form. Sometimes they would send it, saying, they pre- 
sumed that I misunderstood my instructions. But I was 
out here to work, and understood the demands of the field 
better than they did. I wrote them thus. And if there was 
no special interest in the church in Des Moines, and some 
gracious revival was going on at some out of town station, 
I felt it my duty to follow up my work. I resolved to do this 


and take the consequences. If they chose to withhold my 
salary for such reasons, they could do so, but I should go on. 

The result of this state of affairs was, that in the latter 
part of my third year I gave notice that I would not be an 
applicant for reappointment. The Secretary wrote me and 
asked me to reconsider my decision, and continue under the 
patronage of the Society, as he feared that the matter would 
be misunderstood, and do harm. But I did not feel willing 
to be hampered by such straight jacket regulations. 

When Rev. B. T. Brabrook, the exploring agent of the 
Society died, the Secretary wrote me that they would have 
been glad to have me take his place. But that kind of work 
was not desirable nor did I think that I ought to leave the 
church in Des Moines. 


While travelling for the School at Burlington, I made the 
acquaintance of Miss Mary E. Hepburn, of Augusta, Lee 
County, Iowa. This was in the autumn of 1852. She was 
formerly from Olean, N. Y. 

The result of this acquaintance was our marriage, March 
15, 1853. We were married by Rev. G. J. Johnson, and 
came immediately to Des Moines, where we have resided 
ever since. But of this, more hereafter. 


Having determined to no longer accept aid from the 
Home Mission Society; and preferring, though with great- 
er trouble, to rely on myself, under God, for support, and to 
feel and act more free, to labor in the widening field all 
around me, I anxiously cast about to see in what way I 
could best carry out my general idea, and care for my fam- 
ily and the church. 

I had ever been deeply interested in the work of educa- 
tion as a part of our work in the general uplifting of society 


in onr new communities in the West. I have already men- 
tioned the condition of our schools. Three months in a 
year, kept in some hired room, — there being in Des Moines 
no school-house as yet. And for that three months school 
we often had teachers, who, to say the least, were nothing to 
be proud of, and from whom there was little to hope for the 
children of our town. 

It occurred to me that I could make myself very useful to 
the young people of the town, some of whom, while nearly 
grown to the dimensions of men and women, were scarce 
able to solve problems in simple rules of Arithmetic; and 
equally behind in all branches of study. 

It therefore occurred to me that I might open a select 
school, making myself very useful among the young people, 
help make up the amount that I had received from the Home 
Mission Society, and thus be free from the humiliating dic- 
tation. My wife was an experienced school teacher, and 
fresh from the work when we were married. So in the early 
Autumn of 1853, we opened out our school. The County 
Authorities gave me the use of the Court room, in the 
Court-house, free of charge. This furnished us accommo- 
dations quite good for the days in which we were working. 
Our school soon became large, and though the tuition was 
low, $4 per term, it furnished us with a comfortable support 
in those times of cheap styles, and great simplicity in dress 
and manners. It was a matter that required no small 
amount of address and management to control the motley 
assemblage that came together in our school. Nearly 
grown up rollicking boys and girls, as untamed as wild 
colts, unused to the restraints of school room, some of them 
too ignorant to be ashamed of their ignorance and stupid- 
ity. Some of them smart, but developed only in mischief, 
or downright depravity. There were others who came with 
an honest desire to know, and a determination to learn. 


How patient we had to begin ! Slowly and patiently we had 
to begin at the foundation. 

One day a gentleman of standing in Des Moines, who had 
a son nearly grown in the school, and who was in a large 
class in Arithmetic, — still in single rules, came to me and 
complained that we were going too slow, and keeping the 
class back, and wasting time. Of course, I knew at once 
where the complaint originated. So I called his son to the 
black board and assigned him one of the longest problems 
in simple division in the days lesson, one that I knew well 
enough he was likely to blunder in. Of course all other 
work by the class was suspended, and perhaps some twenty- 
five pair of eyes from those of nearly his own age, were 
fixed upon him. I did not try to help him. If I saw him 
going wrong, I let him get as far in the entanglement as he 
could, until he became embarrassed, confused, and broke 
down before the whole class and school. Suffice it to say, I 
heard no more complaint from that quarter about going too 
slow with the class. The school, on the whole, proved a suc- 
cess, — success in numbers, and success financially. We 
felt that by it we gained an influence over a large number 
of young men and women which we never could have ac- 
quired through any other means. 

We kept this school running some three years. In the 
latter part of its history, at our public exhibitions, the pub- 
lic were surprised at the talent and culture which had been 
developed in the young people of the school. 

In the process of these years, we had completed our house 
of worship and paid for it. There had been considerable 
immigration of Baptists, and a rental of the pews was suf- 
ficient to meet our necessities, and the church felt able to 
pay an ample salary, — $500 per year was a big salary then. 
So they wanted us to dismiss our school, that I might give 
my whole time to their work. This we did. The Capitol 


had been located here, and real estate was having a won- 
derful boom, and holders were making money as by magic. 
Money was plenty, and men handled it lavishly. Men bor- 
rowed money at 40% and bought recklessly. In this state 
of affairs, the crash of 1857 came with the suddenness of a 
whirlwind, and with its destructive terribleness. Many, 
when they went to sleep at night, with the supposition that 
they were wealthy, awoke in the morning to find themselves 

In the general ruin which swept over the country Des 
Moines suffered terribly. And among them were those who 
were the most liberal and most able supporters of our 
church, but now were overwhelmingly involved. 

I have simply alluded to the financial crisis as I drop the 
history of the school. But its bearing will at once be seen 
when I refer to causes which led me to resuscitate it in after 
years. And to the school I shall have occasion to allude 


In the spring of 1853, we contracted for the brick to com- 
plete the walls of the church. We encountered a new diffi- 
culty. There was but one saw-mill in that region which had 
the capacity to saw lumber long enough for our joists. 
This was located at the South side of Raccoon river, and 
almost exactly on the present site of Redhead 's^^ coal 
works, at the south end of seventh Street bridge. This was 
a steam mill, and of very uncertain vitality. However, a 
new owner had taken charge, and it seemed to be infused 
with a breath of new life. I saw the proprietor and in- 
quired if he could furnish our joists. He replied that he 
could do the sawing if we could furnish the logs. One of 
our members. Col. Griffiths, had purchased land on the east 

44 This doubtless refers to the Polk County Coal Company, of which Wesley 
Bedhead was president. 


side of the Des Moines river, where the city now stands, 
and was cutting off the timber. He offered us trees if we 
would cut and haul them to the mill. So we cut the logs and 
I engaged a man, the only one in that region who had a 
truck wagon, and oxen, to haul these logs. He agreed to do 
this job; but the first I knew, he had taken a job of prairie 
breaking, and had gone to do it. In the meantime the late 
spring rains had swollen the rivers so that fording was im- 
possible, and the owners of the Ferry boats would not take 
on several yoke of oxen and those heavy green oak logs, 
fearing that the weight would sink the boats. 

It was late before the rivers ran down low enough to al- 
low fording. But the time came at last and the logs were 
delivered at the mill. The season for building was rapidly 
drawing to a close. Calls for sawing and for lumber were 
multiplying, and offers for high prices were tempting. 
Hence, it was only at intervals that we could get our logs 
sawed little at a time. But when a load, or a fraction of a 
load was sawed, we hurried it over to the church, for the 
walls were up, waiting for the ceiling joists. I would run 
over before or after school to hurry up the sawing, only to 
be disappointed and to get a new promise. At length the 
major part was done, and the promise of the balance at a 
specified time given. I was on hand. But what was my 
consternation when coolly told that a man from the country 
had come needing lumber for a home, and the miller had 
sold ours. But he quietly said that he would get some more 
logs and replace the lumber. This was over thirty years 
ago ; and as the man was living at last advices it is possible 
that he may yet fulfill his promise, although I have not seen 
any symptoms since the promise was made. 

However, the carpenter, by splicing and putting in these 
at intervals, filled out the complement. 

The brick were secured and the gables were filled in at a 

VOL. xm — 15 


cost of $18 or $20 per thousand, and the roof put on in the 
winter ; this was the winter of 1854-5. 

During the summer of 1855 we got in the floor and had the 
plastering done ; and by putting loose boards for seats, we 
held a session of the Central Association in it in September. 
Money was raised and teams were sent to the Mississippi 
river for pine lumber to finish the house and make the pews, 
which I think cost us $90 per thousand. And so the house 
was completed at last, and in the winter of 1855-6 we for- 
mally entered the house, essentially free from debt. And 
after these numerous and vexatious delays, we felt to thank 
God and take courage. And as already remarked, the pews 
rented auspiciously, I gave up my school and settled down 
to regular pastoral work at home, and visiting and organ- 
izing churches in the region round about. 

So far as the church was concerned, I had been receiving 
about $50 per year. It was now proposed to give us a dona- 
tion. Brother and sister John L. Smith opened their 
home for the occasion, and we were invited there for the 
evening. The young men of the town, and families of the 
church came in, and sent in; and we had a most enjoyable 
time socially ; but as a financial ovation it was worth to us 
about $450. One man sent a check for $100, another for $50, 
and so on. The amount was perfectly amazing to us. I 
suppose that the church and the community, knowing that 
for years we had been working mostly without pay from 
them, took this occasion to make up something to help us 
out. It was certainly very timely, and a great relief to us. 

45 For a sketch of the life of John L. Smith see Andrews ' Pioneers of PolTc 
County, Iowa, Vol. II, pp. 99-102. He came to Fort Des Moines in 1854, ''pur- 
chased two lots near what is now the northwest corner of Eighth and Walnut, 
'out in the country,' and built a commodious one-story-and-a-half seven-room 
frame house, entirely of Black Walnut lumber, hauled on wagons from Daven- 
port. When the house was completed, it was furnished with furniture pur- 
chased in Cincinnati, and shipped by steamboats, arriving here on the Clara 
Hine, which tied up at 'Coon Point'. Some of the furniture was Rosewood, 
upholstered with fine haircloth". 


We held, as a church, a short series of meetings. Rev. 
Joshua Currier, of Monroe, aided us. There were about 14 
baptized as a result of the work. 

The first person baptized into the Baptist church of Des 
Moines was my niece, Mary Winton Griffiths, the eldest 
daughter of my brother. Captain Albert Nash. 

In our Sunday services we were highly favored with tal- 
ent in singing. Some of the best talent and finest singers in 
town were drawn together and took charge of our singing ; 
sometimes as a Quartette, sometimes in larger numbers. 
Of these I must mention Miss Georgia Praetor, — a member 
of our church. Misses Mary Jolms, Lucy Love, and Mary 
Doty; Messrs Moody, C. W. Keys, Hepburn, "Weaver, etc. 
And later on a choir in the circle of the members some of 
whom were Dr. and Mrs. Dickinson, and Dr. and Mrs. Mc- 
Gonnegal, Col. Bently and wife, Mrs. B. Layard and her 
sister, Mrs. Boutele, etc.*^ 

We were having steady accessions by letter and by bap- 
tism, and the prospects of our church were hopeful and 
bright. But the financial crash came and the influence on 
our community was terrible. Our church suffered in com- 
mon with the community. For some of the most influential, 
public spirited, and liberal men in the community were 
identified with the church and congregation, and a number 

46 It has not been possible to discover data concerning more than five of the 
people here mentioned. C. W. Keys was possibly Calvin W. Keyes, a sketch of 
whose life may be found in Andrews' Pioneers of Folk County, Iowa, Vol. I, 
pp. 169-173. Addison J. Hepburn was a brother of Mrs. Nash. He came to 
Des Moines in 1855 and the remainder of his life was spent there. See An- 
drews' Pioneers of Folk County, Iowa, Vol. II, pp. 405-408. Mr. Weaver, to 
whom reference is made, may have been C. W. Weaver, who arrived in Des 
Moines in 1855. Dr. W. H. Dickinson, who located in Des Moines in 1858, was 
one of the pioneers in the practice of homeopathic medicine in Iowa. It is 
possible that instead of Mrs. B. Layard was meant Mrs. F. E. Laird. Both 
Mr. and Mrs. Laird were active members of the Baptist Church. — The History 
of Folk County, Iowa, 1880, p. 880 ; Brigham 's History of Des Moines and Polk 
County, Vol. II, pp. 183, 184, 767-769. 


of these lost everything. Of course this knocked my salary 
down and it fell nearly to zero. At one time for about four- 
teen months I received about $130, $30 of which was money. 

The prospects of the church and most of its members 
from a worldly point of view, were gloomy in the extreme. 
Business men regarded it as only a panic, that there was no 
good reason why it should continue, and that in a few 
months it would be all over, and that business would resume 
as bright as ever. On this idea, to tide over, men borrowed 
money at 40%, and in this way, as matters grew worse and 
worse, they became deeper and deeper involved, and finally 
went under and were ruined. 

The State University had been located in Iowa City, and 
the old Capitol building was appropriated to its purposes. 
My geological and scientific tastes and habits had made me 
acquainted with some of our prominent educational men 
outside the Baptist denomination. When therefore, the 
Faculty was being selected my name was mentioned for a 
Professorship by a Presbyterian gentleman; and when I 
was approached with the desire that my name might be 
formally presented to the Board at its approaching meet- 
ing, I was assured that four of the five Trustees were in 
favor of my election, and so far as they knew the other was 
not opposed. I knew that the other was a Baptist, and his 
brother had been for a long time classmate in College with 
me, and I was not troubled about his vote. Added to this, 
it was a position as a Professor, which would be exceedingly 
agreeable to my feelings and tastes. Moreover the salary 
paid by the State was such a wondrous gain on any thing I 
was getting, or could expect as a missionary pastor in a 
western field. The temptation was great, for I felt that I 
could be very useful as a teacher among students. But 
there was another view; it could not be set aside in deciding 
a question which was to radically affect my whole work in 


life. ^^With whom should I leave these few sheep in the 
wilderness ? ' ^ The chnrch had been organized, had built its 
house of worship and undertaken all its work in connection 
with my coming, and with a view of remaining, at least 
some time among them. There was not in all this region a 
man of our own denomination to whom they could look for 
help and guidance for the years to come. What right then, 
had I to go, however flattering the inducements might be 
elsewhere 1 I had no answer of justification to my own con- 
science, or sense of justice to myself, to the church, or to 
Him whose Providential guiding hand, had as I believed, 
led me to Des Moines. 

The same divine voice that spoke to me on a former occa- 
sion was heard again with an intensified imperative, and 
promise : ^ ^ Go not to another field. Neither go from hence, 
but abide here fast by my interest. Do good, dwell in the 
land, and verily thou shalt be fed. ' ' 

Of course, I forbade my kind friends presenting my name. 
And the same voice seemed as imperative in after years 
when I have often felt here that my work was done, and 
probably I might accept a pastorate or the work of teaching 
elsewhere, when the College enterprise, a payless burden 
and care needed a present friend and watchful sentinel, 
still called to me, ^ * Go not to another field. ' ' 


Our cabin home on Walnut street was on a lot 66x132 
feet. A man came to me and wanted the west 22 feet ; and 
we sold it for $200 cash. Our cabin projected on to the 
middle one-third some two feet. A second man came and 
wanted that 20 feet front ; and we sold it to him for $300. 
Afterwards another wanted the remaining part with the 
cabin on it, and I sold it to him for $1300 ; or the whole for 
$1800. I had already purchased four acres of wild land 


between Ninth and Tenth streets, just north of where 
Messrs Rockwell and Dudley now live;^^ or some twenty 
rods north of School street. This was all covered with a 
dense growth of young trees ; hazel brush, etc. I had paid 
for it $100 per acre. This was far outside the corporation. 
Again some of our business men laughed at my greeness ; 
saying that Mr. Nash had paid $100 per acre for a calf pas- 
ture. It was not long after, that one of them who laughed 
the loudest came up and bought several acres right beside 
ours, on which was a large frog pond, and paid over, or 
about $300 per acre. 

We cleared off enough of the ground to plant a small 
garden and put up a small house. We at first put up a 
room, twelve by fifteen feet ; one story, into which we moved 
in May, after the last sale, the spring of 1855. This, with a 
shed for our cook stove, answered our purpose well for the 
summer. In autumn we built a small house, and entered it 
before the winter set in. It being then winter, it turned 
suddenly cold, and the wind blew a perfect gale. We put 
boards and blankets up to our windows, but those were 
playthings for the wind, and we spent the night in terror, 
fearing the wind might blow the house all to pieces. But 
we passed the night in safety. Soon after the windows 
were put in, and although the house was not very warm, 
fuel was plenty and cheap, and we passed the winter with 
comfort and happiness. 

The small room which we first built was turned around, 
and a story and half front put on, and I fitted these rooms 
up for my study. I afterwards bought nearly two and a 
half acres joining on the west for a pasture. Thus situated 
the financial crash of 1856-1860 came and found us consid- 

47 In 1886 D. H. and J. M. Eockwell lived on the west side at 1016 North 
Ninth Street, and C. A. Dudley lived at No. 1026 on the same street. — Bush- 
nelPs Des Moines Directory, 1886-1887. 


erably in debt; but we bad provided for it by our former 
sales. These persons failed with the crash, and left us 
without the means to meet our liabilities ; and with the al- 
most failure of our salary from the church, left us in a situ- 
ation, gloomy in the extreme. 

Several of our wealthier men had sent their sons east to 
school. I had been out in the country, south of the Kaccoon 
river, and when I stepped on to the Ferry boat on my re- 
turn, I met on the boat one of our citizens, and he remarked, 
well, the boys have got home from school. During our talk, 
while crossing the river, I casually remarked, that I some- 
times regretted that I gave up my old school. He had been 
a patron of it before. We parted with nothing more said 
on the subject; and so far as I observed, he had scarcely 
noticed my remark. I think that it was on the following 
day, that he and one of our largest merchants, rode up to 
see me, and proposed to me to take 12 boys for a year and 
superintend their education. I inquired what they pro- 
posed? They replied: 

1. I should agree to take twelve boys, whom they were to 
furnish. If they did not furnish the full number, they were 
to pay for twelve. 

2. They should not add any without my permission, and 
I should not add any without their consent. 

3. They offered to pay me $50 per scholar per annum. 
Each patron to furnish a desk and chair. One of them said, 
there is a room over my store that you can occupy. I asked 
them how would you like to have the boys come up to our 
place! Here is a pleasant room in my study. Better, and 
better, they said. You have a nice shady grove for a play 
ground, and it would be much better for the boys to be away 
from the public streets. So we made the bargain. I was 
amazed and overjoyed. So hard run were we for some- 
thing to live on, that if they had offered me half the amount, 


I should have seized it readily. I told them if they would 
advance me some part of it, I could make some needful ar- 
rangements, so as to go into my work untrammeled. This 
they did with great willingness. So the verification of the 
promise, ^^Do good, dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt 
be fed.'' 

I could supply the church and pay my way. I could meet 
my class, and when they were dismissed I could turn around 
to my table and go on with my preparation for my pulpit. 
Another benefit of their coming to our house was that my 
wife, a ready competent teacher was at hand ; and if a wed- 
ding or a funeral called me out for an hour, she could step 
in and ably and successfully fill my place. The year passed 
away pleasantly, and I think profitably for both parties; 
and without special incident, except that one of my boys 
during the summer and autumn vacation, while out hunting, 
by an accidental discharge of his gun, instantly killed him- 
self. His name was Pomeroy Cooper, son of Isaac Coop- 
er,*^ who was a nephew, or cousin of the great Novelist, 
James Fennimore Cooper, of Cooperstown, N. Y., whom I 
knew before coming west. 

As my year of school drew at a close, the work in which I 
was engaged assumed shape and proportion. Why not 
open my school to both sexes, charge about $40 per year 
tuition, enlarge the number, always keeping it within the 
limits of easy classification, and within the ability of myself 
and wife to manage? Accordingly we issued circulars to 
that effect; and our school at once enlarged and grew on 
our hands. Young people from the surrounding country 
and counties came to us. It soon transpired that certain of 
our families wanted a juvenile department, with Mrs. Nash 
at the head. These she could hear and still relieve me from 

48 For a sketch of the life of Isaac Cooper, see Andrews ' Pioneers of Folic 
County, Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 141-145. 


overwork, by receiving' a few of my classes in her room. 
Thus originated Forest Home Seminary; which grew on 
onr hands until the enrollment for the term would reach 
about 80. 

Thus we were enabled to pay our interest and taxes, live 
comfortably well, and keep the church supplied. But the 
labor was very great. We became crowded for room, and I 
fitted up a large room to meet the needs of our students. 
Thus our work went on. I had students fitting for college, 
classes in Latin, Mathematics, Surveying, Geometry, Men- 
suration, etc. etc. 

Thus our work went on until the winter of 1860-1, when 
a revival broke out in the church, and continued for about 
ten weeks, indeed until spring. So much time was demand- 
ed, that I secured help in my school, and stayed in it until 
noon, and spent the afternoon in visiting, attending after- 
noon and evening meetings. Of this meeting I will speak 
hereafter. Suffice it here to say, that after receiving a 
large accession of members, the church felt that they needed 
all my time. So while the school remained at my place, it 
was conducted chiefly by my assistant, Mr. Leonard 
Brown,^^ a former pupil of ours. I finally transferred to 
him, and with the opening of the fall term, it was removed 
down to his home, on 7th, just about Center street. 

Thus ended Forest Home Seminary. It is still a matter 
of serious query, whether we did right in surrendering this 
enterprise. We might have built up a large and permanent 
school; and in the future called to it money and assistance 
without doubt. But we did what seemed to be best. It was 
the best paying enterprise with which we have ever had 
anything to do. And we felt that, perhaps, it was a field in 
which for life, we could do the most good. 

49 A sketch of the life of Leonard Brown may be found in Andrews ' Pioneers 
of Folk County, Iowa, Vol. II, pp. 29-33. 



In no county of the State of Iowa has there reigned so 
mnch confusion in the matter of land titles as in Lee Coun- 
ty. First, a vast amount of litigation arose out of conflict- 
ing claims to lands belonging to the reservation established 
by the United States government for the half-breed mem- 
bers of the Sac and Fox tribes in 1824.^ Then, in the wake 
of the judicial settlement of titles to these lands, there fol- 
lowed a legal dispute which involved a Spanish land grant 
of the year 1799. 

At the head of the channel obstructions, or Des Moines 
rapids of the Mississippi, and within the later borders of 
the Half-breed Tract, Louis Honore or Louis Tesson, as 
he is variously known in early history, obtained permission 
from the Spanish government of Louisiana to settle upon 
7056 arpents of land — an area about three miles square. 
There, upon the site of the present town of Montrose, the 
French-Canadian built his cabins, cultivated a small patch, 
and bought furs from the Indians. ^ Most of the details of 
his life in the Iowa wilderness in those days have not yet 
been discovered — the whole story would be interesting and 

During his researches into the history of the half-breed 
lands in Lee County Mr. Karl Knoepfler came across a 

1 The complete history of this Half-breed Tract has been compiled by Mr. 
Karl Knoepfler for The State Historical Society of Iowa. His monograph is 
yet to be published. 

2 For other facts about Louis Tesson and documentary material on Spanish 
land grants in the Iowa country see the writer's article in The Iowa Jouenal 
OF History and Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 367-371. 



manuscript deposition made by Edward Brooks in August, 
1864, in the suit of Mary E. Cuddeback et al. vs, D. C. Rid- 
dick et al. The following material, consisting of extracts 
from the deposition, which is to be found on file in the court- 
house at Keokuk, Iowa, forms a history of the oldest chain 
of title to land in the State of Iowa. 

Jacob Vak dee Zee 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 


My personal knowledge of the Eiddick Title to the Mont- 
rose Lands commenced in the year 1834, arising from my 
intermarriage with Virginia C. Eiddick, the eldest child of 
the late Thomas F. Eiddick, and my individual interest in 
said lands is only a life interest derived by said marriage. 
In the year 1836 I took charge of said lands, as Agent for all 
of the Heirs, and from that date have had the management 
of the same and prosecuted all of the suits towards perfect- 
ing their title to the same. 

On investigating the title of the late Thomas F. Eiddick, 
who died in the year 1830, leaving a widow and four minor 
children as his heirs, I found that he claimed a regular de- 
rivitive title from Louis Tesson Honore^ an Indian Trader 
who settled among the Indians in the year 1799 at the head 
of the Lower Eapids on the Mississippi Eiver, at the loca- 
tion now known as the ^^Old Orchard"^ in the town of 

3 The Louis Tesson, alias Honore, here mentioned was probably the son of a 
tailor of the same name, the latter having been born in Canada in 1734. 
Lieutenant Pike on his expedition up the Mississippi in August, 1805, met the 
younger Louis near his establishment in the Iowa country and described him as 
*'much of a hypocrite, and possessing great gasconism". — Coues's The Expe- 
ditions of Zehulon M. Pilce, Vol. I, p. 222. 

4 Settlers in Lee County after 1833 found an old apple orchard, the planting 
of which has always been ascribed to Tesson. Nicolas Boilvin, the first Indian 


Montrose, under a Permit to settle from the Spanish Gov- 
ernor dated in March 1799, that he cultivated the land, and 
resided there nntill the year 1805 or 1806, that being indebt- 
ed to Joseph Eobidoux of St. Lonis, he transferred to him 
in the year 1806,^ his claim to a league square of land at the 
Head of the Lower Rapids, originating under the Treaty 
between France and the United States in the year 1804. In 
the year 1810 the said claim was sold at the Church door in 
St. Louis, as the property of Joseph Eobidoux Deceased, 
and was purchased by Thos. F. Eiddick at that sale and 

That under the Act of Congress appointing Commission- 
ers to adjust the French and Spanish claims to lands in the 
Territory of Louisiana, Thos. F. Eiddick proved up his 
claim for a league as assignee of Jos. Eobidoux, assignee of 
Louis Tesson Honore before said Commissioners, which 
claim for a league square was rejected by them, and only 
Six Hundred and Forty acres as a settlement right, was 
recommended to be confirmed by the Eeport of Frederick 
Bates Eecorder of Land Titles, Dated February 3d, 1816, 
which Eeport was confirmed by Act of Congress Approved 
April 29, 1816. That Thos. F. Eiddick not being satisfied 
with the decision of the Eecorder in only granting 640 
acres, instead of the league square as claimed, consequently 
petitioned Congress for an act of confirmation for the 
league square, but he died before the action of Congress in 

agent in the Iowa country, was ordered to plant a nursery of fruit trees some- 
where near the same spot. — The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 
Vol. XII, p. 494. 

5 Joseph Eobidoux (1783-1868) was the founder of St. Joseph, Missouri. 
The late Rev. William Salter is authority for the Statement that Tesson 's 
' ' property was seized under the Spanish law, and sold at public sale at the door 
of the parish church in St. Louis, at the conclusion of high mass, the people 
coming out in great numbers, after due notice given by the public crier of the 
town in a high and intelligible voice, on three successive Sundays, May 1, 8, 15, 
1803", and Robidoux got the land for $150. — Iowa: The First Free State in 
the LouiHuxna Purchase, p. 46. 


the premises. The petition was however continued by his 
heirs, and an act was passed by Congress on July 1st 1836 
again confirming only 640 acres, with certain provisos, 
which act the Heirs declined to receive, and take a Patent 
under same. 

In the year 1833 the tract was occupied by the United 
States after the Black Hawk War, and a Dragoon Post 
called Camp or Fort Desmoines^ was erected on the same 
by Captn. Crossman. Said Crossman was notified, and was 
personally aware that he was locating said Post on the Rid- 
dick Claim, as he had proposed to purchase said claim from 
the heirs previous to the location of the Post. During the 
occupancy of the Post, an exparte survey of the Riddick 
claim was made by J enif er T. Sprigg, under an order from 
the War Dept. for parties interested in Half Breed Claims, 
which survey being illegal, was not received or approved 
by the Commissioner of the General Land office at Washing- 
ton City. 

Application was consequently made in the year 1837 by 
the Heirs of Riddick to the Commissioner of the General 
Land office for an order of Survey of the Riddick Claim, 
under the Act of Confirmation of April 29th 1816, and by 
an order directed to William Willburn Surveyor General 
from the Commissioner, Dated October 11th 1837, he was 
directed to have the claim surveyed accordingly. In April 
1838 he ordered Isaac T. Woods Deputy U. S. Surveyor to 
proceed from St. Louis, and make the survey. He conse- 
quently proceeded to the ground accompanied by myself, 
and after satisfying himself by parole evidence of the orig- 
inal location of Honore's improvements, he made the sur- 
vey of the exterior boundary lines of the mile square in my 

6 Fort Des Moines (No. 1) was completed in November, 1834, by Stephen 
Watts Kearny, just north of the old apple orchard, and abandoned by the 
dragoons in June, 1837. — The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. 
XII, pp. 178-182. 


At that date April 1838, there were no buildings, improve- 
ments, or cultivation outside of the barracks, on said tract 
of land. The western and farthest corner of the survey 
was located in an open flat prairie, and was marked by a 
Post on a Mound, under which was deposited three stones, 
and the southwestern boundary line ran from that point 
diagonally through said prairie to the Bluff in a South 
Eastwardly course. The land claimed by the plaintiffs was 
not occupied by any person at that date, nor any other land 
outside of the survey in that vicinity. 

The survey made by Isaac T. Woods was returned to the 
Surveyor General at St. Louis, Mo, and was forwarded by 
him to the Commissioner of the Greneral Land ofi&ce, ap- 
proved by him, and a Patent, reciting the derivitive chain 
of title, and specifying the exterior boundary lines from the 
Surveyors Field Notes, was issued at Washington, on Feb- 
ruary 7th 1839,^ to Thomas F. Riddick assignee of the 
Estate of Joseph Roubidoux, assignee of Louis Tesson 
Honore, and to his heirs and assignees forever. The delay 
between the time of returning the survey, and the issuing 
of the Patent, was occasioned by the opposition, and protest 
of the Half Breed claimants and the New York Company at 
Washington, against its issue, and the case was argued 
there before the Commissioner on its merits. The present 
heirs of the late Thomas F. Riddick, to wit Virginia C. 
Brooks, Frances E. Billon, Walter I. Riddick, and Dabney 
C. Riddick, hold their title to the mile square, known as the 

7 A translated copy of the Spanish grant, a copy of the legal process, and a 
copy of the United States patent to this square mile of land, signed by Presi- 
dent Martin Van Buren, were exhibited at the fifteenth annual meeting of The 
State Historical Society of Iowa, on the 23d of June, 1873. This patent is said 
to be the first issued by the United States government to cover land in the 
State of Iowa, a similar patent for the Giard tract in Clayton County not being 
issued until the year 1844. See Salter's loiva: The First Free State in the 
Louisiana Purchase, p. 47; The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. 
XII, pp. 369, 370. 


Montrose Tract, under the above specified derivative title, 
and a United States Patent No 3095, issued in confirmation 
of the same, and dated at Washington on February 7th, 

When the U. S. Government proposed to abandon the 
Post in 1837, application was made by myself in behalf of 
the heirs, to the Hon. Joel E. Poinsett, Secretary of War, 
stating that the Post had been located on their private 
property, and asking that the property & buildings on the 
same should be turned over to said heirs in consideration 
of said occupancy, giving as a reason for said request, that 
it was generally understood that Lieut. Col. Mason, and 
other officers at the post intended to turn over the same to 
the Agent of the New York Co. in consideration of said 
Company buying out the officers half breed claims. In the 
answer of the Hon. Secty of War, Dated June 22d 1837, he 
states that the Department was never officially advised by 
the proper officers, that the Fort was located on private 
lands, but now finding that government was an intruder on 
private lands, he had directed the withdrawal of the Agent 
left in charge of the government property, leaving the ad- 
verse claimants to pursue their rights, and interests in their 
own way. 

The Post was abandoned about June 1st, 1837, and an 
order was issued from the Quarter Master Generals Dept. 
dated October 17th 1837 to Captn G. H. Crossman Asst. 
Qr. Master, ordering him to proceed in person to the Post, 
and ascertain the state of the case, and if he found that Lt. 
Col. Mason had placed any one in possession of the prem- 
ises, under lease or otherwise, to declare the same void, and 
order the holders to vacate the premises, and take the neces- 
sary measures to carry the order of the Secty. of War into 
effect. Captn. Crossman arrived at St. Louis in November 
1837, and informed me of his intention of visiting Fort Des- 


moines. I accordingly accompanied him, and we arrived 
there on Nov. 10th 1837. 

On enquiry, a Mr. Henry S. Austin was found residing 
there, and professed to be the resident Agent of the New 
York Company. Capt. Grossman in company with Captn. 
J. B. Browne and myself had an interview with Mr. Austin 
in his office when Capt. Crossman informed him of the ob- 
ject of his visit, and notified him verbally, that he no longer 
held possession under any authority from the United States 
Government, or any of its officers, but he did not require 
him to vacate the premises, or attempt to carry the orders 
of the Secty of War into effect, as he Crossman was a Half 
Breed claimant himself, and for which neglect of duty I 
preferred charges against him. Mr. Austin replied, that he 
did not hold possession under the United States, but as 
Agent of the New York Company, who claimed the owner- 
ship of the whole tract as Half Breed claimants. I then 
personally informed Mr. Austin that I as Agent, and in be- 
half of the Heirs of Thos. F. Eiddick claimed the right of 
possession of the land covered by the Riddick claim and 
demanded him and those holding possession to deliver up 
possession to me, which demand he declined to comply with. 

The question of title remained in statu quo untill after 
the issuing of the Patent on Feby 7th 1839, when in March 
1839 I proceeded to Montrose and informed the parties lo- 
cated on the tract, that I intended to bring an Action of 
Eight against all persons holding adverse possession. At 
the April Term 1839 of the U. S. District Court of Lee 
County an Action of Eight was commenced against the fol- 
lowing named parties, to wit : William Coleman, David W. 
Killbourne, Henry S. Austin, John Shaw, Thomas Gregg, 
George Stubbins, Isaac Williams, Elijah Fordham, Anson 
M. Bissell, Calvin Bebee, Wrandle Mace, Joseph B. Noble, 
John Taylor, Brigham Young,^ Martin M. Kellogg, William 

8 The Mormons then owned considerable land in Lee County. Their temple 
city of Nauvoo was just across the river in Illinois. i 



Lewis, Harman Booth, being all the parties living on the 
tract, and claiming adverse possession at that date under 
the Half Breed Title. No person or family of the name of 
Cudderhack were living on the mile square at that date 
April 1839. 

The suit against William Coleman after being postponed 
by the Defdt. for several terms of Court, came up for trial 
at the April Term 1842 and judgement was given in favour 
of Eiddick's Heirs. The suit against David W. Killbourne 
was postponed from term to term and at the Entry Term 
May 9 1840 on motion of Eeid and Johnson, Samuel Marsh, 
William E. Lee, and Edward C. Delavan^ were substituted 
as landlords in place of all of the Defendants in all of the 
suits, and the case was continued generally. At the April 
Term 1842 on the affidavit of David W. Killburn that the 
Defendants could not have a fair trial in Lee County, for 
reason that the inhabitants of said County are prejudiced 
against said Defendants, a change of Venue was granted to 
Henry County. 

At the September Term 1842 in the U. S. District Court 
for Henry County, it was agreed betwen the attorneys for 
both Plaintiffs and Defendants, that the case then pending 
should be tried, and all the other suits embracing the whole 
mile square remaining untried shall abide the event of said 
trial, and if taken to a higher Court or Courts, that the de- 
cision there made shall control the rights of the parties in 
all the other suits. At the September Term 1843 the case 
came up for trial, and judgement was rendered in favour of 
Eiddicks Heirs. Marsh, Lee and Delavan then appealed 
the cases to the Supreme Court for the Territory of Iowa, 
and after being continued from October 31st 1843 the date 
of Entry, untill January 26th 1846, judgement was given by 

9 Marsh, Lee, and Delavan had organized a partnership under the firm name 
of the New York Land Company and had bought up the Half-breed Tract. 

VOL. xm — 16 


the Supreme Court on that date, affirming the judgement of 
the Court below in favour of Eiddicks Heirs. 

The Plaintiffs in Error Marsh, Lee and Delavan then 
appealed the case to the Supreme Court of the United 
States at Washington City. The case was argued at the 
December Term 1849 of said Court, and the judgment was 
reversed and the case was remanded for another trial de 
novo. During the long pendency of the above suits, the 
then Territory of Iowa had become the State of Iowa, and 
as Eiddicks Heirs were non residents of that State, I conse- 
quently commenced the remanded suit in the U. S. District 
Court for the Southern District of Iowa, and at the June 
Term 1851 judgement was given in favour of Eiddicks 
Heirs for the whole tract, as specified from the boundaries 
in the Patent. 

The Plaintiffs in Error, Marsh, Lee and Delavan ap- 
pealed the case again to the U. S. Supreme Court at Wash- 
ington, and at the December Term 1852 of said Court, the 
case was argued, and the judgement of the U. S. District 
Court of Iowa in favour of Eiddicks Heirs was affirmed. 
On the final decision of the suits in the U. S. Supreme Court 
in favour of Eiddicks Heirs, I employed Orrin Baldwin a 
Deputy Surveyor for Lee County, to lay out the present 
Town Plat of Montrose and subdivide the remainder of the 
Mile square on May 8 1853, who proceeded and completed 
the same, and a certified copy of the Town Plat of Montrose 
and subdivision of the whole Tract dated July 30th 1853 
was duly deposited in the Eecorders office for Lee County 
at Fort Madison. 

At the November Term 1853, an application was filed in 
the District Court for Lee County by Edward Brooks and 
Virginia C. his wife against the other three heirs for a par- 
tition of said lands equally among the four heirs, and at the 
said November Term 1853 Commissioners were duly ap- 



pointed by the Court to make said partition. At the April 
Term 1854 the said Commissioners filed their report on 
April 5th 1854, stating that they had on February 28th 
1854, met at the Town of Montrose, and divided the Town 
Lots and Outlots into Four equal shares in value, and had 
apportioned the same to each heir, as specified in the report, 
which report and partition was duly confirmed, and said 
partition was duly decreed by said District Court on April 
5th 1854. From that date the interest and ownership of the 
Four Heirs to their respective shares in said Montrose 
Mile square, has been separate and distinct according to 
said decree of partition of April 5th 1854. 

[The following is cross interrogatory No. 5 of the deposition and Brooks' 

Do you not know that Dr. Isaac Galland as Agent of the 
New York Company, and an owner of a large portion of the 
interest of that Company in the Half Breed Sac and Fox 
reservation of lands, in Lee County, Iowa, claimed the ex- 
clusive ownership in fee of the lands in controversy, and 
sold, and deeded the same to one Price Hawley about the 
year 1840, putting said Hawley in possession. 

I never had any personal acquaintance with, or business 
intercourse with Dr. Isaac Galland,^^ either as Agent of the 
New York Company, nor in any other manner. I always 
understood that the claim of Dr. Galland as a Half Breed 
claimant was as an individual, and sole owner, and not as a 
member or Agent of the New York Company and conse- 
quently was antagonistic to the New York Company. I 
never knew or heard of his selling any portion of the land 
on the Eiddick Claim to Price Hawley or to any other per- 
son, and from the year 1837 when I first visited the lands 

10 Dr. Isaac Galland squatted upon the Half-breed Tract in 1829 and founded 
Nashville (now called Galland), being convinced that the spot was destined to 
become a great commercial center. The assertion has been made that Galland 's 
daughter, Eleanor, was the first white child born in the Iowa country. 



as Agent for the Riddick Heirs, Dr. Galland never inter- 
fered with me, either directly or indirectly, or ever set up 
any claim in any manner on the tract, or in the lands in 

Henry S. Austin was the first person I knew or had any 
intercourse with as Agent for the New York Company in 
the year 1837, and he was succeeded by David W. Kill- 
bourne as Eesident Agent for said New York Company. 
The trial of title for the Eiddick Claim as particularly de- 
tailed in my answer to Interog No. 3 of the direct examina- 
tion, was exclusively conducted by the Heirs of Eiddick 
against the New York Company, who claimed the special 
ownership of the Montrose Tract, and that all the parties 
living on the same were their tenants. Neither Dr. Galland 
nor any of the individual claimants or owners of Half 
Breed claims, ever contested the Eiddick claim, or contrib- 
uted anything towards the expences of the suit incurred by 
the New York Company, but that after the issuing of the 
Patent to Eiddicks Heirs, by the United States, Dr. Galland, 
and all of the individual claimants, considered the Eiddick 
Title good from that date, and consequently stood aloof 
waiting the event of the New York Company gaining the 
suit, when they would then pitch in for their respective 
shares in the Montrose Mile Square. 

As Half Breed Claimants the New York Co. claimed that 
the Montrose Mile Square belonged to, and was a part of 
the Half Breed Eeservation, and that question of title gave 
rise to the suits between Eiddicks Heirs and Marsh, Lee 
and Delavan representing the New York Company, which 
suits finally resulted in favour of Eiddicks Heirs, but in 
what manner, or under what right the New York Company 
set up the exclusive claim of ownership to the Montrose 
Mile Square and caused themselves to be substituted as 
landlords in the suits brought by Eiddicks Heirs against all 
the parties in occupancy, I never knew, or could ascertain. 


[The following is cross interrogatory No. 6 of the deposition and Brooks' 

Do you not know that about the year 1840 said Isaac 
Galland was considered by a large portion of the people 
about Montrose to be the true owner in fee of the lands in 
controversy, and other lands adjacent thereto, and that he 
sold, and conveyed a great many of said lands to various 
persons, putting them in possession of the same. 

I know nothing personally in reference to the claims or 
titles of Dr. Isaac Galland in the Half Breed Tract, or in 
the lands in controversy. I understood from common ru- 
mour that Dr. Galland professed to be the individual owner 
of the greater portion of the Half Breed Tract, and sold out 
his individual interest, or right to any piece a party might 
select, and located any where on the Half Breed Tract, but 
I never heard of his setting up any claim to the land in con- 
troversy, or selling any lots or lands within the Montrose 
Mile Square. In 1840 the claims or titles to the Half Breed 
Tract were in an unsettled condition, and Dr. Gallands titles 
were considered as good as any body elses. Parties bought 
and sold the land and claims at pleasure, whether they had 
any title or not, and no legal title outside of the Eiddick 
Mile Square existed in any one for altho' the Decree Title 
which was engendered in fraud and brought forward in 
iniquity, has given, by general consent of the parties inter- 
ested as Half Breed Claimants some shadow of title, and 
possession and the statutes of limitation may eventually 
settle the Half Breed Title among themselves, yet that title 
will not stand the legal test of trial in Courts against out- 


[Beginning with the year 1837 the Yearly Meetings of Friends of New 
England and New York became very much interested in ' * the numerous tribes, 
and parts of tribes of Indians, formerly located in various parts of the United 
States, east of the Mississippi, but which, through the agency of the general 
government, have been induced of latter time, reluctantly to abandon their 
ancient cherished homes, and suffered themselves to be removed to the wild 
lands west of that river." Consequently, in September, 1842, two Friends set 
out to visit some of the tribes in question, and upon their return they made a 
report, portions of which were published in the Quaker publication known as 
The Friend, from which those parts relating to the Indian tribes then living 
in the Iowa country are reprinted below. No attempt has been made to verify 
the statements of the two visitors, but it is believed that they present a reason- 
ably truthful picture of life and conditions in the tribes. 

The account of the visit to the Winnebagoes in northeastern Iowa is taken 
from The Friend, December 23, 1843. In a future number of The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics there will appear an article by Mr. Jacob 
Van der Zee, containing a detailed history of the Neutral Ground, where the two 
Friends visited the Winnebagoes. — Dan E. Clark.] 

Having completed our arrangements for the journey, we 
took leave of the committee and many other Friends, and 
pursued our way to the Ohio Yearly Meeting. We there 
met with the committee on the concern for the Indians, of 
that Yearly Meeting, heard their report respecting the 
Shawnee school, and made such inquiries as seemed proper 
respecting the best mode of getting to the Mississippi river. 
Having a special desire to commence our journey as far 
north as the Winnebago tribe of Indians — and fearing that 
the boats would be impeded, on account of the low stage of 
the water in the Ohio river, it seemed most advisable to 
take the northern route. We accordingly travelled by land 
to Cleveland, thence by steam-boat to Detroit, and by land 
across the State of Michigan to the Mouth of St. Joseph's 
river. Here we took steam-boat over Lake Michigan sixty 



miles to Chicago. After waiting one day in this place, we 
departed by stage for Galena and Dubuque, crossing the 
State of Illinois, a distance of one hundred and eighty miles. 
We arrived at Dubuque early on First-day morning, the 
25th of Ninth month ; and the following evening procured a 
conveyance to the Winnebago Indians. 

On the 29th of the month, we reached the mission for the 
Winnebago tribe of Indians, and took lodgings with the sub- 
agent David Lowry, where we were kindly entertained by 
him and his family, and every facility in their power af- 
forded us for conferring with the Indians, as well as a readi- 
ness evinced to furnish such information as was desired. 

This tribe is located north-west from Iowa Territory, and 
west of Prairie du Chien, on lands called the Neutral Ground. 
They are located in different parts of this land in settle- 
ments called villages. Their principal one, called the School 
Band, is near the sub-agency of David Lowry, on Turkey 
river, about one hundred miles north-west from Dubuque, 
and within four or five miles of Fort Atkinson. They num- 
bered altogether about two thousand. These Indians live in 
rude lodges, or wigwams, as they are sometimes called, built 
in the usual Indian style, by forcing forked sticks into the 
ground for posts, into the forks of which they lay poles for 
plates and ribs, preparatory to covering them with oak 
bark. The sides are either made of bark, mats made of 
flags, or skins fastened to the plates, and extending to the 
ground. These wigwams are from ten to twenty-five feet 
in length, and about ten feet wide. The inside of the build- 
ing is fitted up with a sort of frame-work on each side, made 
of poles about two feet high, and three feet wide, intended 
as a sort of bedstead, on which they fasten skins or mats, 
where they lounge and sleep, leaving space through the 
centre four feet wide. At each end there is an aperture or 
door. The fire is built in the centre, -the smoke escaping 
through a hole in the top. 


There are not nnfrequently as many as three or four 
families, amounting to twenty persons or more, occupying 
one of these miserable hovels. When about their homes, 
they live principally upon soups, made of wild fowl and 
venison, turnips and potatoes. They also eat an abundance 
of boiled corn. Some corn-bread, and a very little wheat 
flour are used by them. 

There is no regular order as to the time or manner of 
taking their meals. Some are seen eating their soups out- 
side of their wigwams, some are eating while sitting on 
their beds ; while others are engaged in different pursuits ; 
and should any person of another family happen to come 
into the lodge when he needed food, he would as freely par- 
take, without invitation, as he would of his own. 

The dress of the men consists mainly of blankets ; all of 
them wear the waistcloth ; some wear moccasins and leggins, 
and a few wear a calico frock or shirt. The head is gener- 
ally uncovered ; a few, however, use a turban. The dress of 
the women consists of a broad cloth skirt and blanket. 
Some of them wear moccasins and leggins ; the head is en- 
tirely uncovered, except that the blanket is sometimes 
thrown over it for a covering, but they use no other. The 
dress of the large children is similar to that of the grown 
persons of the same sex. Most of the small children go 
naked during the warm seasons; but those that attend 
school are clothed similarly to the white children on the 
frontier settlements. The greater part of the men and wom- 
en wear ornaments, such as wampum, beads, bells, and jew- 
elry. Most of the men paint their faces on special occa- 
sions ; some part of the face is painted red and some black. 

The principal employment of the men consists of hunting 
at certain seasons of the year ; and when not thus engaged, 
they do but very little labour of any kind, it being consid- 
ered disgraceful both by men and women for the man to be 


seen at work. Much of their time is spent in riding, of 
which they are exceedingly fond. They likewise spend a 
portion of it in ball-playing and other sports, and a consid- 
erable time is spent in lounging about in idleness. The 
women are generally industrious, performing the greater 
part of the manual labour both in the camp and on the land. 
They look dejected, and appear more like slaves than other- 
wise. Many of the women and children receive very severe 
treatment from the men in their drunken revels ; from which 
cause some of them are maimed. 

The Winnebagoes have but one school, and that is sup- 
ported by the general government, and is under the imme- 
diate superintendence of the sub-agent. There have been, 
the past year, about ninety children at the school, some of 
whom have made pretty good proficiency in learning. The 
school was vacated while we were there. We were informed 
that there was much difficulty in getting a portion of the 
children to attend constantly, in consequence of an undue 
influence exercised over them by interested men. This 
school may be considered as rather an interesting institu- 
tion ; and, from what we could gather from the teachers, the 
children are as susceptible of instruction as the whites. 
They are taught in the English language altogether. 

This tribe is governed by chiefs, who sometimes receive 
the office by hereditary descent ; and at others, by a choice of 
the people ; and sometimes they are appointed by the agents 
of the general government. They have some vague notions 
of the Deity, or Great Spirit, as he is more generally called 
by them. They also believe in a state of future rewards 
and punishments, and talk about a bad spirit. Very few, if 
any, have embraced Christianity. 

The Winnebagoes this year raised about 2500 bushels of 
Indian corn, besides a pretty large supply of potatoes and 
other vegetables, on grounds prepared by the agent of the 


government near his location, by the band called the School 
Band. The annuity paid to this tribe amounts to nearly 
ninety thousand dollars in money, goods and appropriations 
for different purposes. Previously to their receiving it, the 
sub-agent collects the whole tribe, and pays over to the head 
of each family the amount due them. Notwithstanding the 
large sum which they receive they are still in a deplorable 
and suffering condition, and fast wasting away. Much of 
their misery may be traced to the treatment of some of the 
white people towards them. But leaving the past, and look- 
ing only to the present conduct of the white man, it is evi- 
dent that unless something more effectual is done to break 
up the corrupt and iniquitous tralBfic in whiskey, as well as 
the fraudulent trade carried on among the Indians by some 
of those persons licensed by the government, the Winne- 
bagoes will, in a few years, be numbered with the tribes 
that are not.* We were credibly informed, that in defiance 
of the present rigid laws, immediately after the payment of 
1841, there was sold to this tribe two hundred barrels of 
whiskey, and at the time of our being there in 1842, the 
whiskey sellers had increased in number one-third. These 
whiskey dealers and licensed traders find a strong induce- 
ment to follow up the poor Indian, from the fact that he re- 
ceives so large a payment at one time. 

The Indian, as a general thing, is improvident to the last 
degree, and but poorly calculated to keep any amount of 
surplus property; so that within four or five days the 
whiskey seller residing on the frontier, and the licensed 
trader, who is permitted to vend his goods among them, get 
nearly all the money. The licensed traders are numerous, 

*We were informed by the agent that he had registered the names of thirty- 
nine Indians, who had been butchered in their drunken revels among them- 
selves, within the space of fourteen months; and he did not doubt, but that 
there were others who had been killed in this way, whose names had not come 
to his knowledge. 


and generally plant themselves at the time the money is 
paid over, in the immediate vicinity of the place where the 
payment is made. They sell the Indians the most trifling 
and worthless articles for an enormous profit ; the Indian is 
tempted often times to buy these articles from their gaudy 
appearance. After he has parted with his last dollar in 
money to the whiskey seller, or licensed trader, in payment 
of old debts for whiskey, or for some of the above men- 
tioned articles, (and the Indian is always largely indebted 
to these dealers,) he then takes the articles he has pur- 
chased of the licensed trader to the whiskey shop, and sells 
them for a much less price than he gave, and takes his pay 
in whiskey, at ten or even twenty times the actual cost to the 
settler. It is no uncommon thing for an Indian, after he 
has parted with all his money, and many other necessary 
articles, to barter away his gun, horse, and even his blanket 
for a few bottles of whiskey. We were credibly informed, 
that these whiskey shops not unfrequently have large piles 
of blankets, and large stacks of guns, that have been taken 
from the poor natives for a little whiskey. 

Thus we see that the policy of the government, and the 
benevolent efforts of those who are honestly labouring 
among them for their good, are almost wholly defeated by 
the avarice of those lawless men. 

On Sixth-day of the week, and the first of Tenth month, 
agreeably to previous arrangement, we met about thirty 
of their chiefs and principal men in council at the agent's 
house. Our object in calling them together, was explained 
by David Lowry, the sub-agent; and then our certificates 
from our friends, and the letters and talk from the Sec- 
retary of War, addressed to the Indians, were severally 
read and explained to them. We then felt constrained to 
make a few remarks, and to extend such advice as seemed 
proper; after which. Little Hill, one of the chiefs replied. 


That what he had heard was very good, and that they had 
heard a number of talks from their great father, the Pres- 
ident ; and he had promised to help them, and keep off the 
whiskey sellers, but he had not done it, and now it was too 
late. He supposed he had tried, but could not; that he 
had such great matters to attend to, that he could not see 
to their small concerns; and now it was too late to help 

We then told them we did not believe it was too late for 
them to refrain from drinking whiskey. We told them, 
that much that they complained of, we believed to be true, 
and that the white man had wronged them; but that we 
wished them to understand that they yet had good friends 
among the whites, who were grieved with the conduct of 
bad white men towards them ; we hoped they would not be 
discouraged, but try to do better themselves; and that we 
and our brothers at home were disposed to do all in our 
power to help them. And after making, on our part, some 
other remarks relative to their condition, they expressed 
their satisfaction. Little Hill spoke to some of the elder 
chiefs, and, as we understood, requested them to reply to 
us, as he was young, and wanted some of his elder friends 
to make a speech. They severally said, they were well 
pleased with our talk, but had nothing further to say. Lit- 
tle Hill then rose and shook hands with us, and then com- 
menced speaking with us through the interpreter, young 
Lowry. Eeferring to their former condition, previous to 
their intercourse with the whites, he said: *^The Great 
Spirit had made us all, but he had made us different. Some 
men he made white, some he made red, and placed them at 
a distance one from the other.'' They, the red men, lived 
happy, and he supposed the white man lived happy too. 
They then had no sickness nor deaths amongst them, except 
from old age; all their people lived to be old and white- 



headed. But when the white man came among them, they 
then became sick, and died yonng. The white man brought 
fire-water amongst them; they supposed the white man 
got the whiskey from the bad spirit, for surely they never 
got it from the Good Spirit. They began to sell it to the 
Indians, and then their miseries commenced ; and they had 
become reduced, and could not refrain from drinking, so 
long as the white man sold it to them; and now they de- 
spaired of ever being any better, and the only way for them 
to be made better was to keep the whiskey away. The white 
man did not know what it was to go hungry and cold; but 
the poor Indian did; he believed that we pitied them, and 
talked to them for their good, and he thanked us for it, 
and said he would tell it to his people, and hoped they would 
mind our talk; to which they all assented. He then said. 
Brothers I have nothing more to say, and shaking hands 
with us again, sat down. 

[The following account of the visit at the Sac and Fox Agency (now Agency 
City) is copied from The Friend, December 30, 1843. The treaty referred to is 
the treaty of October 11, 1842, by which the Sac and Fox Indians ceded to the 
United States government the last of their land within the present boundaries 
of Iowa.] 

After gathering the foregoing facts and observations 
respecting the Winnebagoes, we took leave of our friend 
Lowry and family, as well as the other white inhabitants 
connected with them at the establishment, and returned to 
Dubuque, on the Mississippi. We then took steam-boat 
down the river, about two hundred miles to Burlington: 
thence we took stage and private conveyance by way of 
Mount Pleasant and Salem, Iowa, to the Sacs and Fox 
agency, distant about eighty miles. We reached this place 
the eighth of Tenth month, about one o'clock P. M. The 
tribes were, at the time, assembled for the purpose of ne- 
gotiating a treaty with the general government, through 


Governor Jolm Chambers, the negotiator. The whole Sac 
and Fox nation were in the neighborhood, but the men only 
attended the council. Jnst as we reached the council, the 
chiefs commenced speaking, and spoke with much anima- 
tion. One of the Fox chiefs spoke first, and then a Sac, 
and so alternately, till four had spoken, the last being Ke- 
okuk, their principal chief, a celebrated orator. The pur- 
port of their talk was about the same, and resulted in an 
agreement to sell all their lands to the United States for 
the sum of one million and fifty-five thousand dollars. 
Eight hundred thousand of this sum was to be put at inter- 
est at five per cent., and the remainder to be appropriated to 
the payment of their debts. They were also to be provided 
with lands to settle on, south-west of the Missouri river, 
where they were to remove within three years. 

After the adjournment of the council at that time, we 
went to the agent 's house, where the governor put up during 
his stay at this place. He received us kindly, and entered 
into conversation very freely, respecting the condition 
of these tribes of Indians. He remarked, that unless some- 
thing was done to better their condition, and that soon, 
they must in a very few years all be wasted away, in con- 
sequence of the wickedness and treachery of the whiskey 
sellers, and other traders, who are taking advantage of 
these poor ignorant natives, by obtaining their money and 
other valuable articles in exchange for whiskey, and trifling 
commodities of no real value to the Indians. These arti- 
cles, he remarked, are frequently sold to them for ten or 
twenty, and, in some instances, for a hundred times their 
real cost; and, in a very short time, these unprincipled 
traders manage to obtain the last dollar the Indian has. 
And he further said, that some of the accounts brought 
in against the Indians stagger credulity; in one instance, 
one of these accounts was exhibited for settlement, amount- 


ing to sixteen thousand dollars, which he had ascertained 
to have grown out of the remnants of an old stock of goods 
not worth five hundred dollars. He remarked that whiskey 
was, no doubt, in many instances, sold to the Indians and 
charged as corn, blankets, or other articles which the li- 
censed traders have a right to sell to the Indians, while 
it is unlawful to sell them whiskey. He said also, that the 
advice of the whiskey sellers and other traders was un- 
bounded in its influence upon the Indian, and that he had 
found much difficulty in treating with them on that account, 
as these traders were constantly hanging about them, and 
advising them against adopting such a course as would 
be for their good, and cautioning them not to leave the chase, 
nor lay down the gun or the blanket, nor to have schools 
established among them, and, in fine, against civilization 
in any way. What we saw and heard during our stay at 
the Council Ground, fully confirmed the statements of the 
governor. While we were there, we met with men of in- 
fluential character, some of whom it is known have been 
long engaged in a trade with the Indians, by which they 
have amassed great wealth. These men used their utmost 
skill to make us believe that the Indians were a happy peo- 
ple; that there was no necessity for any benevolent exer- 
tions on their behalf, and that they were now trying to live 
very comfortably. An Indian, say they, was made to hunt, 
not to work ; and they are so very happy in keeping to their 
old habits of living, that any attempts to induce a change 
only serve to make them unhappy. They argued against 
educating the Indians, altogether, either within or without 
their borders ; saying, they have as much knowledge as it is 
necessary for an Indian to possess. 

There were also other men associated with these traders, 
either by friendship or otherwise, men of high standing in 
the community, who were forward in sustaining them in 


their selfish and erroneous statements. And what is most 
to be deplored is, that the Indians will more readily listen 
to the counsel of these men, than to those who are disinter-^ 
estedly engaged for their good. We can but hope, however,, 
that when they shall be removed to their new homes, all 
intercourse with their old advisers may be broken off, and 
they be left to receive better counsel from men who are not 
so intently bent on their own aggrandizement at the expense^ 
of the life and happiness of the Indian. 

These tribes number in all about two thousand two hun- 
dred. They are a large stately race, particularly the men.. 
None of these Indians, to our knowledge, cultivate the soil 
but they are, in general, hunters. They have, however, a 
large pattern farm carried on for their benefit, by a govern- 
ment farmer. Their annuity, at this time, is about half the^ 
amount of that of the Winnebagoes. They live in wigwams,, 
or lodges, similar to those of all the uncivilized Indians. 
They have no schools, nor any civil or religious institutions, 
among them ; but in other respects, their manners and cus- 
toms are about the same as those of the Winnebagoes. A 
few of their children have received some instruction at the 
Choctaw Academy in Kentucky ; but for the want of a suit- 
able opportunity to apply what little learning they may 
have obtained, and in consequence of the jealousy and 
prejudice of their own nation against civilization, soon after 
their return, they fell into the habits of their uncivilized 
brethren. There was little opportunity, while there, of con- 
versing with them, owing to their engagements in making 
their treaty. We visited most of their tents, and took a 
view of them as they were encamped on the open prairie. 

After collecting what facts we could in relation to these 
tribes, we returned to Salem, a distance of about fifty miles, 
where we staid two or three days with Friends, and then 
returned to the Mississippi, where we took stage at Fort 


Madison for Keokuk, and from thence by steamboat went to 
St. Louis. While there we called on J). D. Mitchell, superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs. He received us kindly. We pre- 
sented him with our documents from the government, as 
well as our certificates from our friends at home. He gave 
us a passport to travel through all the tribes within his 

[The brief account of the visit to the Pottawattamies which follows is copied 
from The Friend, January 20, 1844. It is to be noted that the Indians visited 
by the two travelers were living in Kansas, but since other members of the same 
tribe had their homes in western Iowa at the same time, the account has been 

After collecting the foregoing account respecting these 
small tribes, we left for the Potowatomie nation, situated on 
Potowatomie creek, about sixty miles from the Shawnee 
school, and eighteen miles from A. L. Davis 's agency. We 
arrived at the house of a man named Simmerwell, a smith 
employed by the general government in repairing the In- 
dian guns, &c. The day being too far spent for a council 
with them that evening, we thought it most advisable to 
have notice given for a meeting with them in the morning. 
The smith has been for many years engaged among the 
Indians in repairing their guns, and otherwise assisting 
them; we believe him sincerely devoted to their welfare. 
He lamented their deplorable condition ; and, from his own 
personal knowledge of the facts, attributed most of their 
misery to the avarice and wickedness of the traders, and 
other corrupt white men, who, ever since his acquaintance, 
have been prowling about them, like the beast for his prey. 
Agreeably to our previous appointment, we met a number 
of the chiefs and headmen of the nation, at the house of the 
blacksmith. We endeavoured to impress upon their minds 
the importance of a change in all their habits and modes of 
living, and to adopt the manners and habits of good white 

VOL. xni — 17 


men. They listened attentively to what was communicated 
to them, and expressed their gratitude towards the Society 
of Friends, that they had thought so much of them as to 
send persons so far to look into their condition. One of 
their chiefs remarked, that their great father, the president, 
had promised to send them many things ; but, said he, they 
have not yet got along. 

The person that interpreted for us is a full blood Indian, 
educated at Hamilton school in the State of New York, and 
speaks and writes the English language well. He also con- 
verses freely in the Potowatamie tongue, and may be reck- 
oned among the most intelligent Indians of the west. He is 
married to a half breed woman, and possessed very consid- 
erable property. The Potowatamies are divided into three 
bands, viz., Potowatamies of St. Josephs, Potowatomies of 
the Wabash, and Potowatomies of the Prairie. The St. 
Joseph's band formerly received some assistance from the 
Baptist missionaries while they were located on the St. 
Joseph's river. This band live principally by cultivating 
the soil, and what they receive from the government by way 
of annuities. They are poor, and making very little ad- 
vancement in civilization. They have no school nor mis- 
sionary, and some of them live in poor log-cabins, others in 
wigwams. Most of them keep cattle, horses, and hogs; 
nearly all of them drink whiskey, and pass much of their 
time in idleness and dissipation. They spend their annui- 
ties soon after receiving them, for whiskey, and articles of 
no real value to them. The manners, dress and general ap- 
pearance of these Indians, do not materially differ from 
those small tribes located near them. They wear the blan- 
ket as the principal article of dress, and hunt some on their 
own lands, and in the adjacent state of Missouri, but do not 
go on the long hunt to the west. 

Our next visit was to the Wabash band, located about 



twelve miles from the gunsmith's. There are about six 
hundred of this tribe, comprising about one-third of the 
nation, and are principally settled in one neighbourhood. 
They are under the direction and control of the Roman 
Catholics, and have three Jesuit priests amongst them, who 
are educating forty or fifty Indian children. Their school 
is divided into two departments ; one for boys, and the other 
for girls. The one for girls is said to be doing some good, 
the other is in a languishing state. This band are building 
comfortable log-houses, and cultivating the land, keeping 
some cattle, horses, hogs, &c. ; but their location is said to 
be unhealthy, and they are addicted to all the vices and im- 
moralities common to the Indians, and are fast wasting 
away. Their numbers have greatly diminished within the 
last few years. 

The Prairie band is interspersed among the other two 
bands, and live much after the same manner. The whiskey 
sellers, and other traders, practice the same impositions 
upon these Indians that they do upon all the other tribes 
within their reach. 


The Political and Sectional Influence of the Public Lands, 1828- 
1842. By Raynob G. Wellington, A. M. Cambridge, Mass. : The 
Riverside Press, 1914. Pp. 131. Maps. The influence of the public 
lands in the political, social, and economic development of the 
United States has long been recognized and referred to by historians, 
but it is only in recent years that this influence has begun to be 
studied intensively. The present monograph presents a clear and 
satisfactory view of that phase of the subject which is expressed in 
the title, the material being drawn largely from the debates in Con- 
gress over bills relating to the public lands. The public land policy 
of such men as John Quiney Adams, Thomas Hart Benton, John C. 
Calhoun, Henry Clay, S. A. Foot, Robert Y. Hayne, Andrew Jack- 
son, Daniel Webster and others stands out clearly. 

There are six chapters, the first of which is an introduction con- 
necting the subject with the earlier history of the land question. 
Then follow chapters on the public lands, the surplus, and the panic ; 
the public lands and the election of 1840; and the attempt of the 
Whigs to use the victory of 1840. The last chapter contains con- 
clusions and a summary, and the book closes with a bibliography 
and an index. The work gives evidence of careful preparation, and 
there are copious references to materials. A wrong impression 
might be gained from the map facing p. 102, where the country 
north of Missouri is indicated as unorganized territory in 1841. 
The Territory of Iowa, including the country north of Missouri and 
between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, was created in 1838, 
and this same area had been attached to the Territory of Michigan 
as early as 1834. 

Kit Carson Days, 1809-1868. By Edwin L. Sabin. Chicago : A. 
C. McClurg & Co. 1914. Pp. xv, 669. Portraits, plates, maps. The 
title of the volume and the well-known writings of this Iowa author 




in the field of fiction might lead the reader to expect in the present 
book an historical novel or at most a merely "popular" work. But 
such is not the case ; for the book is the result of ' ' six years ' work 
covering by correspondence and interview the country from Los 
Angeles to New York, from Oregon to Florida". Moreover, the 
author has " drawn liberally upon chronicles long out of date, thus 
essaying to get back close to the sources of our knowledge. ' ' Alto- 
gether, it may be said that Mr. Sabin has written the best biography 
of Kit Carson that has appeared. It is at least no detraction to say 
that he has succeeded in combining care for accuracy with a style 
which removes none of the glamor of romance and adventure from 
the career of this hero of our boyhood days. 

Beginning with a brief account of the Carson ancestry, the author 
starts the boy "Kit" out on his long years of adventure, when as a 
runaway apprentice lad he joined a caravan and on the back of a 
mule made the journey over the trail to Santa Fe. Thereafter, in a 
changing panorama the reader views old Santa Fe and New Mexico, 
trappers in California and the great Southwest, Bent 's Fort, adven- 
tures on the desert and in the mountains, the expeditions of Fre- 
mont, the Mexican War and the ' ' re-conquest ' ' of California, Indian 
warfare during the years of strife between the States, and the last 
years of Carson when he was a trusted adviser of the government on 
matters of Indian policy. And not only does the author tell of the 
events in which Carson participated personally, but he devotes 
whole chapters to various phases of the development of the West, as, 
for instance, the contest of the fur companies, and the first Amer- 
ican emigration to the Oregon country. ' ' The story of Kit Carson", 
says the author, "is the story of beaver and of Indians; of mountain, 
canon, valley, desert, and stream ransacked through and thtough by 
the fur hunter ; of white blood and red blood meeting, striving, and 
mingling — mingling sometimes in friendly union but far oftener 
in the struggle of mutual hate; of lonely camp and of boisterous 
rendezvous; of thirst, starvation and rude plenty; of the trapper 
followed close by the trader, of both followed by the explorer, of the 
explorer followed by the emigrant — colonist, gold seeker, settler; 
of Santa Fe Trail and Oregon Trail and California Trail; of a 
Bent's Fort, a Fort Laramie, a Fort Bridger". 


As has already been suggested the book is written in an interest- 
ing style. There are ''more than one hundred half-tones, mostly 
from old and rare sources"; while frequent quotations from con- 
temporary sources add realism to the narrative. The thirty-nine 
chapters of the book are followed by an appendix containing re- 
ports, dispatches, letters, and other original documents bearing 
upon Carson's career; and the appendix in turn is followed by 
notes and references to source materials, two hundred and twenty- 
nine in number. It is to be noted that there is no uniformity in the 
method of citing sources and that unfortunately the pages are not 
indicated in the citations. An index occupies the last thirteen pages 
of the book. 

The Scandinavian Element in the United States (University of 
Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences, Vol. Ill, No. 3). By 
Kendric Charles Babcock, Ph. D. Urbana : University of Illinois. 
1914. Pp. 223. No resident of a State like Iowa would question the 
importance of the part played by the Scandinavian peoples in the 
development of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Moreover, readers of 
the Journal will recall the articles by Professor Flom on the history 
of Scandinavian settlements in Iowa which appeared in these pages 
several years ago. 

The fourteen chapters of Dr. Babcock 's monograph deal with 
such subjects as early Norwegian immigration, Swedish immigration 
before 1850, the Danish immigration, a half-century of expansion 
and distribution, 1850-1900, economic forces, the religious and in- 
tellectual standpoint, social relations and characteristics, and the 
Scandinavians in local and State politics. There are also appendices 
containing statistical tables. In view of the fact that the great 
majority of the people of Scandinavian descent in the United States 
have their homes in the seven Commonwealths of Minnesota, Illinois, 
"Wisconsin, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska it is 
natural to find the emphasis placed quite largely on the various 
aspects of the subject as revealed in the history of these States. At 
the same time, in a general work of this character the reader should 
not expect to find a thorough treatment of the Scandinavian element 
in any given State. 



The conclusion of the author, as expressed in his closing para- 
graph, is that ''the Swedes, Norwegians and Danes are not likely to 
furnish great leaders, but they will be in the front rank of those 
who follow with sturdy intelligence and conscience, striving to make 
the land of their adoption strong and prosperous, — 'a blessing to 
the common man, ' according to the original vision of America seen 
by Sweden's great king Gustavus Adolphus." 

A History of the Western Boundary of the Louisiana Purchase, 
1819-1841 (University of California Publications in History, Vol. 
II). By Thomas Maitland Marshall. Berkeley: University of 
California Press. 1913. Pp. xiii, 266. Maps. The Southwest has 
of late years been attracting the attention of many historians ; and 
while much has been written on the subject of this volume, it has 
been largely fragmentary or incidental to the discussion of other 
topics. Hence there is a place for a monograph of this character. 
The twelve chapters deal with the Louisiana Purchase, the opening 
of the boundary question, the treaty of 1819, the negotiation of the 
treaty of 1828, diplomacy relative to the Mexican boundary and 
efforts to purchase Texas, 1829-1835, the last year of Butler's mis- 
sion, the Indians of Texas and the policy of the revolutionary gov- 
ernment, Gaines' operations on the frontier until the battle of San 
Jacinto, the occupation of Nacogdoches, the mission of Gorostika, 
the treaty of limits between the United States and the Republic of 
Texas, and the survey of the Texas-Louisiana boundary. 

Perhaps the special contributions made by this monograph may 
best be indicated in the words of the preface where the author states 
"some of the more important phases of the subject in which he has 
differed with accepted theory or in which he believes that he has 
added somewhat to the history of the subject. He finds that Na- 
poleon decided to sell Louisiana several months earlier than the date 
set by Henry Adams. The conception of the size of Louisiana grad- 
ually developed in the mind of Jefferson; the conclusion which he 
reached became the basis of American diplomacy for half a century ; 
the evolution of this idea and its importance have not been fully 
appreciated. The sale of Louisiana by France having been consum- 
mated, Spain carried out an effective plan for restricting the limits 


of the purchase ; this has never received adequate treatment. The 
reason for "Wilkinson ^s betrayal of Burr and for entering into the 
Neutral Ground Treaty has been the subject of much discussion and 
various theories have been advanced ; the truth of the matter seems 
to lie in the fact that Wilkinson sold his services to the Spanish 
government while he was stationed on the western frontier. The 
activity of Spain in making a boundary investigation, which was 
carried on even during the Napoleonic occupation, has not previous- 
ly received adequate notice. Historians have usually accepted the 
view that the claim to Texas was given up in exchange for Florida. 
The writer believes that the purchase of Florida was a foregone 
conclusion from early in 1818, and thereafter Adams yielded the 
claim to Texas and advanced a claim to the Oregon country; it 
would perhaps be more correct then to say that Texas was given up 
in exchange for Spanish claims to the Oregon country. ' ' 

Collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society. Volume 
XVII. Edited by Albert Watkins. Lincoln : The Nebraska State 
Historical Society. 1913. Pp. vii, 382. Portraits, plates. Indian 
history and ethnology, early emigration to and through Nebraska, 
and early settlements in Nebraska are the general themes of the 
papers in this volume. Perhaps the articles of the chief interest 
outside the State of Nebraska are the following: Nebraska, Mother 
of States, by Albert Watkins; Nebraska Territorial Acquisition, by 
the same writer; three addresses on Life Among the Indian Tribes 
of the Plains, The Indian Woman, and Systematic Nebraska Eth- 
nologic Investigation, by James Mooney ; The Oregon Recruit Expe- 
dition, by Albert Watkins; Influence of Overland Travel on the 
Early Settlement of Nebraska, by H. G. Taylor; First Steamboat 
Trial Trip up the Missouri, by Albert Watkins ; Adventures on the 
Plains, 1865-67, by Dennis Farrell ; How Shall the Indian be Treat- 
ed Historically, by Harry L. Keefe; Importance of the Study of 
Local History, by James E. Le Rossignol; The Pathfinders, the 
Historical Background of Western Civilization, by Heman C. 
Smith; and Memorabilia: Gen. G. M. Dodge, by Albert Watkins. 
The volume is handsomely printed on good paper and substantially 



Fremont and '49. By Frederick S. Dellenbaugh. New York 
and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1914. Pp. xxiii, 547. Por- 
traits, plates, maps. This volume is primarily a record of explora- 
tions in the country between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean : 
only secondarily is it a biography. Out of the twenty chapters not 
more than five deal with anything else than the events connected 
with Fremont's five expeditions. One chapter suffices to describe 
his career before entering upon his first great expedition ; while not 
all of a chapter of thirty-three pages is devoted to the events of his 
life from 1854 to 1890, including his campaign for the presidency 
and his military service during the Civil War. The reader, there- 
fore, should not expect to find in the book a complete biography of 
Fremont. But from the standpoint of explorations and expeditions 
the author, partly because of his intimate personal acquaintance 
with the region covered, has made a real contribution to western 

' ' The expeditions were, evidently, a part of a great game — the 
game of California. The question was, *Who wins California?' " 
These words at the close of the second chapter afford the keynote 
to the expeditions of Fremont, according to the author's viewpoint; 
and so a considerable amount of space will be found devoted to the 
part played by Fremont in California and to the American occupa- 
tion of that region. Ostensibly the leader's previous operations 
were carried out merely for purposes of exploration, but the author 
adopts the view that in reality they were projected with a view to 
the ultimate acquisition of California. 

The book is written in an interesting style, and there are frequent 
footnote citations of sources, besides a bibliography at the close of 
the narrative. The book is well supplied with portraits of Fremont 
and others, with reproductions of photographs and paintings show- 
ing scenes in the West, past and present, and with a series of ex- 
cellent maps. A good index completes the volume. 

The American Indian in the United States. By Warren K. 
Moorehead, a. M. Andover, Mass. : The Andover Press. 1914. 
Pp. 440. Portraits, plates, maps. The United States Indian Office 
in 1913; the Indians of to-day; the Ojibway of Minnesota; the 


White Earth controversy; the Sioux and the messiah craze and 
other subjects connected with the Sioux; Sitting Bull and his death; 
the Five Civilized Tribes; Indian property in Oklahoma and the 
leasing, system ; Red Cloud, ' ' the greatest Indian of modern times ' ' ; 
education; the Apache, Papago, and Pueblo; Geronimo and the 
Navaho ; Indians of the Northwest ; the health of the Indians ; their 
religion ; the plains Indians fifty years ago and to-day ; the Indians 
of California; farming and stock-raising; official views of Indian 
conditions; recommendations and suggestions of workers in the 
field ; and the conclusions of the author — these subjects will indi- 
cate something of the contents of Mr. Moorehead's volume. '^The 
Indian must ultimately be merged into the body politic," declares 
the writer, and in order to bring about that result he advocates the 
creation of a non-political commission to have charge of Indian 
affairs. His views, as a whole, seem to be in accord with those of 
most of the persons who have the welfare of the Indians most at 
heart. His book is a plea for justice to the Indians. 

Washington and the West: Being George Washington's Diary of 
September, 1784, and a Commentary Upon the Same, by Archer B. 
Hulbert, is a publication of the Arthur H. Clark Company. 

A useful publication of the federal Bureau of the Census is a 
digest of constitutional and statutory provisions relative to the 
Taxation and Revenue Systems of State and Local Governments as 
they existed in 1912. 

Theodore Clarke Smith is the author of a volume on The Wars 
Between England and America, which has been published by Henry 
Holt and Company. 

The American Indian as Slaveholder and Secessionist is a unique 
study by Annie Heloise Abel which is announced for early publica- 
tion in book form. 

North Carolina's Taxation Problem and its Solution, by Charles 
Lee Raper ; The War Revenue Act of 1914, by Harry Edwin Smith ; 
Plantation Memories of the Civil War, by Philip Alexander Bruce ; 



and Lord Granville's Line, by Alfred J. Morrison, are articles in 
the January number of The South Atlantic Quarterly. 

In the Columbia Law Review for March there is an article on 
Contributions and Requisitions in War, by Charles Noble Gregory, 
formerly Dean of the College of Law of the State University of 

Money and Transportation in Maryland 1720-1765, by Clarence 
P. Gould, is a recent number of the Johns Hopkins University 
Studies in Historical and Political Science. The seven chapters deal 
with coinage, bills of exchange, tobacco currency, barter, paper cur- 
rency, a general consideration of money, and transportation and 

An article on the Early History of Medicine in New York is begun 
in the November number of Americana and continued in the issue 
for December. In the latter number may also be found an interest- 
ing paper on Old Essex as a Factor in the Settlement of the Great 
Northwest, by Russell Leigh Jackson. The leading contribution in 
the January number is an account of the Rhode Island Settlers on 
the French Lands in Nova Scotia in 1760 and 1761, by Arthur W. 
H. Eaton. 

Articles of current interest which appear in The Yale Revietv for 
January are : America and the European War, by Norman Angell ; 
The Political Teachings of Treitschke, by Arthur T. Hadley ; Ger- 
man Economics and the War, by Henry C. Emery; The Russian 
Problem, by P. Vinogradoff ; and World Sanitation and the Panama 
Canal, by Richard P. Strong. 

Fifteen papers, written by as many different authors, constitute 
a volume of Studies in Southern History and Politics, published by 
the Columbia University Press. The volume is inscribed to "William 
Archibald Dunning by his former pupils, the authors. The editor 
is James W. Garner who contributes the preface and the last paper 
in the book, on Southern Politics Since the Civil War. Among the 
other papers are the following: The Frontier and Secession, by 
Charles W. Ramsdell; Grant's Southern Policy, by Edwin C. Wool- 


ley ; Negro Suffrage in the South, by W. Roy Smith ; The Political 
Philosophy of John C. Calhoun, by Charles Edward Merriam ; and 
Southern Political Theories, by David Y. Thomas. 

Volumes twenty-two and twenty-three of the Library of Congress 
edition of the Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, 
edited by Gaillard Hunt, cover the transactions of the Congress for 
the year 1782. The surrender of Cornwallis in October of the 
previous year and the efforts which were in progress to arrange 
terms of peace led to the belief that the war was about to close. 
Consequently, during the year 1782 the Congress found itself con- 
fronted with the grave problems of trying to organize a government 
that would operate in times of peace ; while the matter of securing 
funds for the maintenance of the federal government was becoming 
more and more embarrassing. 

The Report of the Committee on Marking Historical Sites in 
Rhode Island, made to the General Assembly in January, 1913, con- 
tains the record of a movement which is deserving of emulation in 
other States. Among the numerous papers contained in the volume, 
all of which indicate the character of the work performed by the 
committee, mention may be made of the following: Gilbert Stuart, 
by William B. Weeden; The House and Home-lot of Roger Wil- 
liams, by Norman M. Isham ; Fort Independence, by C. S. Brigham ; 
The Memorial of the Men who Died in the Swamp Fight, by Norman 
M. Isham; The Michael Pierce Fight, by Edwin C. Pierce; and 
Prescott's Headquarters, by William P. Sheffield. 

Readjustments in Taxation is the central topic of discussion in 
the March number of The Annals of the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science. Among the twenty-four papers which 
the volume contains may be mentioned the following: Newer 
Tendencies in American Taxation, by Edwin R. A. Seligman; The 
Underwood Tariff Act as a Producer of Revenue, by A. J. Peters; 
Some Aspects of the Income Tax, by Mortimer L. Schiff ; The Rela- 
tion Between Federal and State Taxation, by James E. Boyle; The 
Inheritance Tax, by John Harrington ; Taxation of Intangible Prop- 
erty, by A. E. James; The Extent and Evils of Double Taxation in 



the United States, by Frederick N. Judson; Separation of State and 
Local Revenues, by T. S. Adams; Taxation of Public Utilities, by 
Delos F. Wilcox; The Recent Increase in Land Values, by Scott 
Nearing ; and Single Tax, by W. S. U'Ren. 

A number of interesting and timely articles are to be found in the 
February number of The American Political Science Review. The 
presidential address of John Bassett Moore, delivered before the 
American Political Science Association at Chicago, on Law and 
Organization, deals chiefly with international law as affected by the 
present European war. A paper by Edward Raymond Turner on 
The Causes of the Great War, is an addition to an already long list of 
articles on the same subject. Emlin McClain, Dean of the College of 
Law of the State University of Iowa, is the writer of a digest of 
Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States on Constitu- 
tional Questions, 1911-1914, A short article entitled The Essence 
of Democracy is written by Wilhelm Hasbach. The Federal Trade 
Commission: The Development of the Law which Led to its Estab- 
lishment, by James A. Fayne, is a contribution of current interest. 
Finally, there is a discussion of the subject of Sub-committees of 
Congress, by Burton L. French. The Review in the future will be 
enlarged to about two hundred and twenty pages so as to include 
some of the papers formerly printed in the Proceedings of the Amer- 
ican Political Science Association, which publication will be dis- 
continued. I 


The Indian's Right of Occupancy, by Peleg Sprague, is one of the 
many articles which appear in the October-December number of 
The Quarterly Journal of the Society of American Indians. 

Four articles make up The Quarterly Journal of the University 
of North Dakota for January, namely : The Work of the North Da- 
kota Tax Commission, by Luther E. Birdzell; Statute Law Making 
with Suggestions to Draftsmen, by Sveinbjorn Johnson; Some 
Prison Problems in North Dakota, by George R. Davies; and Insani- 
ty in North Dakota, by John Morris Gillette and other writers. 


Louis D. H. Weld is the author of a Social and Economic Survey 
of a Community in the Bed River Valley which has been published 
by the University of Minnesota as the fourth number in the series 
entitled Current Problems. 

A rather unique publication is one called the Moffatana Bulletin, 
published occasionally at Lawrence, Kansas, as an organ of the 
Moffat Clan in America. Five numbers have thus far been issued, 
and a file has been donated to The State Historical Society of Iowa 
by Mr. John T. Moffit of Tipton, a Curator of the Society. 

Two recent numbers of the University of California Publications 
in American Archaeology and Ethnology are the following: Serian, 
Tequislatecan, and Hokan, by A. L. Kroeber; and Sarsi Texts, by 
Pliny Earle Goddard. 

The fourth number of volume three of the University of Illinois 
Studies in the Social Sciences contains a monograph of about two 
hundred pages on Church and State in Massachusetts, 1691-1740, by 
Susan Martha Reed. Besides the preface, introduction, conclusion, 
bibliography, and index, there are chapters on the ecclesiastical sys- 
tem of provincial Massachusetts, opposing elements, the system in 
practice, the Quakers and their allies, and the Church of England. 

Volume eleven, part seven of the Anthropological Papers of the 
American Museum of Natural History consists of a monograph on 
Pawnee Indian Societies, by James R. Murie. The Pawnee Indians 
originally lived along the Platte River in Nebraska and, in common 
with other tribes of that region, no doubt frequently crossed the Mis- 
souri River to hunt in the western Iowa country. Volume fifteen, 
part one of this same series is devoted to a study of the Pueblo Buins 
of the Galisteo Basin, New Mexico, by N. C. Nelson. These pueblos 
were apparently discovered by Coronado on his famous expedition. 

The sixth installment of the monograph on New Mexico Under 
Mexican Administration, by Lansing B. Bloom ; Santa Fe as it Ap- 
peared During the Winter of the Years 1837 and 1838, by W. H. H. 
Allison; Did Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca Traverse New Mexico?, 
by Clement Ilightower; a review of Anne E. Hughes' study of The 



Beginnings of Spanish Settlement in the El Paso District, by 
Charles W. Hackett; and an account of a Battle between TJtes and 
Comanches, by William F. Drannan, are among the contents of the 
October, 1914, number of Old Santa Fe: A Magazine of History, 
Archaeology, Genealogy and Biography, of which Ralph Emerson 
Twitchell is the editor. There is a continuation of Mr. Bloom's 
study in the January number, where may also be found the follow- 
ing, contributions : Santa Fe Architecture, by Sylvanus G. Morley ; 
Texas Raiders in New Mexico in 1843, arranged by E. B. Burton; 
Adolph F. A. Bandelier, a Tribute and a Reminiscence, by Will C. 
Barnes ; and The Navajo Blanket, by A. F. Spiegelberg. 

The Report of the Efficiency and Economy Committee created 
under the authority of the Forty-eighth General Assembly of Illi- 
nois contains the result of the survey of the State government and 
the recommendations for reorganization made by that committee. 
In addition to this general report the committee has also made the 
following special reports which have been published in pamphlet 
form : A Report on Revenue and Finance Administration, by John 
A. Fairlie; A Report on Public Administration in Relation to Agri- 
culture and Allied Interests, by James W. Garner ; A Report on the 
Administration of Labor and Mining Legislation in Illinois, by W. 
F. Dodd; A Report on Educational Administration, by John M. 
Mathews; A Report on Charitable and Correctional Institutions, by 
James W. Garner; A Report on the Accounts of the State of Illinois, 
by George E. Frazer; and A Report on Public Health Administra- 
tion, by John M. Mathews. 


George Douglas Perkins, 1840-1914, is the title of a book of over 
one hundred and twenty-five pages containing tributes to the late 
editor of the Sioux City Journal. 

A bit of the history of road-building in Iowa is to be found in an 
article entitled Three Hundred Miles of Iowa Gravel Road, by 0. A. 
Hammand, which appears in the March number of The Road- 


A biographical sketch of, and tributes to, the late Bruce Crossley 
are to be found in the February number of The Alumnus of Iowa 
State College. A tribute to Dr. C. E. Bessey, by Dean E. W. Stan- 
ton, appears in the March number. 

Our Attitude Toward Social Problems is a subject discussed by 
Alberta M. Lake in the January number of Autumn Leaves. Two 
articles in the March number are: The Cliff Buins, by Samuel 
Twombly ; and Trained Men and Their Relationship to the Modern 
Social Problems, by S. A. Burgess. 

In The Grinnell Beview for March there is a brief sketch of the 
life of Professor James Irving Manatt, one of the most distinguished 
alumni of Grinnell College. 

The March number of the Iowa Law Bulletin, published at the 
State University of Iowa, contains two articles by H. C. Horack, the 
first on Specific Performance for the Purchase Price, and the second 
on The Doctrine of Mutuality in Iowa. 

Among the papers in the Bulletin of Iowa State Institutions for 
October, 1914, are the following: The Need of a Beformatory or 
Befuge for Women, by Lucy M. Sickels ; The Paroling of Prisoners, 
by David C. Mott; Some Social Service Suggestions, by F. J. Ses- 
sions; and The Curing of the Criminal, by J. H. McConlogue. 

Besides continuations of biographical and autobiographical mate- 
rial the January number of the Journal of History, published at 
Lamoni, Iowa, by the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter 
Day Saints, contains an obituary sketch of President Joseph Smith, 
and an article on the Progenitors of Joseph Smith. 

A. G. Pitts discusses the Establishment and Early History of 
Grand Lodges; and R. J. Lemert points out the Causes of the Cru- 
sade in the January number of The American Freemason, and both 
articles are continued in the February number. In March there is 
an article on Masons and Mexican Affairs, by Joseph E. Morcombe. 

The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science for 1914 in- 
clude, among a large number of papers of scientific interest bearing 



chiefly on Iowa, a Memorial Note on Seth Eugene Meek, by Charles 
Keyes ; and an illustrated article on Indian Pottery of the Oneota or 
Upper Iowa Biver Valley in Northeastern Iowa, by Ellison Orr. 

Some Aspects of Vocational Education, by David Snedden ; A Re- 
interpretation of Liberal Education, by Henry Suzzallo; America's 
Greatest Achievement in the Light of Europe's Colossal Failure, by 
J. H. Macdonald; Vocational Guidance for Farmers' Boys, by 
Walter A. Jessup ; and The Social Purpose of Education in Theory 
and Practice, by George D. Strayer, are among the papers to be 
found in the Proceedings of the Sixtieth Annual Session of the Iowa 
State Teachers Association, held at Des Moines on November 5-7, 

Two articles in the Northwestern Banker for January are : Cash 
Reserves and Farm Loans, by Charles Slade ; and Facts About the 
Chicago Reserve Bank, by E. L. Johnson. In the March number 
there is an article by Judge William Logan, the object of which is to 
prove the Bank Guarantee System Unjust. J. M. Dinwiddle writes 
on The Savings Bank, an Educator and Servant of the Public; and 
there is a list of the banking measures introduced in the present 
General Assembly of Iowa. 

Among the articles which have appeared in American Municipal- 
ities during, the past few months are the following : Powers of Mayor 
and Council, by George A. Mclntyre ; The Public and Clean Streets, 
by Joseph J. Norton; Report on Municipal Accounting, by R. L. De 
Gon (January) ; Cleveland's Financial Condition; Iowa Municipal 
Bonds, by Harry Stanberry (February) ; Municipal Home Rule for 
Iowa, by A. R. Hatton; Street Improvements and Taxation, by 
Charles P. Chase ; and Paving Problems, by George W. Bates. 

The January number of The Iowa Alumnus contains a sketch of 
the life of Mr. Gardner Cowles, who was recently appointed a mem- 
ber of the State Board of Education; while the career of Mr. Paul 
E. Stillman, another new member of the Board, is discussed in the 
March number, where there is also an outline of The Activities of 
the Extension Division, by 0. E. Klingaman. In the February num- 
ber may be found an article on The Fundamental Causes of the 

VOL. XIII — 18 


European Conflict, by J. E. Conner; a sketch of S. TJ. I. Thirty-Odd 
Years Ago; an account of The Beginning of the Y. M. C. A. Build- 
ing Campaign, by A. E. My rick; and a short biographical sketch of 
Judge Smith McPherson. 

The S. J. Clarke Publishing, Company is issuing histories of Iowa 
counties at such a rapid rate that before long there will not be a 
county in the State without a new history. These histories conform 
to one general plan, consisting in each case of two volumes, the first 
containing a history of the county and its people, institutions and 
political divisions, and the second being devoted to biographies of 
citizens of the county. On the whole it may be said that some of 
these new histories are decided improvements over previous volumes 
on the same counties; while others are not up to the standard of 
their predecessors. A defect that detracts greatly from the useful- 
ness of the volumes is the almost universal lack of an index. Among 
the best of the histories published during the last few months is the 
one on Boone County, of which N. E. Goldthwait is the supervising 
editor and a considerable portion of which was written by C. L. 
Lucas of Madrid. Both of these men have long been engaged in 
newspaper work in Boone County and have always taken an interest 
in the preservation of the history of the county. In the Story of Lee 
County, Iowa, on the other hand, it would seem that the supervising 
editors, Nelson C. Roberts and S. W. Moorhead, have missed an op- 
portunity, since Lee County is undoubtedly one of the richest coun- 
ties in Iowa historically. Other county histories which have 
recently been added to the library of The State Historical Society 
of Iowa are: Wapello County, by Harrison L. Waterman; Marion 
County, by John W. Wright and W. A. Young ; Buchanan County, 
by Harry C. and Katharyn J. Chappell; Black Hawk County, 
by John C. Hartman ; and Delaware County, by John P. Merry. 


Abbott, Keane, 

In the Switch-yard (Harper's Monthly Magazine, March, 



Ames, Edward Scribner, 

The Higher Individualism. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 

Anrner, Clarence Ray, 

An Introduction to the History and Government of Iowa. 
Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 1914. 
Briggs, John E., 

History of Social Legislation in Iowa. Iowa City: The State 

Historical Society of Iowa. 1915. 
Social Legislation in Iowa (Iowa Applied History Series). 
Iowa City : The State Historical Society of Iowa. 1914. 
Burdette, Robert J., 

The Drums of the 47th. Indianapolis : The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

Butterworth, Julian E., 

Evaluation of Methods for Providing Free High School Tuition 
(School Review, February, 1915). 
Clark, Dan Elbert, 

The Government of Iowa. Boston : Silver, Burdett & Co. 1915. 
Devine, Edward Thomas, 

America and Peace (Survey, January 2, 1915) ; Education and 
Social Economy (National Education Association Proceed- 
ings and Addresses, 1914). 
Dodge, Grenville M., 

Personal Recollections of Abraham Lincoln, General Ulysses 
S. Grant and General William T. Sherman. Council Bluffs : 
Monarch Printing Co. 1914. 
Elliott, Francis Perry, 

Pals First. New York : Harper & Bros. 1915. 
Ficke, Arthur Davison, 

Metrical Freedom and the Contemporary Poet (Dial, January 
Fitch, George, 

Homehurg Memories. Boston : Little, Brown & Co. 1915. 
First Aid to our Injured Industries (Collier's, January 9, 

1915) ; Homehurg 's Worst Enemy (American Magazine, 

February, 1915). 


Franklin, William Suddards, 

Advanced Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, New York: 
The Macmillan Co. 1915. 
Haynes, Fred E., 

Child Labor Legislation in Iowa. Iowa City : The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa. 1914. 
Heilman, Ralph E., 

Chicago Subway Problem (Journal of Political Economy, De- 
cember, 1914). 
Horack, Frank Edward, 

Reorganization of State Government in Iowa. Iowa City: The 

State Historical Society of Iowa. 1914. 
Equal Suffrage in lotva. Iowa City : The State Historical So- 
ciety of Iowa. 1914. 
Hughes, Rupert (Joint author), 

American Composers (revised edition). Boston: The Page Co. 

Hutchinson, Woods, 

Keep Away from Infections (Good Housekeeping, January, 
1915) ; Bending the Twig Toward Health (Good Housekeep- 
ing, February, 1915) ; Girl and Her Headaches (Good House- 
keeping, March, 1915). 
Jessup, Walter Albert, 

Economy of Time in Arithmetic (National Education Associa- 
tion Proceedings and Addresses, 1914) . 
Jones, Eliot, 

The Anthracite Coal Combination in the United States. Cam- 
bridge : Harvard University. 1914. 
Kegley, Howard C, 

Famous California Pear Tree (Overland, January, 1915) ; 
Father of Frosted Orange Detective (Sunset, January, 1915). 
Merriam, Charles Edward, 

The Case for Home Rule (Annals of the American Academy, 
January, 1915). 
Murphy, Thomas D., 

On Sunset Highways. Boston: The Page Company. 1915. 


Newton, Joseph Fort, 

Wesley and Woolman. New York and Cincinnati : Abingdon 
Press. 1914. 
Otto, Ralph, 

Code Pleading in Iowa: Selected Cases. Iowa City : Published 

by the author. 1915. 
Patton, Odis K., 

Home Ride in Iowa. Iowa City : The State Historical Society 

of Iowa. 1914. 

Removal of Public Officials in Iowa. Iowa City : The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa. 1914. 
Peterson, Henry J., 

Selection of Public Officials in Iowa. Iowa City: The State 
Historical Society of Iowa. 1914. 
Eoss, Edward Alsworth, 

Education for Social Service (National Education Association 
Proceedings and Addresses, 1914) ; Freedom of Communica- 
tion and the Struggle for Right (Survey, January 9, 1915) ; 
South of Panama (Century, November, 1914-March, 1915). 
Russell, Charles Edward, 

The Story of Wendell Phillips: Soldier of the Common Good. 
Chicago : Charles H. Kerr & Co. 1914. 

Business the Heart of the Nation (new edition). New York: 
John Lane Co. 1914. 

Why I am a Socialist (new edition). New York: George H. 
Doran Co. 1915. 
Seerley, Homer Horatio, 

Preparation of Teachers for High Schools and Rural Demon- 
stration Schools and Study-center Work for Rural Teachers 
(National Education Association Proceedings and Addresses, 

Shambaugh, Benjamin F., 

Scientific Law-making. Iowa City: The State Historical So- 
ciety of Iowa. 1914. 
Thompson, E. N. S., 

Essays on Milton. New Haven : Yale University Press. 1914. 


Van der Zee, Jacob, 

Direct Legislation in Iowa. Iowa City: The State Historical 

Society of Iowa. 1914. 
The Merit System: Its Application to State Government in 

Iowa. Iowa City: The State Historical Society of Iowa. 


Whitcomb, Seldon Lincoln, 

Via Crucis. Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press. 1915. 


The Register and Leader 

D. B. Marshall of Mount Ayr, Auctioneer for Fifty Years, January 
10, 1915. 

Sketch of the History of Le Claire, Iowa, January 17, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of L. S. Coffin, January 18, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of N. S. Ketchum, January 18, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of Smith McPherson, January 19, 1915. 
Tribute to Bob Burdette, by J. E. Calkins, January 24, 1915. 
Abner R. Brown, Hawkeye Gold Hunter who Built First School in 

Colorado, January 24, 1915. 
Stephen Seward, Chum of Abraham Lincoln, Near End of Career, 

January 25, 1915. 
Stilson Hutchins, an Iowa Pioneer, January 27, 1915. 
Iowa — Beautiful Land, by Eugene Secor, February 7, 1915, 
Mrs. L. D. Carhart, Pioneer of the Suffrage Cause, February 14, 


Colonel Alonzo Abernethy, by E. R. Harlan, February 22, 1915. 
Des Moines After Seven Years, by Frank W. Bicknell, February 28, 

Sketch of the life of Cyrus Bussey, March 3, 1915. 

Inventions and Devices, and their Effect to Save Labor and Promote 

the Welfare of the Living, by L. F. Andrews, March 7, 1915. 
Prohibition in Iowa, by John Mahin, March 10, 1915. 
Old Des Moines River Boats, by Hiram Heaton, March 14, 1915. 
Tribute to George D. Perkins, by George E. Roberts, March 15, 




Sketch of the life of R. T. Wellslager, March 17, 1915. 

How the Flag of the Fiftieth Iowa was Saved for the State, by E. D. 

Hadley, March 28, 1915. 
Story of Visit to Le Mars by Bandit Jesse James, March 28, 1915. 

The Burlington Hawk-Eye 

The Past Year in Burlington, January 2, 1915. 
A Four-fold Pioneer — D. W. Shawhan, January 2, 1915. 
Old Times in Burlington (in each Sunday issue). 
Chronology of Burlington Events in 1914, January 3, 1915. 
History of Crapo Park, January 3, 1915. 

Albert M. Adams of Humboldt, Pioneer Iowa Editor, January 7, 

War Recollections, by W. P. Elliott, January 10, 1915. 

Autobiography and Memoirs of J. H. Tedford, January 10, March 
7, 14, 21, 28, 1915. 

Recollections of Bob Burdette, by J. E. Calkins, January 17, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of N. S. Ketchum, January 19, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of Nicholas B. AUender, January 20, 1915. 

W. T. Davidson, Journalist who Knew Lincoln and Douglas, Febru- 
ary 21, 1915. 

Situation if Constitution of United States had not been Adopted, 

February 28, 1915. 
Burlington a Half Century Ago — Recollections of I. C. McConnell, 

March 7, 1915. 

The Romance of the Old Keokuk and Hamilton Bridge, March 17, 

"When Judge Henry Clay Caldwell was a Soldier, March 21, 1915. 
General Dodge Tells About Lincoln and Grant, March 28, 1915. 


Sketch of the life of D. W. Shawhan, in the Sigourney Review, 

December 31, 1914, and January 6, 1915. 
In the Days of Long Ago in Northwestern Iowa, in the Akron 

Register-Tribune, December 31, 1914. 


Historical Sketch of First Brethren Church of Dallas Center, in the 
Dallas Center Times, December 31, 1914. 

Sketch of the life of George C. Myers, in the Marshalltown Times- 
Republican, January 2, 1915. 

Reminiscences of Pioneer Grinnell and "The Long Home", by E. S. 
Bartlett, in the Grinnell Herald, January 5, 1915. 

Recollections of a Half Century in Kossuth County, by B. F. Reed, 
in the Algona Republican, January 6, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of William Fish, in the Adel News, January 6, 

Letter from C. F. Hill, First Sheriff of Dickinson County, in the 

Spirit Lake Herald, January 6, 1915. 
The Winter of Eighteen Fifty-six, in the Des Moines Plain Talk, 

January 7, 1915. 

War Reminiscences, by J. I. Holcombe, running in the Nashua Re- 

Early Days of Methodism in Ruthven, in the Ruthven Appeal, Jan- 
uary 7, 1915. 

Horse-stealing in Early Days, in the Walker News, January 8, 1915. 
An Historical Sketch of Stapleton Township and the Town of Law- 

ler, Chickasaw County, by T. F. 'Reilly, in the New Hampton 

Tribune, January 8, 1915. 
Forty-four Years Ago in New Sharon, in the Oskaloosa Herald, 

January 9, 1915. 

Huntington Brothers, Pioneers of Council Bluffs, in the Council 
Bluffs Nonpareil, January 10, 1915. 

Anniversary of Big Blizzard of 1888, in the Council Bluffs Non- 
pareil, January 10, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of David Doner, in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, 
January 11, 1915. 

Facts Regarding the Governors of Iowa, in the Centerville Citizen, 
January 15, 1915. 

Only Survivor of Custer Massacre a Visitor at Centerville, in the 
Centerville Citizen, January 16, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Maria Kennedy of Montrose, in the Keokuk 
Gate City, January 17, 1915. 



Sketch of the life of Mrs. Phoebe Griffith of Shenandoah, in the 

Shenandoah Sentinel-Post, January 19, 1915. 
Old Marion County, running in the Knoxville Express. 
Sketch of the life of Mrs. Martha Clapp, Pioneer of Muscatine, in 

the Muscatine News-Trihune, January 25, 1915. 
Map of Iowa Made in 1854, in the Algona Republican, January 27, 


Iowa Tax System, in the Cumberland Enterprise, January 28, 1915. 

The Lone Cabin on the Nodaway River in 1839, by A. S. Bailey, in 
the Clarinda Herald, February 4, 1915. 

"Winter of 1856 in Iowa, in the Terril Tribune, February 4, 1915. 

Across Northwestern Iowa Fifty-nine Years Ago, in the Storm Lake 
Vidette, February 5, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of 0. P. Case of Osage, in the Waterloo Times- 
Tribune, February 6, 1915. 

Pioneer River Steamboats, in the Clinton Advertiser, February 6, 

Sketch of the life of Ezra Meeker, in the Burlington Post, February 
6, 1915. 

Sioux Cityans who Heard Lincoln and Douglas Debates, in the 

Sioux City Journal, February 7, 1915. 
S. M. Weaver Recalls Exciting Scenes in Dry Fight in House in 

1884, in the Des Moines Tribune, February 12, 1915. 
Charles M. Young, Who Heard Lincoln 's Gettysburg Speech, in the 

Des Moines Tribune, February 12, 1915. 
0. P. Brown of Dawson Heard Lincoln-Douglas Debate at Ottawa, 

in the Perry Advertiser, February 14, 1915. 
Waterloo Woman Has Letter Describing Assassination of LincoLu, 

in the Waterloo Times-Tribune, February 14, 1915. 
Sketches of the life of Judge Henry Clay Caldwell, in the Ottumwa 

Courier, February 16, 1915 ; and the Keokuk Gate City, Febru- 
ary 16, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of Charles Burns, Pioneer of Plymouth County, in 

the Le Mars Sentinel, February 16, 1915. 
Pioneer Days in Howard County, in the Cresco Times, February 16, 



Henry Hutsonpiller, Veteran of Mexican "War, in the Des Moines 
Tribune, February 18, 1915. 

Editors of Early Iowa, in the Burlington Post, February 20, 1915. 

The Old Boats, in the Burlington Post, February 20, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of Alonzo Abernethy, in the Osage Press, Febru- 
ary 24, 1915. 

Some Early Reminiscences of Trapping in Northwestern Iowa, in 

the Spirit Lake Beacon, February 25, 1915. 
The Quakers in Iowa, in the Mt. Pleasant Free Press, February 25, 


Sketches of the lives of William Rutherford and H. B. M. Daniels, 
in the Williamshurg Journal-Tribune, February 25, 1915. 

Old Des Moines River Boats, by Hiram Heaton, in the Oskaloosa 
Globe, February 27, 1915. 

Frontier Sketches, in the Burlington Post, February 27, March 13, 
20, 1915. 

Historic Spots of Old Keokuk, in the Keokuk Gate City, February 
28, 1915. 

T. D. Bancroft Tells of Scenes at Death of Lincoln, in the Ames 
Times, March 1, 1915. 

D. L. Miller, Veteran who Fought at Gettysburg, in the Shenandoah 
Sentinel-Post, March 2, 1915. 

Reminiscences of Seventy-five Years Ago, by H. W. Wakeman of 
Fort Dodge, in the Fort Dodge Messenger, March 6, 1915. 

Lead Mining in Dubuque in the Early Days, in the Dubuque Tele- 
graph-Herald, March 7, 1915. 

When First Train Entered Ames, in the Nevada Journal, March 19, 

Sketch of the life of William P. Coast, in the Iowa City Republican, 
March 22, 1915. 

Early Days on the Des Moines River, in the Keosauqua Republican, 
March 25, 1915. 

Sketch of life of Alfred Hurst, former State Senator, in the Clinton 

Herald, March 26, 1915. 
Pioneer Days in Howard County, in the Cresco Times, March 30, 




Anniversary of Surrender of Lee, in the Dubuque Times-Journal, 
April 4, 1915. 

Facts About Early Settlement of Iowa, in the Cresco Times, April 
6, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of H. P. Brothers, in the Grand River Local, 
April 8, 1915. 



The Annual Report of the Chicago Historical Society for the year 
ending October 31, 1914, presents a detailed account of the work of 
the Society during the period indicated. 

The Battle of New Orleans, by A. C. Quisenberry ; and The Pan- 
ama Canal, by M. H. Thatcher, are two illustrated articles of con- 
siderable length which appear in the January number of The 
Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society. 

The opening contribution in the January number of The Wiscon- 
sin Archeologist is an illustrated account of Indian Remains on 
Washington Island, by George R. Fox. Charles E. Brown is the 
writer of a short article on Ceremonial Knives; and Mr. Fox con- 
tributes a note on A '^Losf Effigy Group. 

Some Letters of Thomas Adams, 1768-1775, which are printed in 
the January number of The Virginia Magazine of History and Bi- 
ography, throw light on the condition of commerce in Virginia im- 
mediately preceding the Revolutionary War. 

The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine for 
October, 1914, contains the fifteenth article in the series by Henry 
A. M. Smith on The Baronies of South Carolina, this article dealing 
with Landgrave Ketelby's Barony; a continuation of the Order 
Book of John Faucheraud Grimke, August, 1778 to May, 1780; and 
some Broughton Letters, edited by D. E. Huger Smith. 

A pamphlet entitled Rhode Island Imprints, 1727-1800, which 
has been published by the Rhode Island Historical Society contains 
a list of books, pamphlets, newspapers, and broadsides printed at 
Newport, Providence, and Warren, Rhode Island, between the years 




The Minnesota Historical Society has launched a new publication 
known as the Minnesota History Bulletin, the first number of which 
appeared in February and contains an address by Clarence W. 
Alvord on The Relation of the State to Historical Work. 

The January number of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Quarterly is devoted entirely to a monograph on the History of the 
Democratic Party Organization in the Northwest, 1824-1840, by 
Homer J. Webster. 

Among the articles in the Records of the American Catholic His- 
torical Society for March are the following : Origin of the Name of 
Peterborough, New Hampshire, by James P. Brennan; Old-time 
Reading Books, by Philip R. McDevitt ; Archbishop Riordan of San 
Francisco, by Thomas J. Brennan; and Monsignor Robert Hugh 
Benson, by J oseph H. McMahon. 

The Governor of New Providence, West Indies, in 1702, by G. 
Andrews Moriarty, Jr. ; and Cedar Pond Region, Salem, in 1700, by 
Sidney Perley, are two articles which appear in the January num- 
ber of the Historical Collections of the Essex Institute. 

Two volumes of the Publications of the North Carolina Historical 
Commission published in 1914 contain The Papers of Archibald D. 
Murphey, edited by William Henry Hoyt. Murphey was a prom- 
inent legislator and judge, and a strong advocate of internal im- 
provements in North Carolina during the early part of the 
nineteenth century. 

A brief biographical sketch of Abner Cheney Goodell, M. A., by 
Elizabeth T. Thornton; and some quaintly worded Extracts from 
the Diary of James Parker of Shirley, Mass., for the years 1770- 
1772, are among the contents of the January number of The New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register. 

The third installment of Robert Glass Cleland's monograph on 
The Early Sentiment for the Annexation of California; chapter two 
of the history of Harris County, 1822-1845, by Adele B. Looscan ; 
the second section of Allen's Reminiscences of Texas, 1838-1842, 


edited by "William S. Red; and another selection from the BritisJi 
Correspondence Concerning Texas, edited by Ephraim Douglass 
Adams, make up the contents of the January number of The South- 
western Historical Quarterly, published by the Texas State His- 
torical Association. 

Volume thirty-four of the Archives of Maryland, published by 
the Maryland Historical Society, contains the Proceedings and Acts 
of the General Assemtly of Maryland, October, 1720-Octol)er, 1723, 
edited by Clayton Colman Hall. During this period Charles Cal- 
vert, a relative of Lord Baltimore, was the Governor of the colony, 
and the relations between him and the General Assembly were of a 
cordial nature. 

The first of two volumes of correspondence relating to the Com- 
merce of Rhode Island, 1726-1800, constitutes volume nine, seventh 
series of the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
This correspondence is "the first important contribution in print to 
the history of the commerce of a British American colony." Four 
generations of a Newport mercantile house are represented in these 
letters, the historical value of which is apparent even after a very 
cursory examination. Routes, markets, prices, credit, methods of 
doing business — all these and various other aspects of commercial 
activity in America during the period covered are clearly shown in 
this correspondence. 

In the Collections of the New York Historical Society for the 
Year 1913 may be found copies of a number of original manuscripts 
in the archives of the Society. In the first place, there is the Booh of 
New York Deeds, January 1, 1673, to October 19, 1675, which deeds 
are not recorded in the Register's office. Then follow miscellaneous 
documents relating to the City of New York and Long Island be- 
tween 1642 and 1696. And finally, there are some Melyn Papers, 
1640-1699, which relate mainly to Staten Island. 

A brief biography of Garland Carr Broadhead and a bibliography 
of his publications, prepared by Darling K. Greger, occupy the 
opening pages of the Missouri Historical Review for January. 



Sketches of the lives of The Cabell Descendants in Missouri are pre- 
sented by Joseph A. Mudd. Boohs of Early Travel in Missouri is 
the title of a short article by F. A. Sampson, in which is discussed 
the account of Stephen H. Long 's expedition of 1819-1820 as told by 
Edwin James. A note on Harmony Mission and Methodist Missions, 
by Gr. C. Broadhead ; and a list of marriages copied from the Carroll 
County Marriage Record, by Mary G. Brown, are the remaining 
contributions. Among the notes may be found a list of Missouri 
Biver Boats in 1841, with the names of their captains. 

Volume seventy-one of the Collections of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society is devoted to the Letters and Papers of John Single- 
ton Copley and Henry Pelham, 1739-1776. ''The correspondence 
concerns Massachusetts before the date of Independence, and throws 
valuable light upon Copley and his early paintings. Mention is 
made of a number of his portraits, hitherto unknown, and his im- 
pressions of the work of other painters and methods of painting are 
detailed in his letters from Prance and Italy. The papers are thus 
both historical and technical." 

Penn versus Baltimore: Journal of John Watson, Assistant Sur- 
veyor to the Commissioners of the Province of Pennsylvania, 
December 13-March 18, 1750-51, with an introduction by John W. 
Jordan, is the leading contribution in the January number of The 
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Louis Richards 
is the writer of a sketch of the life of Hon. Jacob Bush, of the Penn- 
sylvania Judiciary; there is an unsigned account of the unveiling of 
the Delaware Memorial at Valley Forge; Mrs. Lindsay Patterson 
discusses The Old Patterson Mansion, the Master and his Quests; 
and the Story of the Ship '^Good Friends'' is compiled from letters. 

The Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of Historical 
Societies, reported by Waldo G. Leland, have been reprinted in 
pamphlet form from the Annual Beport of the American Historical 
Association. The contents include the report of the committee hav- 
ing charge of the work of calendaring the French archives relating 
to the Mississippi Valley; an interesting paper on Genealogy and 
History, by Charles K. Bolton, in which the author makes a plea for 


more of the so-called "Iniman interest" in history and genealogical 
writings; and an article on The Massachusetts Historical Society, by 
Worthington C. Ford, which is worth the perusal of all persons 
interested in historical organizations. 

Volume forty-seven of the Proceedings of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society is a book of over five hundred and fifty pages con- 
taining addresses, papers, and documentary material. Mention may 
be made of the following : Wolseley and the Confederate Army, by 
Charles Francis Adams; Washington and Parties, 1789-1797, by 
Edward Channing ; Walker and John Brown, 1858, by Leverett W. 
Spring ; The Trials of a Governor in the Revolution, by Andrew M.. 
Davis; Trade Reciprocity with Canada, by Edward Stanwood; 
Boston and New York after the Revolution, by Franklin B. San- 
born ; Memoir of Thomas Wentworth Eigginson, by Edward Chan- 
ning; Memoir of Gamaliel Bradford, by Edward H. Clement; A 
Crisis in Downing Street (in 1862) , by Charles Francis Adams; and 
Great Britain and our War of 1846-1848, by Justin H. Smith. 

The Indiana Magazine of History for March opens with a brief 
account of The Flow of Colonists to and from Indiana Before the 
Civil War, by William 0. Lynch. It is interesting to note that be- 
tween 1850 and 1860 more than 37,000 natives of Indiana came to 
Iowa. The concluding installment of John Hardin Thomas's study 
of The Academies of Indiana deals with the academies of various, 
denominations and with pioneer educators and early education. 
Ralph Walden Van Valer is the writer of an article on The Indiana 
State Federation of Labor. Then follows a paper on Research in 
State History in State Universities which was read before the Amer- 
ican Historical Association in Chicago by James A. Woodburn., 
Other contributions are: French Settlements in Floyd County, by 
Alice L. Green; and Judge Daniel Wait Howe and the ^'Political 
History of Secession", by James A. Woodburn. 

The October number of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society opens with an article on The Methodist Episcopal Church 
and Reconstruction, by William W. Sweet. An account of The 
County Seat Battles of Cass County, Illinois, is written by J. N.. 



Gridley ; Felicie Cottet Snider presents A Short Sketch of the Life 
of Jules Leon Cottet, A Former Member of the Icarian Community; 
and William H. Gay relates some Beminiscenses of Abraham Lin- 
coln, Quincy and the Civil War. The career of Colonel A. F. 
Rodgers is described by W. T. Norton under the title The Hero of 
the ''Wreck of the Independence^' ; while the heading A Revolu- 
tionary Soldier and Some of his Family is given to an article by 
G. Frank Long relative to Moses Long and a number of his chil- 
dren, among whom were Stephen H. Long, the explorer, and Enoch 
Long whose last home was at Sabula, Iowa. There is also an account 
of the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the battles 
of Campbell's Island and Credit Island in the Mississippi River. 

The Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 
the Year 1912 has been distributed. Among the papers contained 
in the volume are the following: The New Columbus, by Henry 
P. Biggar; The Charter of Connecticut, by Clarence "W. Bowen; 
The Enforcement of the Alien and Sedition Laws, by Frank Maloy 
Anderson ; The Reviewing of Historical Books, by Carl Becker ; The 
International Character of Commercial History, by Abbott P. Ush- 
er ; and Historical Research in the Far West, by Katharine Coman. 
There are the proceedings of a conference on military history, 
the proceedings of the ninth annual conference of historical soci- 
eties, and the thirteenth annual report of the public archives com- 
mission. The last half of the volume is occupied with Letters of 
William Vans Murray to John Quincy Adams, 1797-1803, edited 
by Worthington C. Ford. Murray during the years indicated was 
Minister of the United States to the "Batavian Republic", and 
later Envoy Extraordinary to France. 

C. C. Stiles is the writer of an excellent article, illustrated by 
a number of cuts, on The Great Seals of Iowa, which appears in 
the January number of the Annals of Iowa. Then follows a brief 
memoir of John F. Lacey, by William T. Hornaday. Under the 
heading of Lutherans in Iowa a number of writers present short 
sketches of the history of the various Lutheran denominations in 
Iowa. Another installment of The Writings of Judge George G, 

VOL. xni — 19 


Wright consists of a two-page autobiography and some notes rela- 
tive to Van Buren County's famous men. Another section of the 
list of Iowa Authors and their Worlcs, compiled by Alice Marple, 
is also to be found in this number. In the editorial department 
there is a letter from Grenville M. Dodge relative to the size of herds 
of buffalo seen on the plains ; and some correspondence identifying 
the "Jeffreon" River of the Sac and Fox treaty of November 3, 
1804, as the North River. 

Extracts from old letters connected by the required explanatory 
statements form an interesting account of Seafaring in Time of 
War, 1756-1763, by Helen West Ridgely, which is given first place 
in the Maryland Historical Magazine for March. Then follow a 
brief article by Bernard C. Steiner entitled Taney's Letters to 
Van Buren in 1860; another installment of the Letters of Bev. 
Jonathan Boucher between 1777 and 1780; and the story of The 
Cruise of the Clarence-Tacony- Archer, by E. H. Browne. Under 
the heading of Gastronomic Accounts are some bills incurred by 
the legislature of Maryland for wines and edibles consumed in 
the entertainment of General Washington and in the celebration 
of the news of the making of peace in 1783. These bills are an 
evidence of the fact that public money was sometimes used in the 
''good old days" for purposes which would cause a storm of pro- 
test to-day. 

Orin G. Libby is the writer of a Review of Schouler's History 
of the United States which occupies the opening pages in The 
Mississippi Valley Historical Review for March. An article on The 
Methods and Operations of the Scioto Group of Speculators, by 
Archer B. Hulbert, is to be continued. An interesting paper on 
the Diplomacy Concerning the Santa Fe Road is written by William 
R. Manning. Under the heading of A Neglected Critic of Our 
Civil War, Louis Martin Sears discusses the writings and opinions 
of Eugene Forcade, editor of the well-known French periodical 
La Revue des Deux Mondes. The last article is one by William 
W. Sweet on Methodist Church Influence in Southern Politics. 
The ''Notes and Documents" include some letters relative to the 



Fort Dearborn massacre and a newspaper item of about the year 
1810 relative to Thomas Ashe 's travels, all of which are contributed 
and edited by Milo M. Quaife; and a Ku Klux document with an 
introduction by Walter L. Fleming. 

T. C. Elliott is the writer of an interesting sketch of The Fur 
Trade in the Columbia River Basin Prior to 1811 which appears 
in the opening pages of The Washington Historical Quarterly for 
January. Then follows a list of The Pioneer Dead of 1914, com- 
piled by Thomas W. Prosch. Brief sketches of the various Pioneer 
and Historical Societies of the State of Washington, prepared by 
Victor J. Farrar, shows very clearly what is being done in an or- 
ganized manner to preserve the history of that State. The Journal 
of John Work, July S-Septemher 15, 1826, edited by T. C. Elliott, 
is a continuation of this journal which constitutes an important 
source for the history of northeastern Washington. This particular 
installment of the journal tells of a journey up the Columbia River 
from the original Fort Vancouver to Fort Colville in company with 
several men well known in the annals of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's operations in the Pacific Northwest. Finally, this number 
of the Quarterly contains the concluding section of A New Van- 
couver Journal, edited by Edmond S. Meany, in which 'Hhe author 
gives his observations of the natives of Nootka Sound and the ad- 
jacent coasts". 

The presidential address of Andrew C. McLaughlin on American 
History and American Democracy appears in the January number 
of The American Historical Review. Then follows the second sec- 
tion of The Government of Normandy Tinder Henry II, by Charles 
H. Haskins; The Fame of Sir Edward Stafford, by Conyers Read; 
and A Portrait of General George Gordon Meade, by Gamaliel 
Bradford. In this number of the Review there appears a new head- 
ing, ' ' Notes and Suggestions ' under which " it is proposed to print 
. . . . hereafter, three or four or five brief contributions in 
which historical investigators may communicate new discoveries, 
new criticism of sources, new arguments, new conclusions, or sug- 
gestions for further research or thought. ' ' Notes on the Kentucky 


Resolutions of 1798 and on slave crime in Virginia are to be found 
in this issue. Under the heading of "Documents'' there is an in- 
stallment of Letters from Lafayette to Luzerne, 1780-1782, edited 
by Waldo G. Leland and Edmund C. Burnett. There is also a list 
of doctoral dissertations in history now in progress at the chief 
American universities. 

The opening contribution in The Quarterly of the Oregon His- 
torical Society for September, 1914, is a paper on The ''Bargain of 
1844'^ as the Origin of the Wilmot Proviso, by Clark E. Persinger. 
Over fifty pages are devoted to the Diary of Samuel Royal Thurs- 
ton, with introduction and notes by George H. Himes. Thurston, 
who was the first Delegate to Congress from Oregon Territory, is 
another of the many connecting links between the early history of 
Iowa and the early history of Oregon Territory. He came to 
Burlington, Iowa, in 1845, and remained there two years, prac- 
ticing law and editing a newspaper ; and then in 1847, with his wife 
and one child made the long overland journey to Oregon City. In 
June, 1849, he was elected Delegate to Congress, and it is of his 
activities in this capacity until the last of August, 1850, that he 
wrote in his diary. Occasional references to Senator A. C. Dodge 
of Iowa are to be found. Among other contributions in this number 
of the Quarterly may be mentioned a Letter of Quincy Adams 
Brooks, telling of a journey across the plains to Oregon in 1851; 
and a table containing data relative to the members of the Oregon 
constitutional convention of 1857, among whom were ten men who 
emigrated from Iowa to Oregon between and 1844 and 1853. 


A meeting of the Missouri Historical Society was held at the 
Jefferson Memorial building in St. Louis on March 26, 1915. An 
address on Indian Character and Life as Influence^ hy Geology was 
delivered by Mr. Gerard Fowke. 

The American Historical Association offers a prize of two hundred 
dollars for the best unpublished monograph on some phase of Amer- 
ican military history. The competition closes on September 1, 1915. 



Correspondence should be addressed to Captain A. L. Conger, Fort 
Leavenworth, Kansas. 

A portrait of the late General Edward F. Winslow, together with 
some papers and other historical materials collected by him, has been 
presented to the Historical Department of Iowa by Mrs. Winslow. 

Among the papers read at the monthly meetings of the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society at Milwaukee between October and January 
are: The Ships of the Great Lakes, by Eugene Hermann; and 
Household Industries of the Puehlo Indians, by Louis Lotz. 

The following officers were elected at the annual meeting of the 
Indiana Historical Society on December 31, 1914 : President, Daniel 
Wait Howe ; Vice Presidents, Charles W. Moores, William E. Eng- 
lish, and James A. Woodburn; Corresponding Secretary, C. B. 
Coleman; Recording Secretary, Jacob P. Dunn. About forty-five 
members were added to the Society during the preceding year. 

The following officers were elected at the annual meeting of the 
Oregon Historical Society at Portland on December 19, 1914: 
President, Frederick V. Holman; Vice President, Leslie M. Scott; 
Secretary, F. 0. Young; Treasurer, Edward Cookingham; Direc- 
tors, Leslie M. Scott and Charles B. Moores. An address on The 
Indian Wars of Washington Territory was delivered by Thomas W. 

The Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association 
held its eleventh annual meeting in San Francisco on November 27 
and 28, 1914. Among the papers and addresses were: Japanese 
Naturalization and the California Anti- Alien Land Law, by Roy 
Malcolm; The Anglo-Saxon Sheriff, by William A. Morris; The 
Name of the American War of 1861-65, which was the presidential 
address by Edmond S. Meany ; and The Components of History, by 
Frederick J. Teggart. Professor Herbert E. Bolton of the Univer- 
sity of California was elected president for the year 1915. 

The eighth annual meeting of the Ohio Valley Historical Associa- 
tion was held at Charleston, West Virginia, on November 27 and 28, 
1914. Among the papers read were: John Floyd and Oregon, by 



C. H. Ambler; General Wilkinson's First Break with the Spaniards, 
by Isaac J. Cox ; Early Land Grants in Southeastern Ohio, by H. "W. 
Elson ; and Some Observations as to the Population of the Ohio Val- 
ley During the Eighteenth Century, by J. E. Bradford. 

The twelfth annual meeting of the Madison County Historical 
Society was held at Winterset on Tuesday, March 16th. The prin- 
cipal paper was one by C. C. Stiles, Superintendent of the Public 
Archives of Iowa. E. R. Zeller read a sketch of the life of "W. S. 
Wilkinson, who was one of the organizers of the Society and who 
had collected considerable material relative to the history of the 
county. William Brinson, who came to Madison County in 1849, 
related some reminiscences. Herman A. Mueller was reelected pres- 
ident, Henry Hawk was chosen as vice president, and E. R. Zeller 
as secretary-treasurer. 

The eighth annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association will be held in New Orleans on April 21-23, 1915. The 
Proceedings of the Association containing the papers read at the 
midwinter meeting at Charleston and at the annual meeting at 
Grand Forks, North Dakota, will soon be ready for distribution. 

The Historical Department of Iowa is making a special effort to 
compile a list of Iowa authors and their publications, and has al- 
ready printed a preliminary list, compiled by Miss Alice Marple. 
While considerable work has already been done along this line by 
various agencies, nothing like a complete list has ever been pub- 
lished. The task is a large one and well worth the doing. 

Papers read before the Maryland Historical Society at the month- 
ly meetings in December and January, respectively, were : The 
Braddock Trail, by Mrs. Frank Pelham Stone ; and The Preserva- 
tion of Records, by Mrs. Charles W. Bassett. At the annual meeting 
on February 8th Mr. Edwin Warfield was reelected president of the 
Society. The membership of the Society now numbers over six 
hundred and forty, the increase during the year 1914 being thirty. 
The rooms of the Society have been completely renovated and re- 
paired at an expense of over twelve hundred dollars. 



President John A. Earl of Des Moines College addressed the His- 
torical Society of Marshall County on January 29th, his subject 
being The West in American History . On the evening of February 
23rd a patriotic program was given under the auspices of the So- 
ciety, at which time the following papers were read by pupils in the 
high school : The Pioneer and Pioneer Life in Iowa, by Edna Robb ; 
Eoad Legislation in Iowa, by Francis "Wilcox; and State Historical 
Society of Iowa, by Hazel Gordon. At the annual meeting on March 
16th the following officers were elected: Robert "W. Stevens, presi- 
dent; Mrs. May F. Montgomery, vice president; Miss Minnie Rus- 
sell, secretary ; Mrs. H. J. Howe, treasurer ; Mrs. Emma Weatherly, 
curator; and Mrs. G. A. Tewksbury, Aaron Palmer, C. F. Schmidt, 
and C. C. Trine, directors. The Society now has one hundred and 
fifteen members. 

At the annual meeting of the Minnesota Historical Society on 
January 18, 1915, the former members of the council were reelected; 
and a committee was appointed to revise and consolidate the by- 
laws of the Society and of the executive council. An address was 
also delivered at this time by Professor Clarence W. Alvord on The 
Relation of the State to Historical Work. Charles P. Noyes was 
chosen president of the executive council for the triennium 1915- 
1918, at a meeting of the council held on February 8th. At an open 
meeting on April 12th Herbert A. Kellar read a paper on The Min- 
nesota State Archives, their Character, Condition, and Historical 
Value. The new quarterly publication of the Society, known as the 
Minnesota History Bulletin, appeared in February. It will contain 
papers read before the Society, ' ' reviews of books pertinent to Min- 
nesota history, notes on the activities of the society, perhaps occa- 
sional documents or reprints, and miscellaneous matter of various 
sorts." The Collections in the future will be devoted chiefly to 
documentary material, the volumes being arranged in series dealing, 
with various phases and periods of Minnesota history. Plans for 
the proposed building for the Society have not been definitely 

The Michigan Historical Commission, in its Second Annual Re- 
port, urges the need of a building for the proper preservation of the 


archives and historical records of that State. The thirty-ninth vol- 
ume of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections is in press. 
Research work now in progress includes the preparation of a bibli- 
ography of Michigan publications of all kinds, the revision of the 
volume of Michigan Biographies compiled many years ago by 
Stephen D. Brigham, the compilation of a list of maps of Michigan, 
and the gathering of information relative to existing files of Mich- 
igan newspapers. Special mention should be made of the fact that 
the Commission has in its possession a translation of the revised and 
corrected Margry Papers, a collection the value of which is well 
known to the student of early Mississippi Valley history but which 
has never been published in English. An effort is being made to 
work out a plan whereby the Commission will cooperate with other 
historical organizations in the systematic publication of these and 
other manuscripts of the French period in America. 


Mr. Joseph W. Rich, a Curator of the Society, is spending the 
summer in southern California. 

Mr. Jacob Van der Zee, Research Associate in the Society, deliv- 
ered an address on Fur Traders Among the Indians of the Iowa 
Country before the Historical Society of Marshall County on April 
2, 1915. 

The Superintendent, Dr. Benj. F. Shambaugh, spoke before the 
Contemporary Club of Davenport on February 25th on the work of 
The State Historical Society of Iowa. 

Two text-books on the government of Iowa, written by Clarence 
R. Aurner, Research Associate in the Society, and Dan E. Clark, 
Assistant Editor in the Society, have recently been published by the 
Houghton Mifflin Company and Silver, Burdett and Company, 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society : Mr. F. M. Foster, Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. G. F. Kay, 
Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. Edwin J. Stason, Sioux City, Iowa; Mr. 



Ernest C. Hamilton, Winterset, Iowa; Mr. C. J. Knickerbocker, 
Fairfax, Iowa; Mr. C. H. Studebaker, Jefferson, Iowa; Mr. F. M. 
Abbott, Osceola, Iowa; Mr. H. B. Allfree, Newton, Iowa; Mr. "W. E. 
Beck, Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. Nathaniel K. BeecMey, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa ; Mr. Jas. C. Gillespie, Le Mars, Iowa ; Mr. J. B. Hungerf ord, 
Carroll, Iowa; Mr. George A. Ide, Creston, Iowa; Mr. Jno. S. 
McGavren, Missouri Valley, Iowa; Mr. H. A. Orchard, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa; Mr. John G. Regan, Adel, Iowa; Mr. "W. R. Williams, 
Eldora, Iowa ; and Mr. Chas. "Wright, Des Moines, Iowa. 

A four hundred and forty page volume on the History of Social 
Legislation in Iowa, written by Mr. John E. Briggs, will be dis- 
tributed to members of the Society in a short time. Since the social 
point of view in law-making has received its greatest emphasis in 
recent years, fully two-thirds of the book is devoted to social legis- 
lation in Iowa since the adoption of the Code of 1897. The volume 
will enable the student of any sociological subject to trace without 
difficulty the legislative history of that subject in this State. 



Cyrus Bussey, one of Iowa 's best known soldiers during the Civil 
War, died in Washington, D. C, on March 2, 1915. 

The orderly-books of Colonel Isaac Shelby for the period of the 
Detroit campaign in the War of 1812 have recently been added to 
the Burton Historical Collection of the Detroit Public Library. 

Histories of Des Moines, Iowa, Calhoun, and Wright counties are 
reported in preparation. 

Mr. William P. Coast, one of the first students who entered the 
State University of Iowa, and a long-time resident and business man 
of Iowa City, died on March 21st. 

Justice Horace E. Deemer of the Supreme Court of Iowa gave a 
series of lectures before the students of the College of Law of the 
State University of Iowa during the week of April 12-17, 1915. 

On January 21, 1915, at Plankinton, South Dakota, occurred the 
death of Samuel H. Bakewell, who was born near Lansing, Iowa, in 
1855, and who in later life attained a prominent position in the 
legal profession in South Dakota. 

There is a movement in Buchanan County to erect a log cabin on 
the fair grounds as a meeting-place for old settlers and as a re- 
minder of pioneer days in the county. 

The Bancroft History Assembly of Creston held its annual ban- 
quet on February 2, 1915. 

Rear-Admiral Alfred T. Mahan, recognized throughout the world 
as one of the greatest naval historians, died at Washington, D. C, 
on December 1, 1914. 

It has been suggested that the State should purchase the cabin 
and the surrounding premises on the site of the Spirit Lake Mas- 




sacre and convert the spot into a State park. The statement has 
been made that the Minnesota Historical Society has offered to pur- 
chase the cabin, which is now occupied by Mrs. Abbie Gardner 
Sharpe, and move it across the line into Minnesota. 

The Iowa Pioneer Lawmakers ' Association held its fifteenth meet- 
ing at Des Moines on March 11 and 12, 1915, with about forty mem- 
bers in attendance. E. H. Gillette was elected president of the 
association for the coming year; "W. H. Fleming, secretary; Y. P. 
Twombly, treasurer; and N. E. Coffin, chairman of the executive 
committee. Vice presidents representing all of the congressional 
districts of the State were also chosen. 

On January 17, 1915, occurred the death of L. S. Coffin at his 
home near Fort Dodge. Mr. Coffin is best known for his activities 
in securing the adoption of safety appliances for the protection of 
the employees of railroads, and for his labors in support of the tem- 
perance cause. He was ninety-three years of age at the time of his 

Hon. N. S. Ketchum, who had been a member of the Board of 
Eailroad Commissioners since January 1, 1905, died at his home in 
Marshalltown on January 16, 1915. Mr. Ketchum was born in New 
Jersey in 1839, and he came to Iowa eighteen years later as a mem- 
ber of the corps of engineers then engaged in constructing the rail- 
road between Clinton and Marshalltown. 

There seems to be a widespread interest throughout the State in 
the erection of monuments to veterans of the Civil War under the 
terms of the law authorizing counties to provide for such memorials. 
Contracts have recently been let for soldiers' monuments in the 
cemeteries at McGregor in Clayton County and at Le Mars in 
Plymouth County. The monument at the latter place will cost 

The city council of Sioux City has made provision for the re- 
moval to Stone Park of one of the oldest houses in the city — name- 
ly, a house built in 1856 by George W. F. Sherwin. It was 
subsequently used as a bank, real estate office, church, and school- 


house. In fact, it is said to have been the first building owned by 
the school district. It is very appropriate, therefore, that a building 
about which cluster so many memories of the early days in Sioux 
City should be preserved. 

The Committee on Education of the German Alliance of Indiana 
has offered a first prize of seventy dollars and a second prize of 
thirty dollars for the best essays on ''The Influence of German 
Civilization on the State of Indiana". The competition closes on 
January 1, 1916, and is restricted to students in the universities and 
colleges of Indiana. The occasion for the offering of the prizes is 
the approaching centennial of the admission of Indiana into the 

During the summer of 1914 Miss Elizabeth H. "West, Archivist of 
the State Library of Texas, copied a number of documents found in 
the Archivo Nacional de Cuba relating to Spanish colonial and 
Indian trade policy during the latter part of the eighteenth and the 
early part of the nineteenth centuries. Especially to be mentioned 
are the letter-books of Bernardo de Galvez, Governor of Louisiana, 
from 1778 to 1781. 

The annual meeting of the Swedish-American Society of Iowa 
was held at Des Moines on March 9th, on the anniversary of the 
battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac. The object of the 
Society is to secure the erection of a monument to the inventor of 
the Monitor, John Ericsson, on the eapitol grounds at Des Moines. 
The raising of funds for this purpose has been in progress during 
the past year, and the leaders in the movement feel confident of 
success. In the evening a banquet was tendered by the Oden Club 
of Des Moines, an organization of Swedish business men. 


On February 20, 1915, occurred the death of Col. Alonzo Aber- 
nethy, one of the best known citizens of this State. He was born on 
April 14, 1836, at Sandusky, Ohio, and it was in the spring of 1854 
that he came to Iowa, settling in Fayette County. After teaching 
school for some time he entered the Baptist school known as Bur- 



lington University, and from there in turn, after three years, he 
went to Chicago University. In his senior year there came the 
President 's call to arms, and young Abernethy responded by enlist- 
ing in Company F, Ninth Iowa Infantry. Except for short periods 
of enforced rest caused by wounds and illness he was in active ser- 
vice throughout the four years of the war, taking part in some of 
the most important battles and campaigns from Pea Ridge on the 
west to Atlanta on the east ; and he rose in the ranks from private 
to Lieutenant Colonel. 

Immediately after his return to Iowa at the close of the war Mr. 
Abernethy was elected a member of the lower house of the Eleventh 
General Assembly. Subsequently he occupied a number of impor- 
tant educational positions, such as principal of Des Moines College 
for one year, State Superintendent of Public Instruction for six 
years ending in 1876, president of Chicago University from 1876 to 
1878, president of the Cedar Valley Seminary at Osage for many 
years, and member of the Board of Regents of the State University 
of Iowa from 1890 to 1909. Mr. Abernethy was a member of The 
State Historical Society of Iowa and took an active interest in the 
history of this State, as is shown by his writings on such subjects as 
the history of the Baptist schools of Iowa, the Louisiana Purchase, 
and the Indians and Indian treaties. 


Ellen A. Moore was born in Vermont on May 6, 1843. In 1860 
she came to Iowa and two years later entered the State University 
of Iowa, graduating from the normal department in 1864 with the 
degree of B. S. One year later she was granted the degree of B. A. 
and in 1868 the degree of M. A. Beginning before her graduation 
and continuing until the close of the school year in 1871 she was an 
instructor in the University. In 1868 she was married to Mr. 
Joseph "W. Rich, who for many years has been a Curator of The 
State Historical Society of Iowa. 

In 1871 Mr. and Mrs. Rich moved to Vinton, Iowa, where, in pub- 
lishing and editing the Vinton Eagle, Mrs. Rich was an able assist- 
ant to her husband. At the same time she continued to take a lively 


interest in educational affairs, was frequently called upon to teach 
in county normal institutes, and in 1882 was chosen a member of the 
State Board of Examiners. After returning to Iowa City in 1892 
Mrs. Rich took an active part in various women's clubs and organ- 
izations, and won for herself a warm place in the affections of all 
who knew her. She died at her home in Iowa City on March 10, 


Jacob Van dek Zee, Research Associate in The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa, and Instructor in Political Science in 
the State University of Iowa. (See The Iowa Journal of 
History and Politics for January, 1913, p. 142.) 

Geokge Evan Robeets, Assistant to the President of the 
National City Bank of New York City. Member of The State 
Historical Society of Iowa. Born in Delaware County, Iowa, 
in 1857. Proprietor of the Fort Dodge Messenger, 1878-1903 ; 
State Printer of Iowa, 1882-1889; Director of the United 
States Mint, 1898-1907, 1910-1914; President of the Com- 
mercial National Bank of Chicago, 1907-1910. Author of Coin 
at School in Finance; Iowa and the Silver Question; Money, 
Wages, and Prices; The Origin and History of the Iowa Idea, 

Dan Elbekt Claek, Assistant Editor in The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa, and Lecturer in the Department of 
Political Science in the State University of Iowa. Author of 
History of Liquor Legislation in Iowa, History of Senatorial 
Elections in Iowa, The Government of Iowa, etc. 




p. LOWE 

'h. lee 

, penn clarke 

Established by La-vt in thi 
I N c R P a A T E D : 1 S 6 7 
Locate d a t I o w a C i. 





BENJAMIN' T, SHAMBAUGH. . .S-jperintendent 

rCLID SANDERS .President 

^4UL A. KORAB. • » Tseasurer 

FRANK E. HORACK. ............. ^ ^ Secretary 

Elected ty the Society Appointed hy the Governor 

Geo. W. Ball Marvin H. Ley Marsh W. Bailey 

J. W, Rich Henry G. Walker M., F. Edv^ards 

Euclid Sanders Henry Albert J. J- McConnell 

Arthur J. Cox 8. A. Swisher John T. Moffit 

Charles Butcher 

Byron W, Newberry 
A, C. Savage 
E. W. Stanton 
W. H. Tedford 
L B. Weaver 


Any person may become a member of The State Historical Society of Iowa upon 
election by the Board of Curators and the payment of an entrance fee of $3.00. 

Membership in this Society may be retained after the first year upon the payment of 
$3.00 annually. 

Members of the Society shall be entitled to receive the quarterly and all other publications 
of the Society during the continuance of their membership. 

Any public, school, or college library in the State of Iowa may be enrolled as a library 
member upon application and the payment of a fee of $1.00. Such library membership may be 
retained after the first year upon the payment of $1.00 annually. Libraries enrolled as library 
members of The State Historical Society of Iowa shall be entitled to receive the quarterly 
and aU other publications of the Society issued during the period of their inembersldp. 

Address all Communications to 

The State ] 

Sistorical Society Iowa City Iowa 




JULY 191S 

Published Quarterly by 


Iowa. City lowa^ 

t«cd December 28 1902 at Iowa City Iowa as second-class matter under act of Oongress of July 16 XSO 1 

Assistant Editor, DAN E. CLAR-K 

Vol XPE 

JULY 1915 

No 3 


The Neutral Ground . . Jacob Van der Zee 311 

The Grasshopper Plagues in Iowa . John E. Brigos 349 

John A. Nash and the Early History of Des Moines College 392 

The Black Hawk War and the Treaty of 1832 

Jacob Van der Zee 416 

Some Publications , , . , 429 

Western Americana > . . . 

lowana ... . . , , . . , 

Historical Societies . « . . . . , . 45q 

Notes and Comment . . . . . . 466 

Contributors . . • . . . . 471 

Copyright 1915 by The State Historical Society of Iowa 



' I ' Single NuMBSJB :' «0 bENT^ 

Address all Communications to 
'J iJL aTATB HiSTo&iCAi Society IoWa City 



VOL. XIII — ^20 



Early in the year 1830 government officials at Washington 
decided to interfere in the war that had dragged on inter- 
mittently for several years among the Indian tribes of the 
Mississippi and the Missouri. General William Clark, 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Zachary Taylor at Prairie du Chien 
received orders that all the tribes concerned should be 
asked to assemble at Prairie du Chien to hear President 
Jackson's message. Jonathan L. Bean and General Clark's 
son, William, were accordingly sent to summon deputations 
from the Missouri River Indians. The Otoes agreed to 
meet them at the mouth of the Floyd River on June the 
14th; the Omahas selected fourteen representatives to make 
the proposed journey; but the Yankton Sioux upon the 
James River, starving and dying in their camps, refused to 
go because they feared further butchering by the Sacs and 
Foxes who had but recently scalped twelve of their women. 
The Otoes afterwards having changed their minds, the two 
agents and the Omaha delegation alone crossed the northern 
Iowa wilderness overland to Prairie du Chien.^ 

Meanwhile General Clark had arrived in a steamboat 
with deputations from the Otoe and the loway Indians, 
thirty-nine Sacs, and as many Foxes. The latter had for 
some time stubbornly declined the invitation to attend the 
peace negotiations, because a large number of their people 
had been massacred by the Sioux while they were on their 
way to Prairie du Chien to patch up peace with the Winne- 

1 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 91, 93, 96, 97, 



bagoes : after runners had summoned their principal chiefs 
to Eock Island, General Clark met them, gave presents to 
the friends and relatives of the murdered Fox chiefs, and 
thus effectually wiped away their tears". Shortly after- 
ward came the Winnebagoes, the Mississippi Sioux, and the 
Menominees. Four days were consumed by the United 
States commissioners, William Clark and Colonel Willough- 
by Morgan (commandant of Fort Crawford), in obtaining 
on the 15th of July, 1830, the treaty which represents a 
milestone in American territorial expansion and an event 
of importance in the history of the Iowa country.^ 


The Sioux and the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United 
States tracts of land twenty miles in width lying to the 
north and the south, respectively, of a line which extended , 
from the Mississippi to the upper Des Moines and which 
had been established by the government in 1825 as the 
boundary between the tribes. This strip, forty miles wide 
and nearly two hundred miles long — the first government 
purchase of land in the Iowa country — came to be known 
as the Neutral Ground and it was expected to be an effective 
barrier against further intertribal war. All the tribes re- 
linquished to the United States a tract of country extending 
from the western boundary of the State of Missouri to the 
Big Sioux, and from the Missouri Eiver eastward to the 
highlands separating the waters which fall into the Mis- 
souri from those which fall into the Des Moines, — a strip 
about two hundred and fifty miles in length and averaging 
about seventy-five miles in breadth. 

The latter cession was to be assigned by the President of 
the United States to such tribes as were then or thereafter 

2 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 77, 81; The 
Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XIII, p. 40. 



located upon it. The loways and a small band of Sacs and 
Foxes were at that time the only inhabitants of the western 
Iowa wilderness, and it was predicted that their hunting 
would be at an end in the course of two or three years, so 
fast were game animals disappearing from the country. 
As the price for these cessions the United States promised 
to pay each of the tribes from $2000 to $3000 annually for 
ten years ; and in order that the Indians might be induced 
to turn their attention more and more to agriculture to keep 
from starving, the government agreed to forward them 
blacksmiths, iron, and farm implements. The government 
also promised to educate the children of each tribe. The 
lines of the cessions were to be run and marked as soon as 
the President deemed it expedient.^ 

During the month of October, 1830, Sac and Fox dele- 
gates were met in council at St. Louis by a deputation of the 
Yankton and Santie bands of Sioux: after the usual cere- 
monies and a great many speeches all smoked the peace pipe 
together and shook hands, attesting the Great Spirit to 
the sincerity of their determination to remain friends''. 
These Sioux tribes of the Dakota country also approved the 
terms of the treaty made in their absence a few months 
before and so the government's acquisition of much Indian 
territory became an accomplished fact so far as the tribes 
who hunted upon Iowa soil were concerned."* 


On the second day of March, 1831, Congress appropriated 
$9000 to defray the expenses of surveying and marking the 

^Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 78, 79; Kap- 
pler's Indian A fairs, Vol. II, pp. 305-308. The western boundary of the State 
of Missouri at that time was a line from the mouth of the Kansas Eiver to a 
point one hundred miles north. 

4 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 182, 183. The 
treaty was ratified by the Senate in February, 1831. 


lines designated by the treaty of 1830. Andrew S. Hughes, 
Indian snb-agent for the Sacs and Foxes and the loways of 
the Missouri, informed the government officials that General 
Clark wanted him and Jonathan L. Bean, sub-agent for the 
Sioux Indians of the upper Missouri, to do the work for two 
reasons. First, if a stranger to the Indians and the country 
were employed, he would have to engage some person ac- 
quainted with the ground over which the lines were to be 
run. Secondly, in order to settle any difficulties that might 
arise in the course of the work, such a surveyor would have 
to be attended by the chiefs and agents and interpreters of 
the tribes concerned. Hughes and Bean claimed they had 
all the qualifications necessary for the undertaking and they 
would be willing to ^^run those lines and mark them well'' 
for the congressional appropriation, as the Indians were 
anxious to have it done before the fall and winter hunts 
began. They wrote to Eichard M. Johnson about their 
activity and respectability", and that gentleman used his 
influence with President Andrew Jackson on their behalf, 
describing them as '^competent, and highly meritorious, and 
worthy of distinguished confidence."^ 

In August, 1831, General William Clark received word 
from Washington to the effect that the sub-agents ' proposal 
was altogether inadmissible, since the services rendered 
might not be worth half the appropriation or perhaps much 
more : the government wished to avoid wasteful expenditure 
on the one hand or inadequate compensation on the other. 
Clark then called upon Messrs. Hughes and Bean to make 
proposals by the mile and estimate the expense of labor, 
provisions, and Indians. When they demanded $6 per mile, 
General Clark recommended that a skilful surveyor be ap- 
pointed for the job, with power to buy his outfit and engage 
his hands, and that the two Indian agents be instructed to 

c Senate Documents, Ist Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 558, 559. 



accompany the surveyor, with a suitable number of Indians, 
at a liberal compensation per day as extra allowance for the 
arduous and laborious service.^ 

To this proposal the Secretary of War agreed. On the 
tenth day of February, 1832, Clark appointed Nathan 
Boone, son of the famous backwoodsman of Kentucky, 
Daniel Boone, to proceed with the least possible delay 
under the guidance of Messrs. Hughes and Bean. Boone, a 
citizen of Missouri and ^*a meritorious and deserving man'', 
was instructed to run at random the line called for in the 
treaty of 1825: from the mouth of the Upper Iowa to the 
source of its first or left hand fork, and thence westward to 
the second or upper fork of the Des Moines Eiver. Then 
twenty miles south and twenty miles north of this line and 
parallel to it two other lines were to be run between the 
Mississippi and the Des Moines. 

Every tree on or near the lines was to be blazed distinctly 
and marked every half mile with the distance in miles from 
the point of beginning. In the absence of timber, mounds of 
earth were to be raised every mile ; all streams and rivers 
and their nature, timber, undergrowth, quality of soil, 

whether level, rolling, or hilly, and fit or unfit for cultiva- 
tion", and the location of minerals — all these were to be 
noted and reported. Boone was given $1871 with which to 
procure an outfit of men, horses, provisions, and other nec- 
essaries, and was promised five dollars a day for his ser- 
vices. Hughes and Bean were requested to get one or two 
representatives of the tribes interested in the Neutral 
Ground so that the tribes might afterward have no ^^plea to 
palliate their misconduct in violating each other's terri- 
tor^^" As they were expected to make their journey from 
the Missouri across the Iowa country to the upper Missis- 

6 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 318, 326, 327, 
592, 627. 


sippi, General Clark asked them **to make a connected 
sketch noting the prairies and timber, the general courses 
and situations of the different rivers, streams and lakes, 
. . . . stating likewise their names, if known — wheth- 
er Indian, French or English' 'J 

Nathan Boone began his work on April 19, 1832, and in 
two months surveyed the northern or Sioux portion of the 
Neutral Ground. He had gone just two miles west of the 
Mississippi upon the southern line when he discontinued 
on account of hostilities of the Indians by which he no 
doubt meant the Black Hawk War. Not until the following 
year was the work resumed and finished by another man.^ 
Indeed, on April 19, 1833, James Craig apprised Lewis 
Cass, Secretary of War, that he had an outfit ready to leave 
St. Louis at once ; that he would complete the lines by the 
first of September; and that he expected to close the work 
near ' ' the Black Hawk Purchase ' a strip of eastern Iowa 
which the government had obtained from the Sacs and 
Foxes in September, 1832. Craig declared that if the Sec- 
retary should see fit to appoint him surveyor of this new 
purchase, he would *^not only be gratified, but would . . 
. . proceed to run and mark the lines as soon as pos- 
sible. Craig was marking the southern and southeastern 
lines of the Neutral Ground in September, 1833, when he 
was joined by Joseph M. Street, Winnebago Indian agent 

7 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, pp. 242, 249-253. 

8 Mr. Alonzo Abernethy in the Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. XI, p. 
247, declares that Craig finished Boone's work in the autumn of 1832, but on 
p. 378 corrects himself. The Black Hawk War also caused the cessation of 
surveying in the Half-breed Tract. — The Iowa Journal of History and 
Politics, Vol. XIII, p. 163. 

Boone's expense account totaled $2,107.87. The following men were engaged 
in the survey: James Boone, assistant surveyor; Leander G. Eobinson and 
W. T. McCutcheon, chainmen; Lorenzo D. Holmes, pack-horseman; Benjamin 
Rowland, camp-keeper; Daniel Gillis, axeman; and Wm. Dodson, flagman. — 
Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. V, No. 512, pp. 34-46. 

» Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 185, 186, 653. 



at Prairie du Chien. This officer personally examined the 
southeastern portion of the Neutral Ground, as it had re- 
cently been assigned for occupation to the Winnebagoes. 


In September, 1832, just a few days before the eastern 
Iowa country became known as the Black Hawk or Scott 
Purchase, the Winnebago Indians renounced forever their 
rights in territory south and east of the Wisconsin and Fox 
rivers and took in exchange certain annuities and the Neu- 
tral Ground as far west as the Red Cedar River — an ex- 
change of territory which had been recommended by Mr. 
Street as early as 1830.^^ The Indians, however, showed no 
disposition to cross the Mississippi to their new reservation 
and there was no military force to compel them. In Janu- 
ary, 1833, Street prophesied little prospect of peace so long 
as they remained in Wisconsin. 

Mr. Street urged that an Indian school and a pattern 
farm should be set up on the west bank of the Mississippi 
opposite Prairie du Chien, a proposal which had been uni- 
formly opposed by the fur traders because it meant the 
reduction of the amount of money that would otherwise be 
given to the Indians by the government and also because it 
would tend to make the Indians abandon the hunters' life. 
G. B. Porter, Superintendent of Indian Affairs at Detroit, 
protested that the Winnebagoes were not kept from remov- 
ing westward by their traders.^^ On the contrary, they 

loKappler's Indian A fairs, Vol. II, pp. 345-348; Annals of Iowa (Third 
Series), Vol. Ill, p. 608. 

11 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23 d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 61-63. On page 
95 appears the following letter by an old trader known as "King Rolette", 
which shows unmistakably that Agent Street was not on the best of terms with 
representatives of the American Fur Company: 

"Prairie Du Chien, December 6, 1832. 

' * Dear Sir : From the short acquaintance I had with you, I think it my duty 
to notify you of any interference by person or persons in your superintendeney. 


were afraid to live on lands wMch lay between the Sioux 
and the Sacs and Foxes: as a buffer nation they would 
suffer much from enemies on both sides, and at all events 
no treaty provision required them to quit the country north 
of the Wisconsin. Porter also quarreled with the Indian 
Office because more annuity money was paid out to the 
Winnebagoes at Prairie du Chien than at Fort Winnebago 
farther to the east.^^ 

The government took no steps to force the sulky and 
stubborn Winnebagoes westward, although removal to the 
Neutral Ground was declared to be the object of the treaty 
with them and force might have to be resorted to for the 
permanent welfare of the Indians. General Clark was 
nevertheless ordered to cause plain, comfortable, and 
economical school buildings to be constructed west of the 
Mississippi not far from Prairie du Chien, and to engage a 

General Street, tlie Indian agent at this place, wrote a long letter to the War 
Department to have the Winnebagoes removed west of the Mississippi, and 
urging the extinction of the agency at Fort Winnebago, giving for reasons they 
still would be near the whites; and in his communication, attributes their re- 
maining north of the Ouisconsin river to the influence of Paquette. Now, sir, 
to convince you of the absurdity of his communication, if the Winnebagoes 
should be removed west of this place, they would remain on the river, in the 
common highway, and trouble us much more than they would on the Ouisconsin, 
where they will see but few people. But, I have to remark. Gen. Street 's son is 
a trader at this place, and has the store in the agency house. Eumor says 
father, son, and sub-agent are all concerned. What motives can a man have in 
wishing himself additional trouble for the same pay? He certainly must wish 
to have them removed west of this to have payment of the whole annuities, and 
by that favor his son's trade, or their own, if the report is correct. 

' ' The Winnebagoes have a blacksmith allowed to them at this place : they 
prefer paying elsewhere than to take advantage of their blacksmith; and this 
man, who is in the pay of the United States, works three-fourths of his time for 
the citizens. All I state to you, can be substantiated. 

Your most obedient servant, 

Joseph Eolette." 

''To his Excellency G. B. Porter, 

Governor of the Michigan Territory." 
See also Annah of Iowa (Third Scries), Vol. Ill, pp. 601, 609. 
12 .Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 87, 178, 179. 



man and a woman, moral, faithful, and industrious,'' to 
take charge of the Indian school. The Winnebagoes were 
also promised the protection of a strong body of mounted 
rangers against all Indian foes. 

Colonel Henry Dodge warned the Secretary of War that 
unless the tribe were removed to the Iowa country, the 
white inhabitants of Wisconsin would always feel insecure. 
When the Winnebagoes, in June, 1833, chose to take up a 
permanent dwelling north of the Wisconsin rather than 
upon the Neutral Ground, many regrets were expressed 
and the building of the contemplated school buildings was 
postponed. On the other hand, the Indian agent at Fort 
Winnebago believed that the Winnebagoes were better off 
in Wisconsin than they would be in the Iowa country near 
Dubuque's mines, whither settlers were flocking in large 
numbers at that time.^^ 

In June, 1833, Street informed William Clark that Joseph 
Eolette had strenuously opposed the migration of the Win- 
nebagoes across the Mississippi because it would hurt his 
fur trade with the Sioux tribes which hunted on the Neutral 
Ground. Street was positive that Eolette had succeeded in 
dissuading the Winnebagoes from removing to the West: 
^^the rapacious hands of the traders and the heartless spec- 
ulator ' ' had reduced them to slavery. Officers of the Amer- 
ican Fur Company at Prairie du Chien in some way 
obtained copies of whole passages from Street's letters to 
his superiors on this subject. Nevertheless, Street could 
report in July that about two hundred Winnebagoes were 
exploring the Iowa country to find a suitable place of resi- 
dence; while the American Fur Company's agents with 
their overwhelming financial power, together with the 
whisky vendors, vowed Street would be defeated in his 

13 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, pp. 606, 642, 643, 
676, 695, 725, and Vol. X, p. 431. 


project. In August the Secretary of War issued instruc- 
tions for the building of plain, comfortable log school build- 
ings west of the Mississippi out of reach of the fatal 
whisky traffic.^ ^ 


During the month of September, 1833, Joseph M. Street 
took advantage of Surveyor Craig's presence in the eastern 
part of the Neutral Ground to accompany him, and later 
rendered the following description of the country : 

I passed out through the country, and joined the surveyors near 
the Red Cedar river. Went to the extreme western boundary of the 
cession at Red Cedar, and examined the country on that river, the 
Wa-pee-sa-pee-nee-can, and Turkey river, and its two principal 
branches, and Yellow and Gerrard [Giard] rivers. Taking a ride 
through the country south of Gerrard 's river, between the Missis- 
sippi and Turkey rivers, I was out seventeen days, during which 
time I saw a part of the purchase from the Sioux, and passed 
through the [Black Hawk] purchase from the Sacs and Foxes in 
numerous directions. The distance on a direct line from Prairie du 
Chien to where the line crosses Red Cedar is about seventy miles. 
This is a beautiful stream, about eighty-five or ninety yards wide, 
clear, bold, and of sufficient depth for Mackinaw boats. The ad- 
joining lands rolling and rich prairie, and large bodies of timber on 
the river and the streams putting into it. The Wa-pee-sa-pee-nee- 
can is about fifteen or twenty yards wide, of tolerable depth, muddy 
shores, and milky covered water — land and timber inferior to that 
on Red Cedar. Turkey river is from forty to forty five yards wide, 
and very much resembles Red Cedar, except in size and the char- 
acter of its shores, those on Turkey river being three times the 
height of those on Red Cedar, and very much resemble the bluffs 
of the Mississippi. 

On Turkey river, and the whole distance to within a mile of the 
Mississippi, is a fine agricultural country, and the prairies not very 

I'i Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, p. 745, and Vol. X, 
pp. 475, 476, 477, 483, 485. 



large. There are considerable bodies of valuable timber on Turkey, 
Yellow, and Gerrard rivers, and the shores of the Mississippi. 

I had never rode through a country so full of game. The hunter 
who accompanied me, though living most of his time in the woods, 
expressed his astonishment at the abundance of all kinds of game 
except buffalo ; and the surveyors saw and killed many about thirty 
or forty miles west of Red Cedar, on the same purchase. Elk and 
deer are abundant in the prairies, and bear in the woodlands. The 
sign of fur animals, particularly rats and otters, is considerable on 
all the streams and ponds, and very abundant on Wa-pee-sa-pee- 
nee-can and Turkey river; and on the former I saw, for the first 
time, a beaver dam in progress, on which there had been two new 
logs put during the night previous to our visit, and every appear- 
ance that the ingenious animals had been at work until disturbed 
by our approach. 

It is a beautiful and fertile country, and, with a little attention to 
agriculture, is capable of sustaining the whole Winnebago nation; 
and if the proper measures are pursued, and inducements held out 
to the Indians, in a few years many hundreds will be settled in that 
country, producing 1,000 bushels of grain and potatoes, and the 
cry of distress no longer assail the ears of the Government. 

The country abounds with fine mill streams, and situations for 
mills with abundance of rock are frequent. If a mill was built, and 
the Indians learnt to raise wheat, they would in a few years grow 
a sufficiency in this country for the sustenance of the whole nation, 
and live in great plenty. 



On the 14tli of December, 1833, James Craig made his 
report of the surveys called for by the terms of the treaty 
of 1830. He and his party commenced work at the mouth of 
the Kansas Eiver on the Missouri, ran a line north 100 
miles to what was then the northwest corner of the State of 
Missouri, thence east about nine miles, where they estab- 
lished a corner, and thence north to the sources of the 

15 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 651, 652. 


Boyer Eiver. For one hundred and fifty miles the survey- 
ing party followed the watershed between the Missouri and 
the Mississippi through a high prairie country with good 
soil and well- watered ' From the source of the Boyer they 
ran a line to the upper forks of the Des Moines through a 
stretch of rice ponds and small lakes ; went on to Prairie du 
Chien for provisions and a government escort; and then 
ran the southern boundary of the Neutral Ground from a 
point where Boone had left off westward to the Des Moines, 
a distance of 147 miles ^ through an excellent country, par- 
ticularly so on the loway and Des Moines rivers below or 
south of the line. ' ' 

Craig suggested that a little below where this line struck 
the Des Moines, not far from its junction with the ^ ' cotton- 
wood fork", was a good situation for a fort, ^4f one should 
be deemed necessary to hold in check the Sioux, Sacs and 
Foxes, Winnebagoes and Iowa Indians." From the south- 
west corner of the Neutral Ground Craig meandered the 
Des Moines to its upper forks, finding an abundance of 
bituminous coal and some specimens of anthracite and slate 
of good quality. Cold weather setting in about the eight- 
eenth of October, Craig and his party abandoned the work 
just as the appropriation of $9000 was nearly exhausted. 
In his report Craig took occasion to complain that he had 
been underpaid, inasmuch as he had had *^both the labor 
and the responsibility of the work to be done, and of the 
party," while Hughes and Bean '^had little else than mere 
travelling. " 

16 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 757, 758. In his 
report Craig included the following statement : ' ' If the purchase made of the 
Sacs and Foxes last season is to be surveyed, and you [Lewis Cass] should be 
kind enough to confer that appointment on me, I should not only feel grateful, 
but would commence the work immediately, as some parts of it are in a much 
milder latitude, and is timbered. ... If the appropriation for carrying 
into clfoct the Sac and Fox treaties of last season is $6,000, (for I have not 
seen it,) I would undertake the survey for the appropriation; if, however, the 




In the autumn of 1833 some Winnebago families number- 
ing sixty-eight persons established themselves at an old Sac 
village on the Turkey River, near the southern line of the 
cession and about twenty-five miles from Prairie du Chien. 
A great many others set up their lodges farther north/*^ 
but those who now began to make their homes in the north- 
ern Iowa country while the whites were unlawfully seizing 
upon the best sites for farms and towns to the south seem 
not to have tarried long on the Neutral Ground, for the 
reason that both the Sioux and the Sac and Fox Indians 
objected to the occupation of territory which they believed 

surveyor should be required to examine the country as to its mineral produc- 
tions, and to analyze them, more hands would be necessary. ' ' 

Craig's survey of the eastern end of the southern line of the Neutral Ground 
as mapped in Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. XI, pp. 248, 376, shows a 
variation from the line which Boone had proposed to run. The expense of 
Craig's survey amounted to $4,130.18. The following persons aided Craig: 
Albert Henry, flagstaff man; John Letcher and Joseph D. Pushron, pack horse- 
men; John L. Fayon, chainman; E. R. Ladd, f orechainman ; Michael St. Paul, 
marker and mound maker; Israel Mitchell, assistant surveyor; and Nicholas 
Owens and Simpson Vassan. Jonathan L. Bean and Andrew S. Hughes re- 
ceived $5,019,13 for attending Boone and Craig upon the surveys. — Senate 
Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. V, No. 512, pp. 34-46. 

17 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 651, 653. 

Many traditions are clustered around the bit of Iowa country just opposite 
Prairie du Chien, lying between the southern and southeastern lines of the 
Neutral Ground and the Mississippi River. Here fur traders camped in the 
early years and here was situated Giard's Spanish land grant of the year 1800. 
— The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 356, 358, 369. 

Troops from Fort Crawford seem to have resorted to this region not only for 
lumber but also for other purposes. In 1823 the commandant detailed a party 
of men to cultivate a garden on Giard's old farm. Martin Scott, Lieutenant of 
the 5th Regiment of Infantry, was directed to superintend the work. As a 
result of his exploits with a gun among the game animals of the neighborhood 
a small stream came to be known as the ''Bloody Run". For the varying 
accounts of Scott's life during these years the reader is referred to the Wis- 
consin Historical Collections, Vol. II, p. 118, and Vol. V, pp. 265-268 ; AnnaU 
of Iowa, Vol. IV, p. 707; Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, Vol. 
Ill, p. 183. 


had been rendered forever neutral. The Sacs and Foxes 
also showed a trace of ill feeling because the Winnebagoes 
had aided the whites against them in the Black Hawk War.^^ 
The newcomer Winnebagoes were, therefore, frightened 
away by the black looks of their neighbors and gradually 
returned to their old haunts east of the Mississippi. In 
September, 1835, a party of them headed by Chief White 
Ox went to establish a village on the Eed Cedar Eiver and 
three months later two hundred Winnebagoes were report- 
ed as hunting in the same region.^^ Early in 1836 they had 
seemingly departed: they declared that the Sioux and the 
Sacs and Foxes would have to become reconciled to the 
proposed emigration before they would move westward 

Henry Gratiot, Indian agent on the Eock Eiver, recom- 
mended that his charges should be saved from white men 
and disease by removal to the Neutral Ground. An agri- 
culturist sent out to the Eed Cedar Eiver to set up a farm, 
he believed, would certainly attract them. At the same 
time the United States Senate was being urged to put the 
Winnebagoes not on the Neutral Ground but southwest of 
the Missouri Eiver, far away from the evil white man's 
influence.2^ Congress, however, appropriated $40,000 ^*to 

18 Wabasha, a Sioux cliief , asserted that his tribesmen were not hostile to the 
Winnebago occupation as the two nations were intermarried, but they refused 
to recognize the government's right to put anyone upon the Neutral Ground. 
Hercules Dousman, Joseph Eolette, and J ohn H. Kinzie — all connected with 
the American Fur Company — testified that Wabasha in 1830 had objected to 
selling the Sioux half of the Neutral Ground because it embraced the best part 
of their hunting grounds, and so Wabasha was told that the land would still 
belong to the Sioux but not for hunting purposes. On the other hand. Colonel 
Zachary Taylor and Eev. David Lowry, superintendent of the Winnebago 
school, unders-tood that Wabasha had renounced all claims to the Neutral 
Ground. — Senate Documents, 1st Session, 24th Congress, No. 215, pp. 7-10; 
2nd Session, 24th Congress, No. 1, p. 383. 

10 Senate Documents, Ist Session, 24th Congress, No. 215, p. 11. 

20 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 24th Congress, No. 215, pp. 2-5, and No. 



defray the expense of removing the Winnebago Indians, 
who reside south of the Wisconsin, to the ^Neutral ground,' 
or such other place as may be assigned by treaty.'' The 
efforts of Governor Henry Dodge of Wisconsin Territory 
to induce these Indians to leave his jurisdiction proved un- 
availing, so that not one of 4500 Winnebagoes dwelt west of 
the Mississippi in 1836. A year later they were committing 
depredations upon the settlers of Illinois and Wisconsin, 
stealing horses and killing cattle and hogs.^^ 

On November 1, 1837, a deputation of Winnebago chiefs 
and delegates journeyed to the national capital to make a 
treaty with the government. They surrendered their right 
to hunt upon a twenty-mile strip at the east end of the 
Neutral Ground, and agreed to remove thither within eight 
months after the United States Senate ratified the treaty. 
These terms and others were proclaimed to be law on the 
fifteenth of June, 1838, so that the Indians were under obli- 
gations to leave their Wisconsin and Illinois homes before 
the middle of February, 1839.^^ Time passed. The spring 
of 1839 came and still the drunken Winnebagoes lingered in 
their Wisconsin villages and loitered about the little white 
settlements east of the Mississippi, annoying and disturb- 
ing the pioneers of western Illinois and southern Wisconsin 
by the theft of stock and other property. It was with great 
difficulty that the citizens were restrained from killing 
them. They did not move westward because they feared 
collisions with the Sioux and the Sac and Fox war parties 
then scouring the Neutral Ground in search of one another. 
The government's hopes of inducing them to take up a resi- 
dence southwest of the Missouri were also doomed to dis- 
appointment because the voice of their traders and their 

21 Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 24th Congress, No. 1, pp. 382, 383, 419 ; 
2nd Session, 25tli Congress, No. 1, p. 537; Annals of Iowa (TMrd Series), Vol. 
Ill, p. 393. 

22 Kappler's Indian A fairs, Vol. II, pp. 498-500. 

VOL. XIII — 21 


good friends, the liquor dealers, was steadfastly opposed to 
any such calamity. 

By the autumn of 1839 some progress had been made in 
relieving American citizens from the Winnebago nuisance. 
Winneshiek's band had located on the Upper Iowa Eiver 
fifty miles from Fort Crawford; Two Shillings' band dwelt 
near the Winnebago school on the Yellow River ; and Little 
Priest's and Whirling Thunder's united bands were domi- 
ciled on a new farm recently opened for them fifteen miles 
west of the school. All other Winnebago bands — those 
under Big Canoe, Waukon, Yellow Thunder, Caramanee, 
Dandy, Little Soldier, Decorah, and Big Head — clung to 
their old habitats. Their villages consisted of bark or flag 
huts crowded together. There the warriors and hunters 
spent the summer, letting the squaws hoe patches of corn. 
In winter they changed encampments as the prospect of 
game suggested. At best the game and corn supply was in- 
sufficient, and yet whatever provisions the government fur- 
nished in addition were generally exchanged for whisky.^^ 

The patience of Congressmen familiar with the situation 
reached the breaking point when the United States Senate 
passed resolutions in March, 1840, calling upon the War 
Department to explain the causes which had interposed to 
prevent the removal of the Winnebagoes to their reserva- 
tion in the Territory of Iowa. The Secretary of War re- 
plied that a man of influence in Winnebago councils had 
been sent to inspect and report on the country southwest of 
the Missouri; that further time had been given the Winne- 
bagoes to deliberate on the expediency of at once removing 
to that region; and that, since the plan had not had the in- 

23 Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. Ill, p. 400; Senate Documents, 1st 
Session, 26th Congress, No. 1, pp. 382, 483. 

24 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 26th Congress, No. 1, p. 487. Winnebago 
dwellings in 1842 were described in much the same way by two traveling 
Quakers. See The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XIII, p. 251. 



tended effect, Greneral Henry Atkinson had in February, 
1840, been ordered to convey the Winnebagoes to the Neu- 
tral Ground by force if necessary.^^ 


The last day of the rightful stay of the Winnebago bands 
east of the Father of Waters'' was the fifteenth of Febru- 
ary, 1839. They persistently resisted emigration and at the 
same time became more and more degraded. The work of 
removing them, begun by General Atkinson and two regi- 
ments of United States infantry in the spring of 1840, met 
with no special opposition, but the emigrants manifested 
great aversion to settlement upon their reservation in the 
Neutral Ground until fall i^heref ore they set up lodges and 
tents and stayed in the neighborhood of their school on 
the Yellow River, thus trespassing and living on sufferance 
upon government lands. An epidemic of dysentery brought 
much suffering and death to them there. This fact, together 
with their living in the midst of liquor shops where their 
annuities would be immediately consumed, led the govern- 
ment officials to inform them that the next payment would 
be made only on the Neutral Ground. To induce the Indians 
to remove thither the government promised to convey all 
their sick and all property at government expense. Sub- 
agent David Lowry in September, 1840, had a talk with the 
chiefs, Caramanee and Winneshiek, in which they positively 
refused to move westward under any circumstances. The 
Winnebagoes were being rendered untractable by persons 
who were opposed to their departure from the Mississippi. 
The dupes of mercenary traders and whisky sellers, they 
were becoming more and more demoralized. Moreover, 
some forty of their people had been murdered by the Sacs 
and Foxes during a period of six years and they had treach- 

25 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 26tli Congress, No. 297. 


erously killed a couple of Sacs and Foxes in the summer of 
1840, so that the Winnebagoes feared a collision in case they 
should settle upon the Neutral Ground. Both Governor 
Robert Lucas of the Territory of Iowa and Governor Henry 
Dodge of the Territory of Wisconsin were convinced that a 
strong mounted force would need to be stationed in the 
country to protect the Winnebagoes against attack and also 
to prevent both tribes from giving way to feelings of re- 

General Henry Atkinson chose upon the Turkey River a 
position for a garrison to protect the Winnebagoes against 
the incursions of other tribesmen and the whites and to 
prevent their trespassing beyond the Neutral Ground. On 
May 31, 1840, Company F of the Fifth United States In- 
fantry under Captain Isaac Lynde went into camp not far 
from the mouth of Spring Creek in the present county of 
Winneshiek. * ^ Camp Atkinson ^ ^ soon consisted of barracks 
sufficient to accommodate the soldiers and in March of the 
following year received the more dignified name of Fort 
Atkinson. Meanwhile, rumors of preparations by the Sacs 
and Foxes for a warlike demonstration against the Winne- 
bagoes caused Governor Dodge of Wisconsin Territory to 
warn the government that mounted troops were also neces- 
sary to prevent hostilities. He reported that in the month 
of January, 1841, about seven hundred Winnebagoes had 
settled down near the agency and school on the Turkey 
River, but unless life was made safe for them against war 
parties of Sioux and Sacs and Foxes they would most cer- 
tainly return to the Mississippi. 

General Atkinson accordingly ordered troops from Fort 
Crawford to make excursions to the Turkey and the Red 
Cedar rivers until May, when horse troops might relieve 

Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. IV, p. 448; Senate Documents, 2nd 
Session, 26th Congress, No. 1, pp. 229, 249-251, 252, 323, 324, 327, 330, 331, 



them. He also urged that the Quartermaster's Department 
proceed at once to the erection of quarters, barracks, and 
stables before winter set in. In June Company B of the 
First United States Dragoons under Captain Edwin V. 
Sumner joined the garrison, making it about one hundred 
and sixty strong. Fort Atkinson consisted of barracks 
around an open square, two block-houses, and a powder 
house, and stood in a romantic and picturesque position 
overlooking the valley of a branch of the Turkey River. 
The erection of substantial buildings of stone and the con- 
struction of a military road to Fort Crawford cost the 
government $90,000.^^ 

Rev. Lowry predicted a gloomy future for his charges 
when he submitted a report in the autumn of 1842. The 
Winnebagoes were still scattered : over eight hundred dwelt 
on lands north of the Neutral Ground, two hundred and 
fifty-four on the Upper Iowa near the Mississippi, and only 
seven hundred and fifty-six were at or near the Turkey 
River sub-agency, cultivating about one-fourth of the 1500 
acres that had been broken up. Most of them still refused 
to leave their haunts upon the Mississippi: hundreds had 
again crossed over into Wisconsin. Several hundred had 
in the year past gone to ^Hhat bourne whence no traveller 
returns'', as many as thirty-nine having been murdered in 
drunken broils within the space of fourteen months. 

Mr. Lowry suggested that those who urged a *4et alone" 
policy for all Indians forgot that their own ancestors, at 

27 Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. IV, pp. 448-451; The Iowa Journal 
OF History and Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 185-188; Newhall's A Glimpse of 
Iowa in 1846, p. 37. The present town of Fort Atkinson was laid out some 
distance from the site occupied by the garrison. See Annals of Iowa (Third 
Series), Vol. VI, p. 229. 

Fort Crawford with four companies. Fort Snelling with three companies, and 
Fort Atkinson with two companies were prepared to meet any emergencies in 
this part of -the Indian country. — Blouse Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 
27th Congress, No. 222, p. 2. 


one time, ate acorns and worshipped devils/' White men 
were ^'making it a business all along the line of purchasing 
guns, horses, provisions, and goods, of these people, by 
giving whiskey in exchange, and then, when they get their 
money, sell the articles back for cash, at exorbitant prices.'* 
Lawless white men were responsible for all such acts of 
oppression. Furthermore, so long as the savages had no 
homes that they could call their own, they lived as vagrants 
and their youths, even those educated at the school, aban- 
doned themselves to the old barbarian ways. Lowry's best 
and most untiring efforts to arrest the downward tendency 
of the Winnebago tribe seemed unavailing. Governor John 
Chambers of the Territory of Iowa had but one suggestion 
to make : 

There is no remedy for it, but by interposing a wilderness or wide 
waste between them and the abandoned and profligate wretches, 
who set the laws of morality and their country at defiance, and 
sacrifice the health and lives of these unfortunate children of the 
forest, to their thirst for gain; they conceal their nefarious traffic 
with them in the fastnesses of the forest, and avoid, by every prac- 
ticable means, the presence of all whose testimony would be com- 
petent to their conviction. 

Twice the Winnebagoes had been removed from Wiscon- 
sin — once by General Atkinson and again by General 
Brooke — when orders were issued in 1843 for a third 
transplanting to the western bank of the Mississippi. They 
had also been guilty of murdering three white men and 
wounding two children. Governor Chambers was, there- 
fore, ordered to treat with the Winnebagoes, induce them to 
give up the Neutral Ground, buy land from the Sioux in the 
Minnesota country, and offer them a new reservation far 
away from the malign influence of evil white men. The 

28 Senate Documents, 3d Session, 27th Congress, No. 1, pp. 417-422. For an 
excellent picture of the Winnebago tribe in 1842 see The Iowa Journal of 
History and Politics, Vol. XIII, pp. 251-257. 



Governor accordingly held a council with the Indians in 
July, 1843. A guard of infantrymen under Captain Aber- 
crombie was present to preserve order ; and to prevent the 
Indians in council from being supplied with drink, a guard 
of Captain Sumner's company of dragoons was kept near 
the boundary to overawe some notorious whisky dealers. 
The negotiations proved to be quite ineffectual for a reason 
directly traceable to the resolution passed by the United 
States Senate on March 3, 1843: future treaties were to 
contain no provisions for making reservations for half- 
breeds or for the payment of Indian debts. Since this 
action cut off from Chambers the cooperation of certain 
white men, he found the latter either neutral or secretly 
opposed. To quote from his report : 

These Indians, like all others that have been subjected to the 
influence of the licensed traders, can only be operated upon through 
that influence ; and in no case can it be brought into action in sup- 
port of the views of the Government, but for a '^consideration", 
which has heretofore been, as you are well aware, obtained through 
a treaty stipulation for the payment of the claims against the tribe 
to be treated with. . . . The tremendous profits of Indian 
trade, resulting from the privileges granted the traders by the 
Government under the existing system of trade and intercourse 
with the Indians, does not seem to produce on the part of these 
people the least sense of obligation to forward or promote the views 
of the Government, or even to abstain from obstructing them when 
the promotion of their own interest is not presented as an induce- 

Nor is it at all probable that their omnipotent influence would be 
yielded upon any other consideration, even to save a suffering 
frontier from outrages such as the Winnebagoes have recently com- 
mitted, and may be expected to rep eat. 

Scarcity of game and strong temptations to leave the 
Neutral Ground for whisky combined to make it difficult to 
prevent the Winnebagoes from starving, drinking, fighting, 

29 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 28th Congress, No. 1, pp. 263, 284-288. 


stealing, and even murdering. The continuance of acts of 
aggression upon the border settlements would, it was be- 
lieved, ultimately lead to a feeling of general hostility, since 
the white citizens in the neighborhood were already ex- 
asperated beyond measure by this degraded and dissolute 
tribe. During the autumn of 1843 and the winter and spring 
months of 1844 those Winn^bagoes who resided upon the 
Mississippi were brought within their boundary twenty 
miles westward ^^by the indefatigable and judicious exer- 
tions of Captain Sumner, of the first regiment of dra- 
goons. '^^^ 

After President John Tyler's removal of Rev. Lowry 
from office in 1844,^^ James McGregor, Jr., became the agent 
at the station near Fort Atkinson in August. He found the 
Indians very generally under the influence of whisky and in 
a state of great insubordination: they had largely ex- 
changed their annuity provisions for liquor and had shot 
two cows and an ox not belonging to them. Major Dear- 
born, commandant at the fort, at once arrested and pun- 
ished the culprits. A second attempt in 1844 to buy 
Winnebago rights in the Neutral Ground failed.^ ^ Then, in 
June, 1845, Governor Dodge of Wisconsin Territory tried 
his hand at treaty-making upon fair and liberal terms ; but 
the fifteen hundred Winnebagoes who met him in council at 
Fort Atkinson soon appeared ^*to be acting under the con- 
trolling influence and advice of those who appeared to be 
governed exclusively by interested motives in retaining 
them in the neutral country, and who were the cause of 
their refusal to sell that country to the United States. '' 
The result was an indecisive parley. Governor Dodge rec- 
ommended that the Winnebagoes be allowed to select a 

Senate Documents, 1st Session, 28th Congress, No, 1, p. 382; 2nd Session, 
28th Congress, No. 1, pp. 306, 417, 418. 

31 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 31st Congress, No. 1, p. 1045. 

32 Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 28th Congress, No. 1, pp. 307, 424. 



reservation in the Sioux country of Minnesota and that the 
chiefs of both nations should journey to Washington to deal 
directly with the government.^ ^ 

The summer of 1845 proved to be a notable one for the 
dragoons at Fort Atkinson. According to Jonathan E. 
Fletcher, the new sub-agent, the vigilance of Captain Sum- 
ner and his company effectually checked the smuggling of 
whisky into the Indian country by the whites, although the 
Winnebagoes could not be prevented from going to the 
white settlements to procure it. Then the dragoons spent 
some three months in the saddle with Captain Allen's com- 
pany from Fort Des Moines. In the Minnesota wilderness 
of the Territory of Iowa they held many impressive councils 
or talks with the Indians, both American and British, the 
latter sometimes crossing the Canadian boundary to hunt 
upon American soil.^* 

The story of the Winnebagoes for 1846 in general varies 
little from the dreary tale of their misery in the preceding 
years. They were a bit less troublesome to the frontier 
settlers, especially after two of their number were killed in 
Wisconsin and many of the rovers located upon the Red 
Cedar Eiver. The breaking out of war between the United 
States and Mexico necessitated the removal of the entire 
garrison from Fort Atkinson in July, affording an excellent 
opportunity to dealers in liquor to reap a golden harvest 
from the Indians. To replace the troops thus withdrawn 
Governor James Clarke of Iowa received authority from 
the Secretary of War to muster into service a company of 
volunteer foot and also one of volunteer cavalry. These 
had served scarcely one month when the mounted troops 
were dispensed with, to the great dissatisfaction of the 

33 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 29th Congress, No. 1, pp. 450, 460, 461. 
Senate Documents, 1st Session, 29tli Congress, No. 1, pp. 208, 217, 487, 
488. See also The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XI, pp. 258- 
268, for Sumner's expedition. 


Iowa legislators. Most important of all, some twenty-four 
Winnebago delegates went to the national capital and there 
on October 13th concluded a treaty surrendering all their 
rights to the Neutral Ground and agreeing to remove to a 
new home north of the Minnesota River within one year 
after the ratification of the treaty by the United States 
Senate. On the fourth of February, 1847, these agreements 
were proclaimed law of the land.^^ 

Henry M. Rice, appointed by the Winnebagoes as their 
agent, explored and selected for them a section of Chippewa 
Indian country high up on the Mississippi River consider- 
ably beyond the frontier which the whites were then rapidly 
pushing westward.^ ^ The Chippewas agreed to sell the 
lands desired and the United States government bought 
from them a country admirably suited to the Winnebagoes, 
^^much of it being well adapted to agricultural purposes, 
and to a considerable extent interspersed with lakes and 
streams, abounding with fish and wild rice.'' The Winne- 
bagoes, however, again broke their promise to emigrate 
within the time set: from June 8th until the middle of 
September, 1848, sub-agent Fletcher, aided by the volunteer 
company at Fort Atkinson and Captain Eastman's com- 
pany from Fort Snelling, had succeeded in getting only 
about one-half of them to their new homes. All the others 
were scattered, some in Iowa, some in Wisconsin, and others 
as far south as the Missouri River. These stragglers could 
not be collected: the bait that was expected to bring them 
together consisted of large annuities and an excellent res- 
ervation. War between the Sioux and the Chippewas, be- 
sides the interference of certain interested persons, had 
created dissatisfaction and delay among the Winnebagoes 

sn House Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 29th Congress, No. 4, pp. 242, 
250, 252; No. 34; Laws of Iowa, 1846-1847, p. 194; Kappler's Indian A fairs, 
Vol. II, pp. 565, 566. 

'<•'<'> Senate Documents, 1st Session, 30th Congress, No. 1, pp. 739, 740. 



and had caused them to scatter in different directions.^^ In 
the autumn of 1849 about two-thirds had reached their 
northern home, while not less than three hundred of the 
tribe resided upon the Iowa River with a strong party of 
renegade Pottawattamies and Sacs and Foxes. When it be- 
came known that they were committing depredations upon 
frontier settlers, a military force was sent out to drive them 
to their northern reservation. But it was not until the next 
year that the Winnebagoes were all brought together in 
Minnesota. Meanwhile Fort Atkinson had been abandoned 
by the troops on February 24, 1849.^^ 


One important provision of the treaty of 1832 very much 
concerned the future material and moral welfare of the 
Winnebagoes: the government agreed to appropriate to 
them not more than $2500 annually for the support of six 
agriculturists and the purchase of twelve yokes of oxen, 
ploughs, and other agricultural implements.^^ Agent 
Street was preparing to carry out these stipulations in 
1834 when he was called away to Rock Island. Early the 
next year, however, he ventured to employ laborers, set 

37 House Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 30th Congress, No. 1, pp. 396, 
439, 440, 459, 460. 

The Winnebagoes were the last Indians to be removed from the eastern part 
of the State of Iowa, and during the same year, 1848, the Pottawattamies com- 
pleted their removal from southwestern Iowa to the Kansas River. The de- 
parture of these two tribes practically freed Iowa of her Indian population and 
thus opened up some of the best and most desirable lands in the State. Hardy 
and enterprising pioneers were already said to be sweeping over the northern 
boundary toward the rich and fertile lands then occupied by the Sioux Indians 
upon the Minnesota River. — House Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 30th 
Congress, No. 1, pp. 395, 396. 

38 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 31st Congress, No. 1, pp. 949, 1036 ; Wis- 
consin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, p. 407. For a sketch of the history of 
Fort Atkinson see The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 
187, 188. 

39 Kappler's Indian A fairs. Vol. II, p. 347. 


them to work near the Winnebago school, which had been 
erected just south of the Neutral Ground near the Missis- 
sippi Eiver, and also bought four yokes of oxen and two 
horses for the farm. Again operations were halted by- 
Street's removal, and not until the spring of 1837 were his 
ideas for improving the condition of the Indians carried 
into execution. Street had hopes of seeing the Winne- 
bagoes regenerated by instruction in practical farming: 
provide them with a sure supply of food and simple ap- 
parel, thus making the hunt unnecessary, and civilization, 
he felt sure, would follow as a matter of course. David 
Lowry, superintendent of the school, also looked after the 
Winnebago farm and reported its progress: the crop of 
1838, consisting of 500 bushels of corn, 1000 bushels of 
potatoes, and 1500 bushels of turnips, was issued to the 
Indians in small quantities, except so much as was used for 
the support of the school establishment.^^ 

The year 1839 showed further development. Thirty- 
eight families of Winnebagoes planted about seventy-six 
acres chiefly in corn, potatoes, and beans. After the land 
was ploughed and parcelled out to each family, seed was 
distributed for planting, with the result that the Indians 
were with difficulty prevented from eating it. The farm 
hands also put about twenty-five acres in oats, ten acres in 
corn, and twelve in potatoes, besides cutting hay for the 
stock and teams in the winter. Improvements on the farm 
during this year consisted of six more log cabins for Indian 
families, materials prepared and hauled for four others, a 
hewed log store-house for the Indians, a horse stable, a 
blacksmith shop, a coal house, and a cabin for the smith's 
family .^^ Fifteen miles west of the farm forty acres were 

^0 Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. Ill, pp. 615, 616, 617, 619. 

41 The following persons resided at the agency: J. Keynerson, blacksmith; 
.John Francis, striker; John and Thomas Linton, Samuel Thomas, A. J. 
Thomas, Thomas Billips, Jos. Higgins, Charles S. Adams, John Morrison, Jacob 
Lommona, and Henry F. Dulany, farmers. — Senate Documents, 1st Session, 
26th Congress, No. 126, p. 3. 



enclosed, partly broken up, and sowed in oats. The Indians, 
however, refused to occupy this new farm unless Mr. Lowry 
accompanied them. Six families belonging to the establish- 
ment had definitely given up hunting as a means of support 
and lived upon the products of their labor and the pro- 
visions drawn by their children at the school. Altogether 
three hundred Winnebagoes dwelt at the mission farm, 
more than half of them minors. The prospect was that an 
abundant harvest would afford them ample support, pro- 
vided they did not dispose of their crops for whisky. In- 
struction in agriculture, it was hoped, would prepare the 
Indians for improvement in every other way.**^ 

In 1840 fifty families were reported as farming, some on 
the one hundred and thirty acres attached to the school, 
others on two ten-acre plots near by, and ten families on 
the farm fifteen miles west, cultivating potatoes, corn, and 
turnips. Log cabins were needed for them because portable 
shelter did not tend to induce them to abandon their roving 
habits.^^ In the autumn, preparatory to the removal of the 
Winnebagoes to the Neutral Ground, general farming oper- 
ations were suspended and the laborers set out for the 
Turkey Eiver to break up and fence one thousand acres of 
prairie so that everything would be in readiness for the 
Indians to commence cultivation in the spring of 1841. A 
visitor at the farm in 1840 wrote to Lowry as follows 

The comfortable appearance of the wigwams of their [school 
children's] parents, and the fertility of their fields, are pleasing; 
but it is peculiarly distressing to see them, thus early in the season, 
clandestinely exchanging their crops for whiskey, and, under its 
influence, hewing each other in pieces; and, on this account, I 
earnestly wish that removal you anticipate might be a hundred 
miles west of the Missouri, instead of forty west of the Mississippi. 

42 Senate Documents, 3d Session, 25th Congress, No. 1, pp. 520, 521. 

43 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 26tli Congress, No. 1, p. 510. 

44 Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 26th Congress, No. 1, pp. 339, 369. 


The land selected upon the Turkey River was of unsur- 
passed fertility and contained enough timber to answer all 
purposes. Several streams near the site of the new agency 
afforded at all seasons an ample supply of water for ordi- 
nary mill-power : a grist-mill erected on one of them greatly 
added to the comfort and convenience of the Indians. Two 
blacksmith shops were also set up there. However glowing 
the prospects, conditions during the first year nevertheless 
indicated a lack of interest on the part of the Winnebagoes. 
John Thomas, the miller and superintendent of the farm, 
reported that the mill race had broken away ; and only 450 
acres of the 1400 or 1500 acres broken up were under culti- 
vation. Despite rust, smut, prairie squirrels, and a wet, 
cold spring, a middling crop was expected. Besides, the 
farm hands had made 25,000 rails for fences and had put 
up fifty tons of hay at the agency and thirty tons on the 
^^Coden river", at a place some fifty miles west, intended 
for the Indians during their winter hunt. The next year 
Thomas gave an account of operations that was a credit to 
the Indians: wheat, oats, corn, and turnips were raised in 
abundance. Thomas also furnished an inventory of the live 
stock and farm implements. Twenty miles from the agency 
upon the Upper Iowa River fifty acres were cultivated and 
occupied by a band of wild and w^andering Winnebagoes 
who subsisted chiefly by hunting and fishing.^ ^ 

Benjamin Terrill superintended the farm after Septem- 
ber, 1843, employing seven hands during the winter and 
from eleven to sixteen in the spring and summer. They 
ploughed and helped the Indians to fence their lands and 
opened new areas for bands that had come west of the 
Mississippi. Several bands residing upon the Iowa River 
had lost their crops in a freshet, the spring and summer 

45 Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 26th Congress, No. 1, p. 338 ; 3d Session, 
27th Congress, No. 1, pp. 419-421; 1st Session, 28th Congress, No. 1, pp. 382- 



having been very rainy. The dam had washed away and 
the mill had also been damaged again, besides being used by 
the insubordinate and drunken savages as a plaything. The 
Indians, moreover, were stealing the superintendent's 
^^corn, potatoes, and turnips, beyond endurance." At from 
one to forty miles from the agency nine different bands 
possessed inclosures containing in all about four hundred 
and fifteen acres which were ploughed by the government 's 
laborers and cultivated by the Indian women. Altogether 
this year and the next were bad years for farming and the 
Indians were in a distressed and wretched condition.*^ 

On the fifteenth of August, 1846, the Winnebagoes num- 
bered about twenty-four hundred: in twenty-two detached 
bands they then occupied that part of the Neutral Ground 
which lay between the east fork of the Red Cedar and a line 
twenty miles west of the Mississippi. There were also 
seventy-five half-breeds, most of them living near the 
agency. Two parties of about three hundred Winnebagoes 
followed the chase for a subsistence; and the remainder 
were more or less engaged in raising corn, oats, potatoes, 
beans, turnips, squashes, and other vegetables. Their in- 
terest in agricultural pursuits was encouraging as indicated 
by the fact that six chiefs and several headmen went to the 
fields and held ploughs from day to day, although among 
the Indians it was deemed degrading for a man to work. 
Most of the band had applied for and received harnesses, 
wagons, and ploughs. Three additional fields had been pre- 
pared and fenced for bands located on the Iowa River. The 
crops were excellent, and agent Fletcher declared his inten- 
tion to organize ^'an agricultural society, awarding suitable 
premiums for the best crops, with a view to excite emulation 
and promote industry." Attached to the farm at the 

Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 2'8th Congress, No. 1, pp. 427-430; 1st 
Session, 29th Congress, No. 1, p. 488. 


agency was a carpenter's shop in which coffins and tools 
were manufactured for the Indians. Furthermore, the 
blacksmiths made and repaired hoes, axes, hatchets, knives, 
traps, fishing spears, and farm implements, and shoed 
horses and oxen for the tribesmen.^^ 

A murderous attack by the Sioux in the spring of 1847 
interrupted farm operations on the Eed Cedar River where 
some industrious and prosperous bands dwelt. Neverthe- 
less, the Winnebagoes cultivated their lands better and 
raised better crops than usual. After the harvest an agri- 
cultural association, which had organized and offered suit- 
able prizes, sent out a committee to examine the Indian 
farms and awarded such premiums as wagons, harnesses, 
ploughs, and other farm implements. The Winnebagoes 
generally were less drunken than formerly : eighty-two had 
actually signed a temperance pledge and the chiefs had 
'promised to *^use all their influence, and to make all proper 
exertions to prevent the introduction and sale of whiskey 
and other intoxicating liquors into their country.'' A 
plentiful crop and their annuities afforded them ample 
means of subsistence during the winter and spring of 1848. 
Early in May five men with a team and tools were sent to 
prepare fields in the new Winnebago reservation in Minne- 
sota, while three laborers remained behind to cultivate and 
secure a crop from one hundred and fifty acres at the 
Turkey River agency.*^ 

Thus ended the government farm on the Neutral Ground. 
While the Winnebagoes occupied the country, they were not 
encouraged to invest their means in permanent dwelling 
houses, orchards, or anything else, for the reason that these 
improvements would only serve to attach them more strong- 

47 House Executive Documents, 2iid Session, 29th Congress, No. 4, pp. 247- 

'^^ Senate Documents, Ist Session, 30th Congress, No. 1, pp. 864, 866 j House 
Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 30th Congress, No. 1, p. 460. 



ly to land which, on account of the advancing tide of pio- 
neer emigrants, they must soon leave. The efforts made to 
encourage them to adopt civilization's ways were chiefly 
directed toward interesting them in the cultivation of the 
soil, the use of common farm implements, and the adoption 
of horse-power in place of the labor of women. Despite the 
government's philanthropic measures, however, the prac- 
tices to which the Winnebagoes had been accustomed for 
centuries past naturally underwent but little change, and 
so it is no wonder that the Indians proved to be a poor 
match for their pioneer white neighbors. 


In the treaty of 1832 with the Winnebagoes the United 
States agreed to erect a suitable building, or buildings, 
with a garden, and a field attached, somewhere near Fort 
Crawford, or Prairie du Chien, and establish and maintain 
therein, for the term of twenty-seven years, a school for the 
education, including clothing, board, and lodging, of such 
Winnebago children as may be voluntarily sent to it: the 
school to be conducted by two or more teachers, male and 
female, and the said children to be taught reading, writing, 
arithmetic, gardening, agriculture, carding, spinning, weav- 
ing, and sewing, according to their ages and sexes, and such 
other branches of useful knowledge as the President of the 
United States may prescribe". The annual cost was in no 
case to exceed $3000 and the school was to be subject to 
visitation and inspection by certain designated officers.*^ 

The Indian Department soon ordered Joseph M. Street, 
the Winnebago Indian agent at Prairie du Chien, to select a 
site for the school near his agency west of the Mississippi. 
Street did so and was planning stone buildings for the 
school when the Secretary of War refused to sanction any- 

49 Kappler's Indian Affairs, Vol. II, pp. 346, 347. 

VOL. xm — 22 


thing but plain, comfortable log structures at small expense. 
On the dividing ridge between the Yellow and Giard rivers 
Street selected a site for the Indian log schoolhouse about 
ten miles from Fort Crawford and four miles from a saw- 
mill which United States troops at the fort had constructed 
on the Yellow Eiver. Indeed, Colonel Zachary Taylor of- 
fered to transfer this mill to Street to facilitate the erection 
of the necessary buildings for the Winnebagoes. Of the 
schoolhouse site Street wrote as follows : 

At this point there is a small rich prairie, and a spring rising in 
the adjoining timber near the summit of the ridge. The surround- 
ing country generally woodland, with spots of rich prairie, and 
abounding in fine streams of water. ... To the west of this 
situation the ridge expands into a large open fertile prairie, forming 
the dividing ridge between the Turkey river and the Mississippi, 
beautifully spotted with small islands of timber. 

A different location was afterwards preferred just north 
of the Yellow Eiver in what is to-day Fairview Township 
of Allamakee County. Indeed, the school came to stand 
just south of the boundary of the Neutral Ground upon the 
Black Hawk Purchase.^^ In the spring of 1834 Street let a 
contract for the construction of the buildings, but before he 
could do more he was transferred from Prairie du Chien to 
Eock Island to be the agent of the Sacs and Foxes of the 
Iowa country. The school was completed in the fall of 1834 
and opened early in 1835. Meanwhile, President Andrew 
Jackson had appointed his friend, David Lowry, D. D., a 
minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, as teach- 
er to the Winnebagoes. Arriving at Prairie du Chien in 
September, 1833, he is said to have conducted a school for 
the Indians at that place until his removal to the new loca- 

J>o Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 651, 653 ; Annals 
of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. Ill, pp. 613, 614, 615. 

51 Senate Documents, 3d Session, 25th Congress, No. 1, p. 521. 



tion on the Yellow Eiver in the autumn of 1834.^2 jj^g ap- 
pointment and that of his wife, Mary Ann, to the school 
there dated from January 1, 1835, at a salary of $800. The 
attendance of Indian pupils in that year must have been 
discouraging : there were six, some of whom could read and 
two of whom could write. Many Winnebagoes visited this 
institution, inquired into everything, expressed satisfaction 
with the school, and promised to bring their children. 

The number of pupils increased very slowly. Two years 
after the government opened the doors of the school, there 
were twenty-two boys and fourteen girls in attendance; 
while Bradford L. and Patsey Porter aided the principal 
and his wife as teachers.^^ In the autumn of 1839 the chil- 
dren numbered forty-three boys and thirty-six girls — all 
that could be accommodated. By the provisions of the 
treaty of 1837 the Winnebagoes became entitled to $2800 
for educational purposes and $500 for the support of a 
school interpreter.^^ Accordingly the school was enlarged 

52 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, p. 405; Vol. XV, p. 108; Annals 
of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. Ill, pp. 616, 618. 

According to the pioneer priest, Samuel Charles Mazzuchelli, the chiefs of the 
Winnebago tribe in 1834 demanded through their agent. Captain Eobert A. 
McCabe, that a Catholic priest be appointed director of their school — ''in 
spite of this a Calvinistic minister was assigned to the place. So he with his 
wife and sons came into possession of a fine dwelling, as much land as he de- 
sired, and the aforesaid annual sum with other sources of revenue which it 
would take too long to enumerate. In this school a few Indian children of 
Canadian or English fathers received the first rudiments of education, but the 
chief benefit fell to the minister, who then became the Indian Agent with a 
good salary from the Government. If it were asked how many adult Indians 
were converted to the Presbyterian creed, I believe that no one could answer to 
the very difficult question." — Mazzuchelli 's Memorie Istoriche ed Edificanti 
d'un Missionario Apostolico, pp. 135, 136, or p. 129 of the English translation 
published by the Saint Clara Convent of Sinsinawa, Wisconsin. 

5s Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. Ill, p. 617; Senate Documents, 3d 
Session, 25th Congress, No. 1, pp. 477, 519-522; House Executive Documents, 
3d Session, 25th Congress, No. 135, p. 17. 

5* Senate Documents, 1st Session, 26th Congress, No. 1, p. 508; Kappler's 
Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 499. 


by the construction of an extra building. New teachers in 
1839 were Miss Minerva Brownson and Mr. and Mrs. 
Joseph Mills. Abner and Nancy McDowell probably suc- 
ceeded two of these persons in September of the same year. 
Sylvanus Lowry became interpreter and Ann Lemon cook. 
The pupils, unaccustomed to the restraints of the school- 
room, made slow progress in learning the three E's. When 
weary of study the girls took up sewing, and in this wise 
they prepared two hundred garments during the summer of 
1839; while relays of boys cheerfully worked at manual 
labor on the adjoining government farm and then returned 
to recitations. As an evidence that his institution flour- 
ished, Eev. Lowry furnished the government a letter signed 
by several ^'disinterested'' visitors. Besides superintend- 
ing the Indians at the mission", as it came to be called, 
Mr. Lowry preached to the pupils : their religious teaching 
became wholly Presbyterian, but it is said that although 
most of them were good Presbyterians so long as they re- 
mained at the mission, they relapsed into their ancient 
heathenism as soon as they left Mr. Lowry 's care.^^ 

Having become sub-agent for the Winnebagoes in July, 
1839, Rev. Lowry turned the supervision of the school over 
to John Thomas. Fifty-one pupils in four classes were in 
charge of Miss Minerva Brownson, assisted by her sister 
Lucy, successor to Mr. and Mrs. Mills. In 1840 they report- 
ed that regular progress was retarded whenever the In- 
dians assembled at Prairie du Chien to receive their 
annuities: the children were then required to accompany 
their parents and remain with them till the usual spree was 
ended. Many children also went with their friends upon 
the winter hunts and fishing excursions. Moreover, until 
the emigration of the Winnebagoes to the Neutral Ground 

65 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 26th Congress, No, 1, pp. 509, 512 ; No. 126, 
p. 3; Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, p. 406. 



was complete, the school would never be placed beyond the 
influence of whisky. John H. Lockwood, B. W. Brisbois, 
and John L. Seymour visited the place and expressed their 
surprise at the improvement of the Indians in orderly con- 
duct and education. The Winnebagoes were certainly not 
yet so degraded, dissipated, reckless, hopeless^' as not to 
be willing to let their children enjoy the means of intel- 
lectual and moral cultivation.'' When Lowry received in- 
structions to sell the agency and school buildings for what 
they would bring, the teachers obtained a vacation on the 
first of October preparatory to removal to the Turkey 

The new Winnebago agency and school buildings were 
accordingly stationed upon that river four or five miles 
southeast of Fort Atkinson. The earliest report thereafter 
came from J. W. Hancock in August, 1842 : more than one 
hundred pupils received instruction under him. Besides 
the ordinary subjects of instruction vocal music was offered 
with very good success : many of the children had learned 
**a large number of tunes, which they sing with much ac- 
curacy and delight.'' The boys who were old enough la- 
bored upon the adjoining farm for one or two hours a day 
and then returned to their books with better relish. The 
girls in three months time made 65 shirts, 55 pantaloons, 
60 gowns, 8 coats, 8 aprons, 2 red sacks, and 21 corn bags, 
or a total of 219 pieces. All seemed cheerful.^"^ 

John L. Seymour acted as principal from 1842 to 1843. 
He recommended that knitting and spinning be added to the 
subjects taught to the girls and that a press and printer be 
furnished to the school, as there was scarcely a book in use 
that did not need revising to adapt it to the wants of 

56 Senate Documents, 2nd Session, 26th Congress, No. 1, pp. 251, 337, 366- 

57 Senate Documents, 3d Session, 27th Congress, No. 1, pp. 480-482. 


minds just emerging from barbarism/' He urged that 
*^a small sheet, printed in the English and Indian, should 
now be put in circulation, in order to retain the influence of 
those who have left school. No people on earth thirst more 
largely after news relating to themselves than do the In- 
dians/' Seymour served a second year as principal over 
five other persons — one in the clothing department and 
four in teaching. One hundred and seventy children in 
every stage of advancement attended the school in con- 
stantly varying numbers, depending upon the season of the 
year. Some fifteen pupils walked ten miles daily to the 
agency. The school was taught two hundred and thirty-six 
days, exclusive of Sundays, when the children assembled 
for religious instruction. The girls furnished nearly seven 
hundred articles of clothing, such as boys' coats, trousers, 
shirts, dresses, short gowns, chemises, skirts, aprons, and 
towels, bags, bedticks, and pillow cases. Nevertheless, 
Seymour complained that the irregularity of attendance, 
the dread of restraint, and general ignorance of the Eng- 
lish language ^ ^ renders it scarcely possible to keep any two 
of them in the same degree of advancement, and requires 
of the teachers an amount of labor and patience that can be 
estimated by experience only."^^ 

H. N. Thissell acted as principal in 1845.^^ The follow- 
ing year, on the first of May, Eev. David Lowry resumed 
his duties as superintendent after an absence of about two 
years. His management was described as judicious — 
patience and kindness are substituted for passion and se- 
verity." Manual labor both in the field and the shop be- 
came a definite part of the system of instruction. More 
room and repairs were needed to make the school comfort- 

6S Senate Documents, 1st Session, 28th Congress, No. 1, i)p. 355-357; 2nd 
Session, 28th Congress, No. 1, pp. 357, 358, 427. 

50 For his report see Senate Documents, 1st Session, 29th Congress, No. 1, 
pp. 562, 563. 



able, but the want of permanent homes retarded the pro- 
gress of improvement most of all. Mr. Lowry emphasized 
the fact that changing the habits of a people was not the 
work of a day. To quote from his report 

So long as the children of the Winnebagoes are leaving school, 
and are obliged to return to a homeless and houseless people, their 
education can be of but little service, and the customs of the wigwam 
will he continued. But give them a home that they can call theirs 
forever, and their circumstances will soon create literary wants and 
dictate a change of habits. 

The school was already a celebrated institution, and its 
domestic science department was spoken of in terms of high 
praise, thanks to the efficiency of Mrs. A. Lockwood, once 
the attentive hostess of the * Burlington House,' Burling- 
ton, Iowa." A well-known promoter of emigration to the 
Territory of Iowa declared it **an interesting spectacle to 
behold, in the midst of the forest, far beyond the confines of 
civilization, an assemblage of one hundred children of Na- 
ture, eschewing the wild excitement of savage life, throwing 
aside the bow and quiver, and bowing to the shrine of 
learning. Lowry reported the largest total attendance 
at the school during the year 1846-1847 : two hundred and 
forty-nine came for instruction, so that the superintendent 
no longer doubted the practicability of civilizing the Win- 

Early in May, 1848, the Winnebago school on the Turkey 
Eiver ended its existence with the removal of teachers and 
children to the Minnesota country, where plans were enter- 
tained of setting up several manual labor schools to give 
every child the benefit of an education. Mr. Lowry had 

^oHoiLse Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 29tli Congress, No. 4, pp. 249, 

61 Newhall's A Glimpse of Iowa in 1846, pp. 38, 39. This book also contains 
letters composed by two pupils at the school. 

62 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 30th Congress, No. 1, pp. 930, 931. 


completed nearly fifteen years of service in the Indian 
country, and from the fulness of experience could say that 
the success of teaching the American savage was hindered 
by the shortage of proper persons: **mere outward moral- 
ity, detached from feelings of concern for the salvation of 
the Indians, is not sufficient. The heart must be in the 

Jacob Van dee Zee 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 

House Executive Documents, 2nd Session, 30th Congress, No. 1, pp. 461, 
463, 464. 


Although scarcely a quarter of a century has elapsed 
since the pioneer period in Iowa came to a close, it is diffi- 
cult for the present generation, accustomed to all of the 
conveniences of modern civilization, to form an adequate 
idea of the hardships and privations that were endured by 
the settlers who first made their homes in the new country. 
People are inclined to scoff at tales of enforced corn meal 
diet and the chronic failure of crops; while it seems in- 
credible that in one of the richest agricultural areas in the 
world people should ever go hungry and suffer from the 
want of clothing. 

Yet that very thing came to pass. Year after year the 
farmers planted their grain with every prospect of harvest- 
ing a splendid crop, only to have their hopes blighted by the 
cut worms, the gophers, the grasshoppers, the chinch bugs, 
a hailstorm, June floods, a season of drought, a strong wind, 
or a prairie fire. To persist in the face of such adversity 
required nothing short of heroism. None of the causes of 
hardship are to be disparaged, insignificant though they 
may now seem. It is the purpose of the pages that follow 
to present an account of the loss and suffering caused in 
Iowa by the ravages of the dreaded little grasshoppers.^ 

1 The calamities which befell the farmers of western Iowa were no more 
grievous than those resulting from invasions of locusts the world over. From 
the first account by Joel in the Bible, history records innumerable instances 
of devastation in almost every country by these migratory insects. Orosius 
says that in the year of the world 3800, North Africa was visited by huge 
swarms, of which so many were blown into the sea that when the bodies washed 
ashore the stench was unendurable. Locust plagues are mentioned by St. 
Augustine and Pliny, which were so severe as to have caused famine and the 
loss of thousands of lives. South America, Australia, and the Philippine 




The species of migratory grasshoppers which, until about 
the year 1880, so often invaded the territory of western 
Iowa is commonly known as the Eocky Mountain locust.^ 
They are comparatively small, the body seldom exceeding 
an inch and a quarter in length, slender, and of a light 
brownish color. The upper wings are longer than the body 
and of the same color. When flying high and seen against 
the sun their wings give the appearance of large snow- 

Locusts are the only insects which may properly be 
termed migratory. Their native, permanent breeding- 
grounds are confined to river valleys, sunny slopes, and 
grassy areas. In North America the region over which 
they were wont to breed (for they no longer appear in num- 

Islands have not escaped the ravages of locusts. In 1924 years China has suf- 
fered 173 times. Indeed, locust ravages have constituted one of the three 
great causes of famine in China. Moreover, the modern history of Europe 
is not lacking in accounts of locust scourges. The habits of these insects 
and the causes of their migration are practically the same everywhere. — 
Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 465-477 ; 
1878-1879, pp. 32-54. 

Presuming that every creature has some purpose in existence it is interesting 
to note the curious ways in which locusts have been utilized. Perhaps the 
most familiar use for these insects is as fish bait, but the most astonishing, no 
doubt, is their use as an article of human food. It is stated that delicious 
broth can be made of them, while young grasshoppers fried in butter are 
very palatable. Indeed, locusts constitute a staple article of food in some 
countries. It has been discovered that considerable formic acid can be 
obtained from them; and they have also been used as fertilizer, — Report of 
the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 437-443. 

2 Other names that are applied to the same insect are ''The Hopper", 
"Army grasshopper", ''Red-legged locust", "Mormon locust", "Western 
locust", and "Hateful grasshopper". The scientific classification is that of 
Caloptenus sprctus. The Rocky Mountain Locust is to be distinguished from 
the Red-legged Locust proper (Caloptenus femur-rubrum) and Lesser Locust 
(Caloptenus atlantis), both of which are smaller, less destructive, and only 
occasionally migratory — Beport of the United States Entomological Commis- 
sion, 1877, pp. 31-52, 215, 443-456. 

3 Report of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 42, 46, 


bers sufficient to warrant anxiety) included practically 
all of Montana, southeastern Idaho, northwestern Utah, 
southern and eastern portions of Wyoming, central Colo- 
rado, northwestern Nebraska, the western half of the 
Dakotas, and a considerable area in the Province of Sas- 
katchewan, Canada — the territory lying for the main part 
directly east of the chief range of the Eocky Mountains.* 
Even within this permanent habitat the locusts were essen- 
tially migratory, but the swarms that temporarily invaded 
other sections of the country exhibited that characteristic 
most strikingly. In Europe invading swarms have been 
known to fly from four to five hundred miles from their 
permanent breeding-places, while in North America flights 
have extended over a distance of between one and two 
thousand miles.^ 

The inamediate cause of migration was probably exces- 
sive multiplication, although many remote and secondary 
reasons have been assigned. Seasons of unusual heat and 
dryness are most favorable for the increase of insect life, 
so that climatic conditions must have exerted considerable 
influence. Hunger, the procreative instinct, annoyance 
from natural enemies,^ and the migratory instinct, all prob- 

4 A region comprising a zone from two to three hundred miles wide on the 
elevated plains east of the area described may be designated as a subperma- 
nent habitat, liable to be invaded each year when there were excessive numbers 
in the truly permanent breeding-grounds. — Beport of the United States En- 
tomological Commission, 1877, pp. 136, 142. 

5 Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 131-134, 
143, Map 1. 

6 Among the most destructive enemies of the locust are birds. Indeed, the 
multiplication and spread of these noxious insects has been laid to the ruth- 
less slaughter of millions of quails and prairie chickens. It was reported that 
the Chicago market became so flooded at times that ten thousand of these 
birds were condemned and fed to hogs in a single day. The equipoise of 
nature will not bear such a shock. Locust-mites and many other parasites, a 
multitude of beetles, various kinds of flies, ants, spiders, wasps, hair worms, 
toads, field-mice, gophers, and snakes also do good service to the farmer in 
the war on grasshoppers. Millions perish if the season is wet and cold. — 
Beport of the United States Entom,ological Commission, 1877, pp. 9, 14, 15, 
27, 284-350; Adams County Union (Corning), July 29, 1875. 


ably played with varying force in bringing about the 
migratory movements^ 

Abont two months after hatching the young locusts molt- 
ed, changing their entire outer covering for one supplied 
with wings. Having already exhibited a tendency toward 
gregariousness, it was only a few days until vast swarms 
arose as if by comm'on impulse, when wind and weather 
were favorable, and were swept away in search of greener 

In due time the vast hordes arrived among the fields of 
tender grain or garden vegetables. Their flight has been 
likened to ^^an immense snow-storm, extending from the 
ground to a height at which our visual organs perceive them 
only as minute, darting scintillations, leaving the imagina- 
tion to picture them indefinite distances beyond. . . . 
On the horizon they often appear as a dust tornado, riding 
upon the wind like an ominous hailstorm, eddying and 
whirling about like the wild, dead leaves in an autumn storm 
. . . . they circle in myriads about you, beating against 
everything animate or inanimate; driving into open doors 
and windows; heaping about your feet and around your 

7 Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 201, 202, 

8 It has been discovered that the locusts in their flights were dependent upon 
the wind for motive force. Using their wings to sustain them and turning 
their heads toward the wind, they simply drifted backward. With a strong 
wind it was possible for them to reach a maximum speed of from two to 
three hundred miles a day, but the rate of progress of invading swarms aver- 
aged only about twenty miles a day. Frequently they flew so high as to be 
out of sight. Either a change of the wind, a lowering in temperature, or 
an increase of moisture was usually sufficient to bring down the flying 
swarms. Because northwest winds prevailed over the permanent habitat during 
June and July, on account of the mountain and forest barrier to the west, and 
because the best food supply lay to the east, the migrations were in general 
toward the southeast. Contrary to supposition the locusts were not led by 

kings" or queens fully corroborating Solomon's statement: ''The 
locusts have no king, yet go they forth all of them by bands". — Beport of 
the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 181, 182, 202, 215, 216, 
236, 237, 281-283 J Proverbs XXX, 27. 


buildings ; their jaws constantly at work biting and testing 
all things in seeking what they can devour/' Often they 
came in such numbers as to obscure the light of the sun, 
giving the weird, somber appearance of a solar eclipse. At 
times they accumulated on the railroad tracks to such an 
extent that the oil from their crushed bodies so reduced the 
traction as to actually stop the trains.^ 

Falling upon a promising field (their instinct seemed to 
direct them unerringly toward the cultivated places) it was 
but the work of a few hours to reduce it to a barren area of 
leafless stalks. Insignificant individually but mighty col- 
lectively, it is said these contemptible insects could ^ ^ sweep 
clean a field quicker than would a whole herd of hungry 
steers. They often completely covered the ground. The 
ravenous hosts were almost omnivorous. One observer 
testifies that they **will feed upon the dry bark of trees or 
the dry lint of seasoned fence-planks ; and upon dry leaves, 
paper, cotton and woolen fabrics. They have been seen 
literally covering the backs of sheep, eating the wool; and 
whenever one of their own kind is weak or disabled from 
whatsoever cause, they go for him or her with cannibalistic 
ferocity, and soon finish the struggling and kicking unfor- 
tunate.'' Vegetables and cereals were, however, their 
favorite diet.^*^ 

^ Beport of the United States Entomological Commission 1877, pp. 213-215; 
riickinger's The Pioneer History of Pocahontas County, Iowa, p. 256; Annals 
of Iowa (First Series), Vol. XI, p. 359. 

Southey, in Ms poem Thalaba, vividly pictures the approach of the locusts. 
In the Bible the appearance and ravages of these insects are described in an 
accurate and graphic manner. — Exodus X; Joel, II. 

10 Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 213, 
251; Smith's A History of DicTcinson County, Iowa, p. 344; Annals of Iowa 
(First Series), Vol. XI, p. 359. 

The Arabs, it is asserted, allegorically describe the grasshopper as having 
"the face of a horse, the eyes of an elephant, the neck of a bull, the horns of 
a deer, the chest of a lion, the belly of a scorpion, the wings of an eagle, the 
thighs of a camel, the feet of an ostrich and the tail of a serpent ' — Flickin- 
ger's The Pioneer History of Pocahontas County, Iowa, p. 256. 


Having somewhat appeased their appetites, the maraud- 
ers next turned their attention to providing the region with 
an abundance of young grasshoppers the following spring. 
The egg-laying process continued until the ground was 
frozen or the insects died. With the first warm, sunny days 
of spring the eggs began to incubate, and the young ap- 
peared until the ground was fairly covered with millions of 
^^the liveliest little devils ever hatched". Terrible as was 
the destruction wrought by the first invading swarms it 
was hardly to be compared to the ravages of these young 
locusts during the period of their maturing. As soon as the 
supply of food in the vicinity of their birthplaces was ex- 
hausted, they commenced to migrate, frequently in vast 
armies, devouring, as they advanced, all the grass, grain, 
and garden-truck in their path. After they were fully 
developed, the insects native to the temporary region only 
awaited favorable winds and fair weather, before they took 
to their wings and returned to their natural habitat.^^ 


The authentic record of the ravages of the Eocky Moun- 
tain locust extends back to 1818, when hordes of them 
appeared in North Dakota and in Minnesota, eating every- 

11 Report of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 215, 220, 
226-233, 238, 239; Smith's History of Harrison County, Iowa, pp. 249, 251-254. 

While the armies of unfledged locusts were accustomed to move with re- 
markable tenacity along a certain course taken by the leaders of the column, 
this course might lie in any direction, determined entirely by the quantity of ' 
food. The rate of speed at which they traveled was necessarily slow, probably 
not more than half a mile a day. Thus they would proceed but a few miles 
from the place where they hatched. The cause for the return migration would 
seem to be chiefly the reproductive instinct, but it is doubtful if the returning 
swarms, even those that reached the permanent region, by nature weak and 
diseased (for they could not permanently dwell in the temporary region) 
were instrumental in perpetuating their species. The Rocky Mountain locust 
is essentially single-brooded. — Report of the United States Entomological 
Commission, 1877, pp. 234-236, 239, 240-246. 


thing in their course.^^ It is probable that a part of the 
Iowa country was invaded at the same time. There is no 
evidence of a general visitation of this State, however, be- 
fore 1833. In that year, according to a tradition among the 
Indians, ^^the grasshoppers came so thick that the grass 
was all eaten off, and there was no grass for their ponies ; 
and the ground looked black, as if there had been a prairie 
fire.'^ In 1850 the corn crop belonging to the Mormons 
about Council Bluffs was somewhat injured by grasshop- 
pers, but it is doubtful whether these were of the migratory 
species for there is no account of an invasion that year in 
any of the surrounding territory. During August, 1856, 
swarms came from the north into western and northwestern 
Iowa where they left their eggs. Great numbers of young 
grasshoppers hatched the following spring. Later in the 
summer of 1857 the general locust invasion which swept 
over the Northwest reached Iowa, the counties of Wood- 
bury, Harrison, Ida, Adams, and Pottawattamie being 
visited. But the damage done by these early grasshopper 
invasions in Iowa was inconsiderable, owing to the limited 
number of settlements in the western part of the State at 
that time. These years are usually not included among the 
^'grasshopper years''.^* 

The first serious grasshopper raid in Iowa occurred in 
July, 1864, when the region in the vicinity of Sioux City 

^^Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, p. 54; 
Collections of the State Historical Society of North DaTcota, Vol. I, p. 209. 

13 Swarms of grasshoppers came into western Missouri late in the fall of 
1820 or 1821, and in the following spring large numbers hatched and de- 
parted toward the southeast. Kansas was visited by locusts every year from 
1854 to 1857; Nebraska suffered in 1857 and 1858; in 1853 and probably 1856 
swarms were found in Dakota; while Minnesota was infested repeatedly, par- 
ticularly in the years 1830, 1842, 1849, 1855, 1856, and lS57.—Beport of the 
United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 54, 64, 74, 80, 81, 88. 

i^Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 54, 77; 
History of the Counties of Woodbury and Plymouth, Iowa, p. 239; Smith's 
History of Harrison County, Iowa, p. 249. 


appears to have suffered severely. ' ' Gardens looked prom- 
ising, and each family felt that their wants in the culinary 
department from this source would be amply supplied, but, 
in about three hours after these little ravenous intruders 
entered the city, our fondest hopes in this direction were 
cut as short as the luxurious vegetation that was swept 
away like snow before the sun; within three hours not a 
vestige of vegetation that peered above the ground was to 
be seen, except squash vines, which alone were left to wind 
their way."^^ 

So thoroughly did the insects sow their eggs that the 
region was made almost desolate the following spring by 
their progeny. An expedition against the Indians in the 
Northwest, scheduled to leave Sioux City in June, was 
abandoned, ^Hhe country owing to the grasshoppers and 
drouth not being able to support so many as must neces- 
sarily go." General Sully, at that time in Sioux City, 
wrote, ^*The only thing spoken of about here is the grass- 
hoppers. They are awfuP'. The destruction of crops was 
even more complete than it had been during the preceding 

Toward the end of May, 1867, news came that the 
grasshoppers were ravaging Nebraska, although the boast 
was made in a Council Bluffs paper that in Western 
Iowa we are not troubled with these long-legged insects." 
Even as late as July 14th the coming of swarms of grass- 
hoppers was a subject for ridicule. But by August first 
large numbers of the insects had entered the southern part 
of Mills County, seeming to have come from Kansas. In 

^'^ Annals of Iowa (First Series), Vol. XI, pp. 359, 360; Beport of the 
United States Entomological Commission, 1877, p. 77; History of the Coun- 
ties of Woodbury and Plymouth, Iowa, pp. 239, 415. 

Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 77, 78; 
Hamilton Freeman (Webster City), June 3, 1865; History of the Counties of 
Woodbury and Plymouth, Iowa, p. 239. 


another week Pottawattamie County was overrun. North- 
ward the pests proceeded. On August 27th the advance 
guard of the invading army began to drop down upon the 
fields in Harrison County. Although a few swarms reached 
Dickinson County late in the season they created little 
alarm and did practically no damage north of Sioux City. 
It was rather toward the east that the main body of locusts 
drifted. A northwest wind is reported to have brought 
down a large swarm in the neighborhood of Lake City near 
the end of August. Their first appearance at Jefferson was 
on September 2nd, when the *^vast concourse seemed to be 
bearing off in a south-easterly direction'', which would tend 
to identify this as the swarm that had visited Lake City a 
few days earlier. On the ninth day of September a swarm 
is said to have passed over Adel, while two days later the 
ground at that place was covered with grasshoppers. 
People then living in Fort Dodge declared that the air was 
full of the insects on September 10th. Swarms arrived in 
Clarke County about October 5th. 

The entire southwestern quarter of the State apparently 
suffered. Indeed, the invasion of 1867 probably was the 
most destructive of all the grasshopper raids in the counties 
along the Missouri Eiver. While the insects first made 
their appearance in August, it was during September and 
October that they were most numerous. Their appetites 
were as ravenous [as] their saw-toothed jaws were destruc- 
tive; they spared neither the garden lot or cornfield, cab- 
bage, turnips, cornblades, corn in any shape, tobacco chews, 

17 Council Blufs WeeTcly Nonpareil, May 25, 1867; Council Blufs Bugle, 
September 12, 1867; The Dallas WeeTcly Gazette (Adel), August 1, 8, Septem- 
ber 12, 1867; Smith's History of Harrison County, Iowa, p. 249; Smith's A 
History of DicMnson County, Iowa, pp. 342, 343; The Iowa North West (Fort 
Dodge), September 4, 1867; The Jeferson Era, September 4, 1867; Beport of 
the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, p. 78; Annals of Iowa 
(Third Series), Vol. rv, p. 438; Flickinger 's The Pioneer History of Pocahon- 
tas County, Iowa, p. 257. 

VOL. xm — 23 


old boots, fork handles and overcoats, all perished before 
their destructive powers and appetites. Here they lit with- 
out request and here they tarried without invitation 
Farther east, however, the damage was not so great, be- 
cause of the abundance of grass and the fact that the 
swarms arrived late in the season.^^ 

The mischief accomplished by the young unfledged locusts 
in 1868 was necessarily confined to the territory which had 
been invaded by their progenitors in 1867. Because the 
eggs were not distributed equally in all parts of the country 
the damage done was not universal, some localities being 
stripped of vegetation while others were scarcely touched. 
It was hoped in May that the grasshoppers would not be so 
numerous as to imperil the bountiful harvest in prospect. 
But by the end of June, when they got their wings and be- 
gan to migrate northward, not half a crop was left in many 
places. Some people to save themselves from great loss 
probably raised a crop of buckwheat later in the season. 
Newspapers in the more fortunate places claimed that the 
reports were exaggerated, but there is evidence to show 
that the insects made sad ravages upon the growing crops in 
portions of the State.^^ 

Although certain regions in Iowa were troubled with lo- 
custs in 1870, 1871, and 1872, there was no damage worthy 
of notice. The next year, however, the hopes and in many 
cases the fortunes of the settlers in northwestern Iowa were 
ruined, swiftly and surely, by the terrible scourge. Never 

Eeport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, p 78; Kis- 
tory of Mills County, Iowa, p. 374 j Smith's History of Harrison County, Iowa, 
p. 250; The Jefferson Era, September 4, 1867; Annals of Iowa (Third Series), 
Vol. IV, p. 442; Gue's History of Iowa, Vol. Ill, p. 19. 

isTTie Hamilton Freeman (Webster City), May 20, July 1, 8, 1868; Gue's 
History of Iowa, Vol. Ill, p. 20 ; The Jeferson Era, June 24, 1868 ; History of 
the Counties of Woodbury and Plymouth, Iowa, p. 239; History of Mills County, 
Iowa, p. 374; Report of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, 
p. 78; Iowa Agricultural Eeport, 1868, pp. 12, 13. 


before had the grasshoppers come in such numbers or 
stayed so long. The extreme northwestern counties seem to 
have been invaded about the first of June, but the direction 
from which the swarms came is uncertain. If the first 
swarms were identical with those which were reported to 
have flown northward from Nebraska about May 26th, it 
would appear that they came from the southwest.^^^ But 
inasmuch as the migration was very general in 1873 (prac- 
tically all parts of western Minnesota, Dakota, and Ne- 
braska being invaded) and continued almost the entire 
summer (swarms continually coming and going), it is very 
probable that the locusts came from different directions at 
different times. The general trend was eastward.^^ 

O^Brien and Osceola counties were said to have been in- 
vaded about June 5th, while on June 13th swarms had 
reached Emmet and Pocahontas counties. By the middle of 
June the ravagers were busy in Dickinson, Clay, and Buena 
Vista counties, and early in July they were making depre- 
dations on the wheat fields about Humboldt. Probably the 
havoc extended as far east as western Hancock County. 
There were no grasshoppers in Green, Hamilton, and 
Wright counties during the summer of 1873 : the Webster 
City (Hamilton County) paper, so far as can be discovered, 
does not even mention them.^^ 

Toward the last of July news came that the locusts were 
doing great damage to the oat crop in Nebraska. *^0n the 

20 This assumption is also sustained by the fact that grasshoppers entered 
the southwestern counties of Minnesota about June 12th, traveling northeast- 
ward. — Holmes 's Minnesota in Three Centuries, Vol. IV, p. 110. 

21 Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 75, 78, 
86, '89; Sioux City WeeMy Times, August 10, 1872; Gue's History of Iowa, 
Vol. Ill, p. 55 ; Perkins 's History of 'Brien County, Iowa, pp. 141, 142 ; Iowa 
Agricultural Beport, 1873, pp. 26-28. 

22 Iowa Agricultural Beport, 1873, pp. 26, 27, 369, 438, 439; Beport of the 
Commissioner of Agriculture (U. S.), 1873, p. 156; Northern Vindicator 
(Estherville), June 14, 1873; Flickinger's The Pioneer History of Pocahontas 


1st day of August, 1873, in the neighborliood of Magnolia, 
and on the 4th day of the same month and year, at Harris 
Grove (Harrison County) the plague again commenced an 
indiscriminate attack on the corn and oats. At the same 
time much grasshopper humming along the Floyd and Little 
Sioux rivers was chronicled. One writer states that the 
grasshoppers had arrived safely at Dowville" on August 
4th, and were * ^ foraging in regular army style ' ' as far east 
as Denison. A correspondent writing under the same date 
from Sloan vouches for the fact that the grasshoppers were 
there in force, while reports from Monona County go to 
show that the pests had destroyed the prospects for more 
than half a crop of corn and oats. Immense clouds of lo- 
custs passed over Omaha on August 16th, but there is no 
evidence that this invasion extended into the State to any 
great distance ; and while the corn and oats were consider- 
ably injured, the damage was not comparable with that done 
in the northwestern counties earlier in the summer.^ ^ 

County, Iowa, p. 257 ; Smith 's A History of DicMnson County, Iowa, p. 343 ; 
Gillespie and Steele's History of Clay County, Iowa, p. 88; Wright County 
Monitor (Clarion), June 26, July 29, 1873, February 17, 1874; Humboldt 
County Independent (Dakota, Iowa), June 25, July 9, 1873. 

Either to conceal the actual amount of damage done by grasshoppers so as 
not to discourage emigration or because the ravages somewhat abated after 
June, thereby raising the hopes of the settlers, the newspapers of northwestern 
Iowa took a very optimistic attitude during July and August. The Northern 
Vindicator claimed that the crops were average and that no permanent injury 
had been done; while the Sioux City Weekly Times declared that the crop re- 
ports from all parts of the country were of the most favorable character, 
and on July 19th went so far as to make the statement that the ''extent of 
small grain sown this year [in the Sioux Valley] is more than three times that 
of last year, and we hesitate not to predict that (Providence protecting) the 
yield per acre will be greater than in any other district in the Northwest." 
Whatever the motive for publishing such items may have been, the fact that 
it was necessary for the State to aid the farmers in this same country the 
following winter and spring, is abundant evidence that the statements were 
not well founded. — Northern Vindicator (Estherville), June 28, July 19, Au- 
gust 6, 23, 1873; Sioux City WeeUy Times, July 5, 19, 1873. 

23 Sioux City Weelcly Times, July 26, August 2, 9, 1873 ; Meyer 's History of 
Crawford County, Iowa, p. 178; Smith's History of Harrison County, Iowa, pp. 
254, 255; Wright County Monitor (Clarion), August 5, 1873; The Fort Bodge 
Messenger, August 7, 21, 1873. 


From the fact that Dickinson, Emmet, Palo Alto, and 
Kossuth counties suffered more severely from the locusts 
hatched in the spring of 1874 than did the extreme north- 
western counties which had borne the brunt of the attack 
during the previous summer, it would appear that either 
the grasshoppers had arrived in the latter region too early 
for egg-laying or, eggs having been laid they hatched in the 
fall, and the destruction during the following season was 
therefore not so great. In general the territory covered by 
the scourge of 1874 was identical with that invaded in 1873, 
with perhaps a slight extension toward the east and into the 
extreme southwestern corner of the State. 

The locusts began to hatch in May. As the season ad- 
vanced it became more and more evident that in some places 
not only the gardens, but crops of all kinds, were doomed to 
destruction. In July, when favorable winds came and the 
grasshoppers took wing for the north, some places were 
completely stripped of vegetation. Moreover, fresh swarms 
entered the northwestern counties during July and August, 
doing great damage. Some twenty counties in that part of 
the State suffered more or less. As a year in which the 
ravages of the grasshoppers caused the greatest distress, 
the year 1874 may be ranked with 1867, 1873, and 1876. 
Indeed, there was some agitation for an extra session of the 
State legislature for the purpose of providing relief for the 
people of the afflicted district.^^ 

Fortunately there were few locusts in Iowa in 1875. In 
Kansas and Missouri, however, they hatched in unusual 

24 MeCarty's History of Palo Alto County, Iowa, p. 135; Flickinger's The Pio- 
neer History of Pocahontas County, Iowa, p. 258 ; Gillespie and Steele 's History 
of Clay County, Iowa, p. 88 ; Smith 's A History of DicMnson County, Iowa, pp. 
344, 345; Smith's History of Harrison County, Iowa, p. 255; Beport of the 
United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 78, 79; Northern Vin- 
dicator (Estherville), May 16, 30, June 27, July 4, 1874; Humboldt County 
Independent (Dakota), May 29, July 24, 1874; Wright County Monitor (Clar- 
ion), May 26, 1874, June 2, 9, 16, 30, 1874. 


nmnbers and it appears that swarms in their exodns from 
these States flew into sonthwestem Iowa from abont the 
tenth of Jime nntil the middle of Jnly, many of which 
alighted, remained a few days, and cansed some hardship. 
In the northwest swarms were reported to have passed 
over, bnt scarcely any damage was done.-^ 

Of aU the grasshopper raids in Iowa the most extensive, 
although not the most destructive, was that which occurred 
in the summer of 1S76. In fact the territory invaded com- 
prised nearly all of western Minnesota, a portion of eastern 
Dakota, and western Iowa — a strip of country four or five 
hundred miles long and one hundred and fifty miles wide. 
About the fii'st of August swarms crossed the State line 
from Minnesota and Dakota ahnost simultaneously, and 
swept on toward the east and south. As late as October 2nd 
grasshoppers were still migrating eastward. "The most 
eastern point reached was in the middle of the State, and 
the line retreats westward from Story County both north 
and south.'- With 1S76 grasshopper invasions of Iowa 
practically ceased.-^ 

In the spring of 1S77 young grasshoppers hatched in 
varying numbers over the area covered by the pests during 
the previous summer, but the cold, wet weather killed so 
many that little destruction was accomplished except in 
Pottawattamie County. The first flights occurred on June 
14th and from this time until the first week in August the 
locusts were leaving the State, the direction being xmiform- 
ly northwest. While swarms from the north were noticed 
passing over several different localities later in the season. 

Be port of the Vnited States Entomological Commission, 1S77. pp. 66, 67, 
71. 79; The Adair County Beporter (Greenfield), JuIt 16. 1S75; Adams Coun- 
ty Union (Corning), May 20, June 24, Julj 15, 1875. 

2« Report of the United States Entomological Commission, 1S77, p. 79; 
Northern Vindicator (Estherville) . July 29, August 5. 19, October 7, 1876; 
Boone County Bepuhlican (Boone), Julv 26, 1S76; Annals of Iowa (Third 
Series), Vol. FV', pp. 442, 443. 


they seldom aligMed and did little damage. It could hardly 
be said that there was a fresh invasion.^"^ 

Two small, scattered flights, causing no harm in this 
State, crossed the southwest corner of Minnesota late in 
1878, one of them reaching a short distance into Iowa. The 
hatching-grounds were more extensive in Iowa in 1879 than 
in 1878 and a greater number of local flights from the north- 
west were recorded, but there were no swarms, as in the 
previous year, which came directly from the permanent 
breeding area in the West. In 1880 there were probably a 
few unimportant flights resulting from the progeny of these 
1879 swarms. Since that time huge swarms of grasshop- 
pers have been seen in Iowa occasionally, and indeed not 
infrequently have they dropped down to refresh themselves 
on a field of grain, but never since 1880 has there been any- 
thing to compare with the scourges of the grasshopper 
years ".^^ 


The winter of 1872-1873 had been a severe one in north- 
western Iowa. The settlers were for the most part people 
of limited means who had taken advantage of the home- 
stead or preemption laws. Long and hard had they labored 
in anticipation of better times. They had endured all of the 
hardships and privations of pioneer life in the hope of 
realizing a substantial reward in the years of prosperity 
that were to come. For two or three seasons their efforts 
had been crowned with success: the newly broken prairie 
had responded magnificently to cultivation. But the home- 
steaders had come to the new country empty-handed, many 
of them possessed only of a wagon-load of household goods, 

Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 79, 80; 
riickinger 's The Pioneer History of Pocahontas County, Iowa, p. 259. 

28 Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1878-1879, pp. 


a span of horses, and an indomitable determination to win 
homes and fortunes in this rich agricultural community. 
Whether they would achieve their purpose depended entire- 
ly upon the crops they were able to raise from year to year : 
there was no surplus for emergencies. To endure the rigors 
of a western winter without privation and suffering it was 
necessary that the settlers should have enjoyed a summer 
of bountiful harvests. The winter of 1872-1873 had tried 
the courage of the most prosperous.^^ 

March and April of the year 1873 were cold, rainy 
months. The seeding was long delayed and when it was 
finally accomplished the grain was slow in sprouting and 
slower in coming through the ground. But in May the 
gloomy prospect brightened: the fields of wheat and oats 
waxed luxuriant, the corn stretched up by leaps and bounds. 

Feasting their eyes on the promising sight the settlers 
felt that they would be justified in building new granaries, 
in purchasing implements, and in procuring for their fami- 
lies some of the things that had been long denied. The har- 
vest would pay for all. Merchants were eager to sell on 
credit, while a multitude of agents for pump, lightning-rod, 
harvester, and insurance companies infested the country. 
They, too, accepted credit with the fields of grain as secur- 
ity. Tempting opportunities for investment in railroad 
lands were also afforded, and again promissory notes were 
signed. But the day of reckoning came too soon.^^ 

When the grasshoppers which swept over that region had 
finished their work of destruction a veritable desert re- 
mained where but a brief time before there were acres of 

29 While the grasshopper invasion of 1867 had caused much suffering in 
western Iowa, it was only in very limited areas that the crops were an entire 
loss. The local communities were able themselves to care for all the needy. 

30 Van der Zee 's The Hollanders of Iowa, pp. 161-163 ; Wright County Mon- 
itor (Clarion), July 29, November 25, 1873; Humboldt County Independent 
(Dakota), May 1, 1874. 


waving grain. It was estimated that not twenty-five per- 
cent of the oat crop was left; the corn fields had suffered 
equally ; while the wheat in many places was reported to be 
an utter failure. It was especially unfortunate that the 
ravages were most destructive in the more recently settled 
country where the people were largely newcomers entirely 
dependent upon their first crop. What in the older com- 
munities was a serious misfortune, to them was absolute 
ruin. A special committee appointed by the Fifteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly (1874) to investigate conditions in the north- 
western counties of the State reported as follows: 

Comparatively few of the settlers have been on their lands over 
two seasons. The first year of course they could raise little, while 
their expenses in providing shelter for their families, in breaking 
up a portion of their lands, etc., generally exhausted the limited 
means at their command. The consequence was that the most 
of them were compelled to live during last summer [1873] on de- 
cidedly short allowances, but they looked forward hopefully to 
returns from their promising crops for means to supply their 
families with food and clothing for the winter and with seed for 
the present year. The unforeseen devastation of their fields left 
them destitute. The hard labor of the year was swept away as by a 
breath, and the expected reward for which they had endured priva- 
tion from the first was in truth caught out of their very hands. 

Toward the middle of September, 1873, a financial panic 
broke over the country, making even more disheartening 
the already straitened circumstances of the settlers. Cash 
payment was suspended for a time in the larger cities, so 
that money became extremely scarce. It was practically 
impossible to negotiate loans on any terms, while for farm- 
ers without produce as security it was entirely out of the 
question. At the same time, the biting grasshopper in 
the form of collecting agents, armed with the notes which 
had been signed in the spring, came to harrass the farmers. 
In truth, the credit system worked as much hardship in 


many cases as the ravages of the grasshoppers themselves. 
One observer, J. B. Strouse, wrote : 

I am not a granger, but if the grange organization can do any- 
thing to stop this credit business, may God be with them, for I 
honestly believe that it is the worst grasshopper that infests the 
country. . 

If there are any persons who have had a notion to settle in this 
country but have been scared out by the big grasshopper stories 
afloat, I say to them come along, and they will not suffer if they 
will keep the credit grasshopper off their place. 

The following account of the actual suffering was given 
in November, 1873, by a man who had just left the stricken 
region : 

Nearly every man is poor — ^very poor, and a great majority are 
ex-soldiers of the Union, with young families to support. When 
the grasshoppers took the crops, we did the best we could for the 
coming winter. We went to the lakes and caught barrels of fish, 
but we did not have the means to properly care for them; so they 
spoiled. Stock was sacrificed to the sharks that infest our section, 
at the next to nothing of a price, and many of us have thus eaten 
up and worn out the horses and work cattle that had been our 
main stay. We could buy no fuel, and when I left twisted hay 
and rank reed grass was the only fuel nine-tenths of the people 
were using. Much sickness prevails, brought on by a long absti- 
nence from wholesome and nutritious food. One family I knew of 
has the father down with the rheumatism, three out of six children 
were down with the measles, while the mother was about worn 
down herself. Corn meal, grated from frost-bitten nubbins, was 
the only food in the house, if the sod and board shanty may be 
called such. The people bear with each other, and mutually ex- 
tend aid as much as possible. One young man from Jasper county, 
who happens to be a good shot, has valiantly taken upon himself 
the task of keeping all invalid families supplied with meat, wild 
game and the day I left brought some geese, and ducks to the fam- 
ily I have mentioned. But that will soon end, with cold weather. 
You want to know what they need? They need everything — fuel, 
clothing and provisions. The women and children are suffering 
greatly already, for the want of clothing. I know of several women 


who died soon after giving birth to children because they could 
not have even the common luxury of a cup of tea, or anything nutri- 
tious to aid them in regaining strength, coupled with the want of 
proper bed covering. The most of the counties can extend no aid, 
for the reason that thieves have been running affairs, and have 
stolen all, just as they did some years ago in Clay county. Many 
families will leave on foot, having sold their cattle or horses to 
keep them alive. Some general way of relieving those who must 
remain must be put in operation right away, else the first snap of 
real cold weather will send many a good man, or woman, or child, 
to death — frozen, because they will be so weak and emaciated that 
they cannot stand the rigors of winter, even in its weakest ap- 

Even in July it was feared that thousands of settlers 
would be so discouraged that a general stampede from that 
part of the State would ensue. As the summer passed and 
all hope of even a semblance of a harvest faded, many of the 
settlers doubtless did seek a means of livelihood elsewhere. 
Some there were who could not have left if they had wished. 
But the majority, although they felt that a portion of their 
sustenance for the next few months must come from the 
outside, were yet willing to endure a winter of unusual pri- 
vation in the faith that the next season would bring pros- 

They were as deserving, intelligent, industrious, provi- 
dent a class of citizens'' as could be found in any part of the 
State, *^men not likely to depend upon charity,'' or willing 
to accept charity, when by any means they could work out 
their own deliverance. ' ' In August it was said that seventy- 
five percent of the people in Osceola County would have 
scarcely enough wheat for bread and seed, ten percent 
would have enough for bread only, while fifteen percent 
would be without both bread and seed. In the following 
January it was estimated that there were about six hundred 
people in northwestern Iowa needing assistance. The spe- 
cial committee of the General Assembly, sent to investigate 


tlie situation, spent some time in riding over the great 
sweeps of prairie, snow-clad and desolate, visiting the peo- 
ple in their homes.'' Conditions were described in the fol- 
lowing words : 

None of their residences are extravagant, and seldom embrace 
more than one room. A majority of them are neat, though rough, 
having little furniture aside from such articles as the man of the 
house could manufacture. Some of the houses are made of sod, 
with straw roofs, in which floors other than the hard ground may 
be absent. A few pounds of flour, or a little meal, with possibly a 
little pork of some kind, generally comprised the stock of provisions 
— with no hope beyond the good hearts of the more fortunate people 
of Iowa for fresh supplies. Nevertheless the people are generally 
cheerful; and if anyone expects to find a wail of perpetual lamen- 
tation he might as well look outside "the grasshopper district" as 
within it. The men and women there stand up squarely, in the 
full dignity of their muscular development, and say, "We only ask 
for a reasonable chance for our lives I"^^ 

Spring came at last, but with the first warm days there 
came also millions of young grasshoppers. From the first 
the people saw in despair, particularly those to whom seed 
had been furnished by the State, that the crops were again 
doomed. In vain they struggled against the pest. The 
conflict was once more at hand — almost a test of whether 
the locusts or the settlers should leave the country: there 
was not room for both. Early in June the residents of 
Kossuth County decided that the Fourth of July would not 
be celebrated among them that year: they could not afford 
to be patriotic. Meetings of farmers were held at which 
crop reports were heard and committees appointed to as- 

3i7owa Agricultural Report, 1873, pp. 27, 28, 352, 417, 427, 438, 439; Sioux 
City Weekly Times, August 23, 1873; Beport of the Special Committee on Des- 
titution in Northwestern Iowa, pp. 3, 4, 9, 10, in the Iowa Legislative Docu- 
ments, 1874, Vol. II; Wright County Monitor (Clarion), July 29, November 
25, 1873; Sprague's History of Crises under the National Banking System, 
pp. 33, 35, 63-66, 83; Humboldt County Independent (Dakota), January 14, 
May 1, 1874. 


certain the necessities of the people. In Emmet County 
a committee was appointed for the purpose of staying the 
collection of debts from the settlers until better times. 

Harvest time came, but there was nothing to harvest. In 
the counties of Kossuth, Emmet, Dickinson, and parts of 
Palo Alto, Pocahontas, and Humboldt the crops were al- 
most an entire failure. The gardens in particular seem to 
have suffered. The estimates of losses in the agricultural 
reports varied widely for the year 1874, but a unanimous 
complaint of grasshopper ravages came from the north- 
western counties. One county committee reported as fol- 

The eggs deposited last year, in the soil, by the locust cormo- 
rants, hatched with the spring sun, and brought forth the young 
insects almost a hundred fold. The young hoppers" grew and 
fattened with the young grain. They swarmed in the fields, in 
the prairie grass, and even in the trees of the forest, numberless 
as the sands on the lake shore, and steadily as remorselessly pur- 
sued the destruction of the crops, until their wings were fully de- 
veloped, and until this county [Emmet], with its twelve Con- 
gressional townships, containing the well tilled farms of formerly 
well-to-do settlers, there remain not to exceed fifty acres of poor 
wheat, one hundred acres of poorer oats, and corn and vegetables 
in the same ratio. 

This is no fancy sketch, unfortunately, it is a direful and lam- 
entable fact, and hundreds, who have visited the county, assert it as 
strongly as it is attested by your committee, and every resident 
citizen. 3 2 

Farms, the actual value of which was from ten to fifteen 
dollars an acre, sold for less than the government price. 

s2Huml)oldt County Independent (Dakota), June 5, 19, 1874; Northern Vin- 
dicator (Estherville), June 27, August 15, 1874; Iowa Agricultural Report, 
1874, pp. 369, 378, 412, 429, 436, 440. 

The statement of the committee appointed to investigate conditions in 
Emmet County is fully corroborated by the report of a State Commission ap- 
pointed by Governor Cyrus C. Carpenter to estimate the devastation in the 
northwest. — Humboldt County Independent (Dakota), September 25, 1874. 


The collection of debts for machinery and other necessities 
was pressed vigorously; and thus not only had the grass- 
hoppers taken the crops but they were virtually taking the 
land also. The settlers left the stricken region by the hun- 
dreds, some of them never to return, others seeking tem- 
porary employment in more fortunate localities. To add 
to the misery of the latter, they were in many places mis- 
taken for vagabonds.^^ 

The winter of 1875 was a long, hard one, accompanied by 
many blizzards. Those who remained at their post must 
have watched the advent of summer with much anxiety. 
But the grasshoppers were far more lenient that season, 
many of the counties which had suffered most severely in 
1874 reporting larger crops than were raised in any of the 
other counties in the grasshopper region. The country was 
therefore more or less prepared to endure the wide-spread 
damage done by the locusts in 1876. Not only had the set- 
tlers accommodated themselves to the possibility of grass- 
hopper raids by turning their attention to a greater extent 
in the direction of stock raising, but they had organized 
both for the systematic destruction of the locusts and for 
the purpose of administering aid to the needy. In this 
manner, although the insects made havoc with the grain 
crops as usual, suffering such as was experienced during 
the first years of grasshopper devastation was in most 
cases avoided.^* 

s^Humholdt County Independent (Dakota), June 26, July 24, 1874; North- 
ern Vindicator (Estherville), July 25, September 5, 1874. Terrible as were 
the effects of the locust invasion of 1874 in Iowa, they are not to be com- 
pared with the suffering occasioned elsewhere. In Kansas 150,000 acres planted 
to corn yielded not a bushel; while it was estimated that in the two States of 
Kansas and Nebraska there were 40,000 people left destitute. — Northern Vin- 
dicator (Estherville), November 14, December 5, 1874. 

84 Maclean's History of Carroll County, Iowa, pp. 83, 84; Northern Vindi- 
cator (Estherville), May 1, 1875; Iowa Agricultural Report, 1875, p. 11; Boone 
County Republican (Boone), August 16, 1876. Never did the grasshoppers 
become such a terrible scourge in Iowa as they did in Missouri, Kansas, and 



When the question of relief first came before the people 
many were opposed to any such plan, on the ground that the 
country would acquire a bad reputation and settlement 
would be retarded. Moreover, there were others who be- 
lieved that each locality should care for its own needy. 
When the board of supervisors of Sioux County sent out 
letters asking for provisions, money, and clothing, a Sioux 
City newspaper pronounced the policy '^a swindle on the 
people of Iowa, and a disgrace to the independent yeomanry 
of Sioux County, . . . . while they live in Sioux 
County, a land of plenty, and have the right and lawful 
authority to help themselves ''.^^ The extent of the des- 
titution among the settlers was doubtless not realized by 
outsiders at that time. Then there were those who thought 
it was the duty of the State to intervene, not only in order 
to prevent a possible stampede from the northwestern coun- 
ties, but to ameliorate the suffering as much as possible. 
But when a sudden catastrophe befalls a community leav- 
ing hundreds of people dependent upon charity they do not 
long scruple as to the source of their relief.^^ 

Nebraska in 1875. Indeed, there is evidence tliat many carloads of grain 
were sent from Iowa tliat year for the relief of the sufferers in those States. 
From Missouri came the report that the people were panic stricken, that the 
cattle and horses were dying by the hundreds from starvation, and that 
credit was being refused to men who two years before had been accounted 
wealthy. The Governor of Missouri even set apart a day of fasting and prayer 
for divine protection from the pestilence. — Maclean's History of Carroll 
County, Iowa, p. 85; Humboldt County Independent (Dakota), May 14, June 
25, July 16, 1875; Northern Vindicator (Estherville), May 22, 1875. 

The constitution of Nebraska which was framed in 1875 when the State was 
submerged in the gloom and destitution of the scourge was spoken of as the 
"grasshopper" constitution. The highest salary allowed was $2,500, showing 
the influence of conditions upon the convention. — Proceedings and Collections 
of the NehrasTca State Historical Society (Second Series), Vol V, p. 100. 

35 Quoted in Van der Zee 's The Hollanders of Iowa, p. 165. 

36 Perkins 's History of Osceola County, Iowa, p. 148 ; Wright County Monitor 
(Clarion), July 29, 1873. 


Before there could be any adequate system of aid, how- 
ever, some organization and cooperation was needed among 
the farmers. The ^'Grange'' already had a firm foothold. 
It was well organized and probably constituted the most 
effective agency in the immediate relief of the suffering 
in the northwest. Letters were sent to the National Grange, 
to the State Grange, and to the Subordinate Granges of 
Iowa soliciting supplies. In Osceola County a Homestead- 
ers' Protective Association was organized, chiefly for the 
purpose of looking after the interests of those rendered 
helpless by the grasshopper ravages. Any resident of the 
county could become a member by signing the constitution 
and paying the sum of fifty cents. 

On November 15, 1873, the following appeal was issued 
from Sibley, Iowa: 

To the People of the State of Iowa: — 

We the undersigned, a committee appointed by the "Homestead- 
ers' Protective Association of Osceola County," an organization 
effected for the purpose of looking after the extreme and urgent 
necessities of the people of said county, caused by the almost total 
failure of the crops, do deem it just and proper that we let our sister 
counties, who are in affluent circumstances, have positive knowledge 
of the situation of a very large proportion of the citizens of this 

The most of the settlers came here last spring with little or no 
means, and depending entirely on their efforts during the summer 
to carry them through the winter; honestly and faithfully have 
they toiled. A very large amount of ground was sown and planted 
in the spring — more than sufficient to raise subsistence for all for 
the coming winter, if it had not been for an extremely wet, backward 
spring, and the invasion of a vast army of grasshoppers, which 
caused almost a total failure of corn and small grain crops, so that 
they now find themselves, on the eve of a long, cold winter, worse off 
than in the spring; without food of the plainest kind, and without 
means to purchase fuel to protect themselves and families during the 
coming winter. There are hundreds of families who have not suf- 
ficient clothing, and know not where the bread that they will eat ten 


days hence is coming from, or their fuel. These same people, relying 
on their crops to carry them through the winter, have labored dili- 
gently through the summer, and thousands of acres of the prairie 
have been turned over ready for a crop next spring. 

Now therefore, be it known to the people of the State of Iowa, 
that without liberal assistance from some source, a very large por- 
tion of the citizens of this county will be without the necessaries 
to sustain life, and also fuel to keep them from freezing, and unless 
from some source, seed is furnished to these people to sow and 
plant in the spring, many of the broad acres that are now ready 
will have to lie idle the coming season. 

We, therefore, appeal to the liberal Christian hearted people of 
this State for assistance in the shape of money, clothing, fuel, and 
staple articles of food. 

At the present writing there are at least two hundred families in 
the county needing immediate assistance. 

All consignments will be made to C. M. Bailey, Agent H. P. A., 
Sibley, Osceola county, lowa.^"^ 

As winter approached the situation became more and 
more desperate. Some effective system for the collection 
and equitable, judicious distribution of supplies had to be 
devised. A convention was called in Fort Dodge to which 
came delegates from the various counties of northwestern 
Iowa. The situation having been discussed, it was decided 
that a committee should be appointed to visit the afflicted 
territory and appoint local committees who would ascer- 
tain the actual necessities of the inhabitants and through 
which the work of distributing the donations could be intel- 
ligently performed. Adjutant General N. B. Baker, who 
volunteered to superintend the work, threw himself heart 
and soul into the problem. He appealed to the people all 
over the State to contribute money, clothing, provisions, 
and seed grain. He also sent word to the destitute people 
of the stricken region, that if they would make known 

37 Perkins 's History of Osceola County, Iowa, pp. 146-150 ; Wright County 
Monitor (Clarion), November 25, 1873. 

VOL. XIII — 24 


their wants, supplies would be furnished free of cost. At 
the same time arrangements were made with the railroads 
to carry supplies at very low rates to the places which had 
been selected for distribution. 

The people responded generously. Meetings were held 
to see what assistance could be rendered. ^^Grasshopper 
parties" for the benefit of the homesteaders became some- 
what of a fad. The women worked faithfully in the cause 
of charity, collecting clothing, bedding, and other things 
that were needed; and provisions poured in from all parts 
of the country, even from far-away New England, in gen- 
erous profusion. From Humboldt County it was reported 
that three thousand turkeys, eighteen hundred hams, and 
other supplies in proportion had been sent by January 14, 
1874. The people of Fort Dodge donated provisions for 
one hundred of the Osceola County sufferers and several 
tons of coal for those in Emmet County. In Sioux City a 
committee headed by Mayor Turner took a collection which 
amounted to about one thousand dollars. Two members of 
this committee in company with General Baker also made 
a tour of inspection in the devastated region in order to 
gather information which would enable the people to un- 
derstand more fully the condition of the settlers. Their 
report, published in the Sioux City Journal, reads as fol- 
lows : 

Sibley, Osceola County, December 3, 1873. 

The undersigned, members of the committee appointed by the 
citizens of Sioux City, to secure aid for the suffering homesteaders 
in Osceola and other northwestern counties of our state, respect- 
fully submit the subjoined report : 

We reached Sibley, Osceola county, which is near the center of 
the region devastated by grasshoppers, and from the statements of 
reliable men, whom we have known for years, as well as from many 
of the homesteaders themselves, we are satisfied that there are many 
families suffering for the common necessities of life. 

It is believed that at least one-half of the entire population of 


Osceola county is burning hay for fuel, being destitute of money 
with which to procure coal. This will be the best understood when 
it is known that the county is one vast treeless prairie — which is 
true of all northwestern Iowa. 

Just at the time when all vegetation was maturing, and prom- 
ised a large yield of farm and garden products, the grasshoppers 
swept away everything. This, to a class of men like our homestead- 
ers, should not be allowed to discourage one of them, though hard 
is their present lot. All their means was expended in seed and 
labor, and their loss is irretrievable, unless aided by the benevolent 
of our state. There is in this county alone, 15,000 acres of land 
all ready for sowing wheat. These destructive pests are no fault 
of the homesteaders, and they must receive aid at once. What the 
people in this and adjoining counties want now is bedding, flannels 
and food. 

At Sheldon, and that vicinity, but little relief has been received, 
although to-day there are nearly twenty boxes and barrels of food 
and clothing, and thirty tons of coal now on the way, sent by Gen. 

To-morrow the Sioux City committee will send to Sibley, 1,000 
pounds of flour and half as much meal, and to Sheldon the same 
amount, together with blankets, clothing and bedding. 

The local committees in all these counties are good, true men, 
who will see that all receive a portion of donations. In our in- 
quiry in reference to the needs of homesteaders, Gen. N. B. Baker, 
of Des Moines, has rendered great assistance. It is hoped, by hints 
made by the Patrons of Husbandry, that this order will take hold 
of this matter and co-operate with Gen. Baker and the committee, 
in securing the amount of seed wheat needed. For passes for our- 
selves, and free delivery of goods sent to homesteaders, we are under 
obligations to the officers of the Sioux City & St. Paul railroad com- 
pany; also the express company, who are performing their whole 
duty in rendering the aid needed along the lines they represent. 

[Signed] William R. Smith, 
E. R. Kirk, 

For Belief Committee. 

The thoroughness with which the business of voluntary 
relief was conducted is amply corroborated by the special 


committee from the General Assembly that visited the coun- 
try in February. It was learned *Hhat many townships 
had been thoroughly canvassed by local relief committees, 
and the data thus obtained, being presented to your com- 
mittee, was of great advantage in expediting the work in 
hand. These reports, giving the name of each head of a 
family, the number of persons in a family, the amount of 
land under cultivation, the amount of stock owned by each 
settler, the amount of seed grain he had and the amount 
needed, his ability to support his family, etc., were gen- 
erally of such character as to fully indicate the painstaking 
manner in which they had been prepared ' 

In spite of the large amount of private aid extended to 
the settlers, however,^^ there appears never to have been 
a surplus of contributions on hand. After a time the rail- 
roads withdrew their free services in carrying supplies, 
thus making the work of relief much more difficult. From 
the very first there had been more or less agitation for as- 

ssGue's History of Iowa, Vol. Ill, pp. 55, 56; Annals of Iowa (Third 
Series), Vol. IV, pp. 445, 446; Northern Vindicator (Estherville), November 
22, December 6, 1873, January 3, 1874; Perkins's History of Osceola County, 
Iowa, p. 152; Hwnriholdt County Independent (Dakota), December 24, 1873; 
January 14, 1874; Sioux City WeeTcly Times, December 6, 1873; History of 
the Counties of Woodbury and Plymouth, Iowa, p. 240; Report of the Spe- 
cial Committee on Destitution in Northwestern Iowa, p. 4, in the Iowa Leg- 
islative Documents, 1874, Vol. II. 

39 An approximate statement of the amount of relief afforded up to about 
the middle of February, as reported to the State Senate, follows: 

"Approximate Statement of Supplies Forwarded by Gen. Baker 

Clothing — 3 barrels, 55 boxes, 13 packages. 

Miscellaneous — 143 barrels, boxes, bags, sacks, and packages. 

Food — 774 boxes, barrels, bags, sacks and packages of flour, meal, rice, 

hominy, molasses, meat, groceries, etc. 
Grain — 11,750 pounds of corn, 52 bags of corn, 2 carloads of corn, 29 
bags of oats, 55 bags of wheat; also, one car loaded with corn, flour, 
beans, pork, etc. 

Coal — Not far from 500 tons. I cannot tell with any certainty in rela- 
tion to the coal, for sometimes, after advising how to send, they sent 
directly through without my intervention; and then sometimes dona- 


sistance from the State, but when the General Assembly 
convened in January, 1874, the efforts were redoubled. 
Governor Cyrus C. Carpenter in his first biennial message 
reflected the sentiment of the people in these words : 

During the last two years there has been a constant stream of 
immigration pouring into the counties in the northwestern portion 
of the State. So rapid has been this influx, that in counties where 
three years ago there was scarcely a human habitation there are 
to-day from two to three thousand inhabitants. When it is consid- 
ered that a large proportion of these settlers went into this coun- 
try with very limited means, in order to take advantage of the 
homestead law, and that under the most favorable circumstances 
they must have undergone severe deprivations and hardships, it 

tions were mixed up in Grange collections and no notice sent to me, 
and they may have been reported twice, to Grange department and 
to me. 

Wheat — I have $146 worth of seed wheat, having sold wheat here and 
converted it into wheat near point of distribution and saved trouble 
and expense of transportation. 

Cash — I have sent cash relief to committees, amounting to 
$351.35. I have paid for coal, bags, rice, molasses, yarn, 
blankets, leather, transportation, drayage, and other ex- 

*^An approximate statement of Grange relief is given as follows: 
Coal — 400 tons. 

PorTc — (Side meat) — 14,000 pounds. 
Meal, -flour, grain, etc. — 125 tons. 

Bedding, clothing, etc. — Twenty packages, including 500 yards of flannel. 
''Cash paid on freights to date, $500. Much has been shipped under di- 
rection of this office, of which, as yet, we have failed to obtain such statement 
as to be included in this estimate. Considerable donations are now being made 
up in different parts of the State that will be forwarded soon. Our receipts 
in cash are $3,700, half of which is on hand, unappropriated. 

''Your Committee is informed that the National Grange has appropriated 
$3,000 to the State Grange of Iowa, in view of what it is doing for the 
relief of the destitute. This money is in the treasury of the State Grange, 
to be used for whatever purpose the organization may direct, as other funds. 


Sent out as above stated 

Paid for the seed wheat at Sioux City 


Total cash. 


(Signed,) J. D. Whitman, 
E. E. Harbour. 


is scarcely a matter of surprise that, when there is added to these 
facts an unusual shortness of crops, there should be great want and 
distress. There was a general belief, when these people settled in 
these sparsely timbered counties, that the McGregor & Sioux City 
railway would be completed in the year 1872, or at the farthest in 
1873. This has been delayed, from causes beyond the control of 
the settlers, rendering it much more difficult and expensive to pro- 
cure fuel than they had reason to expect. This, combined with 
other causes of destitution mentioned above, has made the case 
of these people one of extreme hardship. In a country overflowing 
with agricultural products it would be a shame to allow any of our 
citizens who, from local or temporary causes have been brought 
to want, to suffer for the necessaries of life. "Would it not be well 
for the General Assembly to appoint a committee from its own body 
to inquire into the real condition and needs of these people, and, 
if found necessary, to devise and present to you for consideration 
some practical mode of relief ? 

Senators and Representatives from the northwestern 
part of the State received many petitions from their con- 
stituents praying for help, and particularly for seed grain 
to be used in the spring sowing."*^ 

''The Grange Committee on Tuesday received telegrams from the des- 
titute district calling for coal and meat, indicating that the stocks on hand 
at the local relief agencies had been exhausted. 

''General Baker informs your Committee that he can make no estimate of 
the real value of the supplies forwarded by him, as the contributions of 
clothing, provisions, etc., etc., were shipped as received. 

"Free transportation having been, in a large measure stopped, the relief 
agencies find themselves embarrassed in their efforts to supply the pressing 
needs of the people. Of contributions already made, there appears to be no 
surplus on hand, and the sole dependence for the future, until such time 
as the people can produce something from their lands, is placed upon a continu- 
ance of the contributions. 

"All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Geo. D. Perkins, Chairman. 

Dated February 18, 1874." — Senate Journal, 1874, pp. 155, 156. 

4^0 Senate Journal, 1874, p. 101; House Journal, 1874, pp. 121, 186, 244, 
272, 544; Shambaugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, 
Vol. IV, pp. 99, 100. 

The following resolution adopted by the board of supervisors of Palo 
Alto County and forwarded to Eepresentative E. J. Hartshorn, February 


One of the first topics to come before the General As- 
sembly in 1874 was the question of providing relief for 
the sufferers from grasshopper ravages. On January 
23rd, Senator George D. Perkins of Sioux City offered a 
concurrent resolution providing for the appointment of a 
joint committee of five (two Senators and three Eepresent- 
atives) to make inquiries concerning the true state of af- 
fairs in the northwest and to report, with such recommen- 
dations as seemed advisable. S. B. Gilliland introduced a 
similar resolution in the House. The committee was com- 
posed of Senator George D. Perkins (chairman). Senator 
Samuel H. Fairall, and Eepresentatives S. B. Gilliland, C. 
A. L. Roszell, and E. J. Hartshorn.^ ^ After preliminary 
investigation the committee, on January 30th, was granted 
permission to visit the afflicted locality in order to make 
definite recommendations. 

Accordingly, Sioux, O'Brien, and Osceola counties were 

4, 1874, may be deemed typical of those sent to tlie members of the 
General Assembly. 

''To the General Assembly of the State of Iowa: — 

Your petitioners, the Board of Supervisors of Palo Alto County, Iowa, 
would respectfully represent to your honorable body that owing to the 
extremely wet weather and destruction by grasshoppers, a great number 
of the citizens of this county are in destitute circumstances and are unable 
to procure food, clothing or seed to sow for the coming season. Your petitioners 
would further represent that they are without means or authority by law and 
are wholly unable to provide adequate relief for such widespread calamity and 
that unless aid is procured in some manner, the prosperity and well being 
of this portion of the state will be materially affected and its develop- 
ment greatly retarded. Therefore your petitioners would humbly ask your 
honorable body to make an appropriation of $5,000.00 for the benefit of 
the destitute in this county, and to make such enactments as shall en- 
able the Board of Supervisors to distribute the same as shall seem just 
and proper and for the best interests of the county or that you will furnish 
relief in such other manner or under such other regulations as may seem 
proper, for the relief of this county, and in furtherance of the future pros- 
perity thereof and to the honor and well being of the whole state." — 
McCarty's History of Palo Alto County, Iowa, p. 166. 

41 Later, William Hopkirk replaced Mr. Hartshorn on the committee. — 
House Journal, 1874, p. 114. 


visited, while delegations of settlers from Lyon, Plymonth, 
and other counties were interviewed. In addition to the 
character of the people, the amount of destitution, and the 
extent of private relief work, the financial status of the 
counties was carefully examined. It was found that the 
local authorities were totally unable to meet the emergency. 
The greatest anxiety of the settlers at that time seemed to 
come from the lack of seed grain. 

Occasionally there were to be found those who refused to 
accept aid, even from the State, but life meant more than 
pride, and sooner or later practically all came to the posi- 
tion where assistance was acceptable. 

At Orange City, Sibley, and Sheldon the committee ^^met 
from two hundred and fifty to three hundred and fifty of 
the anxious and distressed men of the afflicted district. 
Considering the sparsely populated character of the coun- 
try, these audiences were a matter of surprise. . 
It only requires to be stated that many of those in attend- 
ance came from twenty-five to forty miles across the 
prairies .... braving the dangers of the season, 
augmented by the fact that many were thinly clad, and that 
but few had means to buy a meal of victuals, to fully indi- 
cate .... the painful interest felt by the people as 
to the action of the State in the matter of affording them 
the relief the extremity of their situation demands.'^ 

There was not much difference of opinion as to the meth- 
od which ought to be pursued in State aid, the policy of 
loaning money to the settlers being generally preferred. 
The report of the committee from the General Assembly 
says, in regard to this point : 

They emphatically state that they do not desire a donation. The 
following resolution, adopted unanimously at the meeting in Osce- 
ola county, identical in spirit to resolutions adopted at other meet- 
ings, indicates the sense of the people on this point : 


Resolved, That we, the people of Osceola county, in mass 
convention at Sibley, February 3, 1874, represent that there is 
urgent need of assistance from the State to enable our people to 
seed in the spring, and that we do not ask this assistance as a gift, 
but much prefer that it come as a loan, which we will repay as soon 
as possible." 

A bill, embodying the recommendations of the commit- 
tee, was introduced in the Senate on February 12th. An 
appropriation of $100,000 was to be offered in the form of a 
loan, ''to enable these people to seed their lands to the ex- 
tent a judicious expenditure of that amount of money will 
permit.'' There was to be an additional $5,000 ''to defray 
the expenses of purchasing, transporting and distributing 
the seed."^^ These recommendations were made "not sim- 
ply as a matter of humanity, not simply as a matter of duty 
to a suffering people ; but as a matter of justice to men who 
are engaged in the work of rescuing one of the fairest por- 
tions of Iowa from the wilderness — as a matter of profit 
to the State at large." 

The bill proposed by the committee, however, was con- 
sidered to be unsatisfactory. After some effort at amend- 
ment, it was re-committed to the committee, with instruc- 
tions to report a new bill making an appropriation "to be 
donated to the sufferers in the grasshopper sections''. On 
February 21st such a bill, carrying an appropriation of 
$50,000, "for the purpose of furnishing the destitute in 
northwestern Iowa, suffering in consequence of the grass- 
hopper raid of the summer of 1873, with such seed, grain, 
and vegetables as may be deemed necessary," was passed 
by the Senate. It passed the House two days later and was 

42 The committee suggested that $15,000 be appropriated to purchase grain 
for horses, but it appears that this provision was not incorporated in the 
bill. — Beport of the Special Committee on Destitution in Northwestern Iowa, p. 
11, in the Iowa Legislative Documents, 1874, Vol. II; Senate Journal, 
1874, p. 162. 


approved on February 26tli.^^ Three commissioners were 
to be appointed by the Governor to purchase and dis- 
tribute the articles of relief, disburse the money hereby 
appropriated, and impartially perform all the duties pre- 
scribed by this act. ' ' By the first of June an itemized report 
was to be filed with the Governor.** 

During the spring John Tasker, Levi Fuller, and 0. B. 
Brown, who were appointed as commissioners, distributed 
at various points in the northwest 26,611 bushels of wheat, 
2,263 bushels of corn, 846 bushels of oats, 1,431 bushels of 
potatoes, and 13,500 packages of garden seed. Seventeen 
hundred and fifty people were aided; and in all only a 
little over $36,000 of the appropriation was used.*^ Each 
applicant for supplies was required to answer a list of 
questions concerning his condition and from these answers 
the commissioners decided on the merits of his claim to 

43 This policy of donating seed grain to needy settlers was not original 
with the State of Iowa, Kansas having passed a similar law in 1871. — 
Laws of Kansas, 1871, pp. 290-292. 

The propriety of allowing counties, where there were people in need of 
aid, to issue bonds to sufferers in extreme cases, under the direction of the 
Executive Council, was considered, but nothing came of the plan. — Senate 
Journal, 1874, pp. 151, 152, 158. 

4^"^ Senate Journal, 1874, pp. 25, 29, 53, 124, 162, 167, 170; Kouse Journal, 
1874, pp. 55, 56, 77, 99, 285, 286; Report of the Special Committee on 
Destitution in Northwestern Iowa, pp. 1-12, in the Iowa Legislative Docu- 
ments, 1874, Vol. II; Laws of Iowa, 1874 (Private), pp. 11, 12. 

45 A newspaper account of the commissioners ' report lists the total ex- 
penditure at $36,369.46, but Governor Carpenter in a message to the Gen- 
eral Assembly makes the statement that $13,786.58 was returned to the 
State Treasury, and thus there is a discrepancy of $156.04. — Northern 
Vindicator (Estherville), June 6, 1874; Shambaugh's Messages and Procla- 
mations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. IV, p. 168. 

40 Smith 's A History of Dickinson County, Iowa, p. 347. 

In September, 1874, a special session of the Kansas legislature was called 
for the particular purpose of affording relief to the people rendered desti- 
tute by the grasshoppers. State bonds to the amount of $73,000 payable 
in twenty years were authorized to be issued; while nineteen counties were 


A measure which proved a particular boon to settlers 
in Iowa and Minnesota was that passed by Congress on 
June 18, 1874. It allowed homestead and preemption set- 
tlers, whose crops had been destroyed or seriously injured 
by grasshoppers in 1873 and where the insects ^ ^ shall appear 
in eighteen hundred and seventy-four to a like destruction of 
the crops'', to leave and be absent from said lands until 
May first, eighteen hundred and seventy-five, under such 
regulations as to proof of the same as the Commissioner 
of the General Land-Office may prescribe.'' No adverse 
rights were to attach to the claims during such absence. 
The settlers were to be allowed to resume and perfect their 
settlement as though no absence had occurred.^"^ 

also allowed to issue bonds payable in twenty years to the amount of from 
$1,000 to $5,000, the total sum of issues amounting to $68,000. The pro- 
ceeds from the State bonds were to be used for the purchase of county bonds. 
The funds realized were to be paid to the county treasurers to constitute a 
fund for the purpose of furnishing the destitute with necessary food, 
clothing and fuel only". Another act authorized any county in Kan- 
sas to issue bonds in a sum not exceeding one-half of one percent on the 
assessed valuation of the county, the proceeds from which were to be dis- 
tributed to the needy, who could be required to perform labor on the pub- 
lic highway in return therefor. 

The Minnesota legislature appropriated $5,000 on January 31, 1874, for 
the relief of destitute settlers. On March 2, 1874, $25,000 was appropriated 
for the purchase of seed grain, not more than $35 of which might be paid 
to any one family. On May 26th of the same year a convention was held 
at Windom, Minnesota, at which a memorial was addressed to the Governor, 
urging the appointment of a commissioner to go to Washington and ask 
the aid of Congress to the extent of forty dollars for each destitute person. 
It was estimated that there were 9,875 such persons in southern Minnesota. 
Congress was also petitioned to allow settlers to be absent from their claims 
without losing their rights. — Laws of Kansas, 1874 (Special Session), pp. 
3, 9-16; Laws of Minnesota, 1874 (General), pp. 252-254; Northern Vin- 
dicator (Estherville), June 6, 1874. 

4r United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XVIII, Part 3, p. 81. 

In a series of acts Congress made it possible for homestead and pre- 
emption settlers to be absent from their claims each year following 1874 
when the crops were destroyed or seriously injured by grasshoppers. Usually 
the time for making final proof of settlement and payment was extended 
a year beyond the expiration of the time of absence. Einally, in 1879 a 


When the grasshoppers destroyed the crops in 1874 ef- 
forts were immediately made to meet the situation by care- 
ful conservation of local resources and the equitable use 
of all outside voluntary assistance. Inasmuch as the Gen- 
eral Assembly would not meet during the following winter, 
no help could be expected from that source, although it was 
feared during the summer that private charity might prove 
so inadequate that a special session would have to be called. 
It was seen that it would be necessary to furnish aid to 
those who had suffered most severely. The State Grange 
sent word to the local granges desiring them to report the 
facts concerning destitution before cold weather set in. 
County and township meetings were held and committees 
were appointed to ascertain actual conditions. General 
Baker suggested a big convention of grasshopper-afflicted 
farmers, but a meeting of this kind was considered too ex- 
pensive to be practical. Another plan for obtaining exact 
data concerning the situation was to have the Governor 
appoint a committee of one from each county to furnish the 
information necessary for intelligent action. 

It was in August that Governor Carpenter requested 
General Baker and Thomas Sargent to visit the northwest- 
ern part of the State and report on the amount and condi- 
tion of the crops, the counties needing aid, the number of 
settlers in such counties who would need aid to enable them 
to stay on their farms or homesteads, the best course to 

general law was passed which provided that homesteaders or preemption 
settlers on public lands where crops ''have been or may be destroyed or 
seriously injured by grasshoppers" could leave and be absent not more 
than one continuous year without adverse rights attaching to the claim. 
The time of final proof and payment was to be one year after the expiration 
of the period of absence. 

A number of laws enacted from time to time also extended special privileges 
to settlers who, because of the grasshopper ravages, were unable to fulfill the 
timber culture requirements. — United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XVIII, 
Part 3, p. 294; Vol. XIX, pp. 55, 59, 405, 406; Vol. XX, pp. 88, 169; Vol. XXI, 
pp. 11, 48. 


pursue where aid would be needed, the best method of 
distributing contributions, the question of seed grain for 
the next spring, and many other such matters. It was 
found that Kossuth and Emmet counties and parts of Palo 
Alto and Dickinson counties, had suffered most intensely 
that year, the people in the first two counties being in need 
of immediate assistance. The plan of relief suggested was 
that the counties should send out agents, properly en- 
dorsed by the Governor, to solicit aid over the State. The 
Governor and the officers of the State Grange were to for- 
ward contributions to the points where they were needed.^ ^ 
While no aid was extended to grasshopper victims of 
1874 by the State, the Federal government was not irre- 
sponsive to the needs of the people.^^ Congress appropri- 

'is Humboldt County Independent (Dakota), July 31, August 14, 21, 28, 
September 4, 25, 1874; Northern Vindicator (Estherville), August 15, 1874. 

Later in the year a committee of prominent men from all parts of the State 
was organized at Des Moines for the purpose of aiding in the collection of 
supplies for the needy settlers in Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska. Governor 
Carpenter was president and General Baker and Colonel Spoffors secretaries. — 
Northern Vindicator (Estherville), November 28, 1874. 

A convention was held in Fort Dodge on February 2, 1875, at which plans 
were made for furnishing seed grain to those in need of it. — Northern Vindi- 
cator (Estherville), February 13, 1875. 

Many schemes were devised by which the settlers would be able to help them- 
selves. One panacea suggested was for the counties to issue bonds for the 
erection of a courthouse. One-half of the proceeds was to be used to begin the 
construction, the sufferers being hired to do the work, while the other half 
should be spent in relief work. This plan would afford temporary relief to the 
settlers and later the county would be reimbursed by the State. Another 
project was to allow counties to issue bonds guaranteed by the State, the pro- 
ceeds from which would be used in grading railroad lines: these would be sold 
to the railroad companies later. — Northern Vindicator (Estherville), August 
22, 1874; Eumholdt County Independent (Dakota), August 7, 1874. 

49 In other States where the legislatures were in session much aid was given. 
Minnesota, for example, appropriated in January the sum of $20,000 for imme- 
diate relief and in March an additional $75,000 for furnishing seed grain. To 
reimburse counties for relief work $17,300 more was used. Nebraska issued 
bonds to the amount of $50,000, the proceeds from which were used to purchase 
seed grain for settlers who had suffered from grasshopper ravages. — Laws of 
Minnesota, 1875 (General), pp. 182-184; Laws of Nebraslca, 1875 (General), 
pp. 173-175. 


ated $30,000 to enable the Commissioner of Agriculture to 
*^make a special distribution of seeds to the portions of 
the country which have suffered from grasshopper-rav- 
ages during the past summer." Another act authorized the 
President to direct the issue, through the proper officers of 
the Army, ^^of supplies of food and disused Army cloth- 
ing sufficient to prevent starvation and suffering and ex- 
treme want to any and all destitute and helpless persons 
living on the western frontier, who have been rendered so 
destitute and helpless by ravages of grasshoppers during 
the summer last past'\ An appropriation of $150,000 
was made for the purpose of carrying out the provisions 
of this law, which was to remain in effect until September 
1, 1875.^^ In at least one county of Iowa resolutions were 
passed to the effect that no interest should accrue on de- 
linquent taxes for a specified time.^^ 

It was estimated in May, 1875, that Iowa had contrib- 
uted over a million dollars to the relief of grasshopper 
sufferers since the last harvest. The relief committee of 
the State Grange alone paid out over $7,727 in 1874. Cer- 
tain it is that the people responded so generously to the 
needs of the settlers that great numbers were enabled to 
remain on their homesteads; while doubtless there were 
many who were saved from the pangs of cold and hunger.^^ 

Among all of those who worked in the interest of the 
settlers during the dark days of privation and suffering 

50 Two more appropriations, one in 1877 for $288.40 and another in 1878 for 
$663.99, were made to cover the deficit in the expenditures of this relief work. — 
United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIX, p. 374; Vol. XX, p. 127. 

ci United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XVIII, Part 3, pp. 303, 314, 315; 
Flickinger 's The Pioneer History of Pocahontas County, Iowa, p. 259. 

In Minnesota authority was given to abate all penalties for the non-payment 
of interest on the unpaid purchase money of certain public lands in the grass- 
hopper area. — Laws of Minnesota, 1876 (General), p. 113. 

ii2 Adams County Union (Corning), May 20, 1875; Eumholdt County Inde- 
pendent (Dakota), December 25, 1874. 


none compared in zeal with Adjutant General N. B. Baker. 
He was a man ^ Vliose great heart was tharoughly aroused 
at the tale of woe which came from the stricken region". 
He took the brunt of the work of securing and furnishing 
relief on his own shoulders: ^4t was enough for him to 
know there was danger of people suffering for the neces- 
sities of life and every effort was made to avert it." In- 
deed, it was the strain and anxiety occasioned by the 
grasshopper raid of 1876 which contributed largely to the 
causes of his untimely death in September of that year.^^ 


When the destruction of crops by the grasshoppers be- 
gan to be a regular occurrence year after year, following 
1873, serious efforts were made to discover means of pre- 
vention and methods of destroying the insects. In October, 
1876, a convention of the Governors of Minnesota, Illinois, 
Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota, Colorado, Wy- 
oming, and Idaho was held in Omaha, at which resolutions 
were adopted urging that the States enact laws offering a 
bounty per bushel for collection and destruction of eggs and 
unfledged insects ' ' ; that local taxation be authorized for the 
purpose of ^^systematized efforts in the way of ditching, 
burning, etc. ' ' ; that the game laws be repealed or modified 
*^so as to prevent the destruction of birds which feed on 
insects"; that prairie fires be prevented until a suitable 
time; that young grasshoppers be destroyed by firing the 
grass; and that tree culture be encouraged ^^as promoting 
moisture and harboring birds." The convention also rec- 
ommended that the Federal government make efforts to 
eliminate the pests and appoint a special commissioner to 
investigate the locust problem.^^ 

55 Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. IV, p. 446; Northern Vindicator 
(Estherville), May 29, 1875; September 23, 1876. 
6^ Northern Vindicator (Estherville), November 11, 1876. 


Eesponding to the demands of the people from the grass- 
hopper-raided territory, Congress, in 1877, made an appro- 
priation of $18,000 with which to establish an entomological 
commission whose business it was to report on the Eocky 
Mountain locust. During the succeeding two years $20,000 
more was appropriated for the completion of the work.^^ 

This commission found a great number of schemes being 
employed for the destruction of the locusts. Some of the 
States sought to avail themselves of natural agencies by 
passing better laws for the protection of birds. To destroy 
the eggs, harrowing in the autumn, plowing, irrigation, 
tramping by stock turned into the fields, and collection 
proved the most effective methods. In prairie and wheat- 
growing regions the surest means of destroying the un- 
fledged locusts was by burning, either while they were in the 
grass or when they collected for shelter during cold or damp 
weather. Much could also be done by rolling the fields if 
the ground was smooth and hard. Trapping was success- 
ful where the young grasshoppers were traveling in armies. 
The use of chemicals was necessarily limited and more or 
less unsatisfactory. A great number of hopper dozers'^, 
locust crushers, and other machines for killing or captur- 
ing the insects were invented, some of them being very 
ingenious devices. Against the mighty hosts of winged 
grasshoppers, however, man was practically powerless. 
Sometimes a swarm could be warded off by making great 
smudges. Constantly dragging long ropes over grain fields 
worked to good advantage in some cases. Destruction of 
insects and their eggs by concussion was tried, but little 
good came of it. About the only really effective remedy 
for locust invasions was for the settlers to turn more gen- 

r>5 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIX, p. 357 ; Vol. XX, pp. 240, 397. 
The report of this commission, which the writer has used extensively, is the 
best work that has been produced on the locust ravages in the United States. 


erally to stock-raising, instead of staking their entire hope 
upon crops of grain.^^ 

In the work of preventing injury from grasshoppers, 
the most important factor was cooperation in a community. 
To encourage concerted action in fighting the insects sev- 
eral States passed laws relating to the destruction of 
grasshoppers.^^ These laws were of two kinds. The Kan- 
sas and Nebraska acts looked toward compulsory work, 
requiring practically all able-bodied, male residents in a 
specified locality to report to the overseers of road work at 
a certain time for the purpose of performing labor in de- 
stroying the insects. Missouri and Minnesota, however, 
followed the more unprofitable method of giving bounties 
per bushel for young grasshoppers and grasshopper eggs. 
No legislation of this nature was enacted in lowa.^^ 


The Indians, with all the thirst for blood of which they 
have been accused, probably never retarded settlement or 
caused as much devastation in the country as did the grass- 

56 Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 350-407. 

57 The Nebraska Legislative Assembly of 1877 passed a joint resolution ask- 
ing Congress to offer bounties for the destruction of grasshoppers and their 
6ggs. — Laws of Ne'brasJca, 1877, pp. 253, 254. 

5S Laws of Missouri, 1877, pp. 335, 336; Session Laws of Kansas, 1877, pp. 
168-171,- Laws of Neljrasfca, 1877, pp. 154, 155; Beport of the United States 
Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 412, 413. Before the State law was 
passed in Minnesota providing for bounties, the counties were allowed to offer 
them, being in turn reimbursed by the State. This system was fairly successful, 
but the State bounty law, partly because of its complexity and partly from 
lack of enforcement, proved a practical failure. Governor John S. Pillsbury 
severely criticized the policy. 

The amount of the bounties for young locusts varied, according to the time 
when they were killed, from about a dollar a bushel when they first hatched to 
ten or twenty cents a bushel at maturity. The bounty on grasshopper eggs was 
fifty cents a gallon in Minnesota and five dollars a bushel in Missouri. — Beport 
of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 408, 412, 413 ; Laws 
of Minnesota, 1876, pp. 116, 117; Laws of Missouri, 1877, pp. 335, 336. 

VOL. xm — 25 


hoppers on their raids. When for a series of years reports 
came regularly that crops had been destroyed in northwest- 
ern Iowa, when the State and Federal governments were 
compelled to extend financial aid to the settlers in that 
region, and when great numbers of those settlers were driv- 
en ofP of their homesteads to seek a livelihood elsewhere, 
emigration ceased. Thousands of pioneers became utterly 
discouraged. The tales of their hardships which were sent 
back to friends had a demoralizing effect. The tide of 
emigration ^^not only ceased but turned back, and hun- 
dreds, perhaps thousands, of homes were left untenanted, 
and fields uncultivated.'' The wonder is that so many 
continued to struggle on so long. ^'As a natural conse- 
quence, business of all kinds was in a great degree sus- 
pended, improvements stopped, and the development of 
the country checked. Although rich in material and life- 
sustaining resources, and abounding in fertility and pro- 
ductive forces, they were in a great degree negatived or 
rendered valueless for these four years [1873-1876] by the 
visitations of an insect scarcely more than an inch in 
length. ' ' 

The loss of a tenth of a crop by drought or hail or even 
some well known insect foe was discouraging enough, but 
when a swarm of locusts swooped down suddenly, like a 
thunderbolt from a clear sky, and completely destroyed in 
a few days the labor of months, the effect was paralyzing. 
When the same spectacle occurred for several years in 
succession the suffering of the farmers spread to the en- 
tire population, doing untold injury to the development of 
the country. 

With the cessation of serious locust invasions, however, 
and the success with which the farmers contended against 
them, confidence began to return. Emigration was re- 
newed. After a period of unusually hard times prosperity 


was restored. While grasshoppers still exist and at times 
do some damage they do not entirely destroy a crop and 
probably never will again.^^ 

In an indirect way, it may be asserted, the locust ravages 
did a great service to the agricultural interests of north- 
western Iowa by making stock-raising a necessity. Many 
farmers went into the dairy business. But for the coming 
of the grasshoppers the custom of farming exclusively for 
grain would probably have continued for many years, to 
the general impoverishment of the soil. In the struggle 
to produce crops in spite of the grasshoppers it was discov- 
ered that by a proper adjustment of the crops (small grain 
or corn) according to the time of year the insects were 
expected, the ravages of the insects could be avoided. When 
there were eggs in the ground corn planting could be post- 
poned until the locusts had left; and when the coming of 
fresh swarms alone was to be feared, by sowing early 
wheat, oats, and barley the harvest could be effected before 
their arrival. This compulsory alternation of crops was 
of great importance in preserving the fertility of the land. 
The fact that the grasshoppers did comparatively little 
injury to prairie grass may have been a factor in the de- 
velopment of the grazing industry on the western plains. 

John E. Briggs 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 

59 With tlie settlement and cultivation of a large part of their permanent 
breeding-grounds, the multiplication of the grasshoppers has been vastly de- 
creased, so that the necessity for migration is removed. Even if there should 
be excessive reproduction it is probable that there would be sufficient food in 
the cultivated portions of their natural habitat. Indeed, if a swarm should 
come now the land is so completely under cultivation that they would do com- 
paratively little damage it is thought. — Report of the United States Entomo- 
logical Commission, 1877, pp. 13, 125-128. 

Beport of the United States Entomological Commission, 1877, pp. 123-129; 
Northern Vindicator (Estherville), June 27, 1874. 


[The early history of educational institutions, and especially of denomina- 
tional colleges, in this western country is a record of struggle and disappoint- 
ments, of high ideals and loyal devotion. Each institution owes its very 
existence to some man or group of men who labored and sacrificed in order that 
the school might live and grow and be of service to the rising generation. 
Oftentimes these men stifled their natural resentment, forgot the humiliation 
of being thrust aside in periods of prosperity, and patiently stood at the helm 
again when the winds of adversity frightened other men and threatened to 
wreck the institution. Such was the relation of Eev. John A. Nash to Des 
Moines College during its early years. 

In The Iovs^a Journal of History and Politics for April, 1915, there was 
published a brief sketch of the life of Mr. Nash and a selection from his auto- 
biography telling of his early experiences in Des Moines. His services in behalf 
of Des Moines College are described in the portion of the autobiography which 
follows. For an account of the later history of Des Moines College the reader 
is referred to A History of Iowa Baptist Schools, written by the late Col. 
Alonzo Abernethy and published by the author in 1907. — Dan E. Clark.] 


In the summer of 1863 several ministers, viz., Eev. Dexter 
P. Smith, T. S. Griffith, and J. F. Childs,i in taking a sum- 
mer vacation went up into the Northwestern part of the 
State and on their return to their respective fields took Des 
Moines in their way. Coming in from the Northwest they 
passed near the old Lutheran College building, a four story 
brick edifice, standing in the Northwest part of town. The 
walls were up and the roof put on and then came the crash 
of 1857-1860, and the work was abandoned and the property 
passed into the hands of the creditors, and thus it had stood 
for many years. As these brethren passed the aforesaid 
building, one remarked — why might not the Baptists of 

1 Dexter P. Smith was located at Iowa City, T. S. Griffith at Keokuk, and 
J. F. Childs at Oskaloosa. 



Iowa purchase that property and unify the Educational 
work of the Denomination in this central point at the Cap- 
ital of the State. As pastor in Des Moines I was spoken to, 
and after they reached their homes I was written to and 
solicited to see the parties into whose hands the property 
had fallen, and ascertain for what price it could be pur- 
chased. I did S0.2 

The result was in short that in November, 1864, the prop- 
erty was purchased by Eev. Luther Stone of Chicago, and 
held in trust until an incorporation could be made. Trus- 
tees were appointed to receive and hold the property and 
inaugurate the enterprise and put it in successful operation. 
In the early winter of 1865, at the quarterly meeting of the 
Board of the Iowa Baptist convention, held at Oskaloosa, a 
meeting was held to consider the question of locating a 
Baptist school in Des Moines. I believe the brethren were 
entirely unanimous on the question, and then and there 
drew up articles of Incorporation and had them duly ac- 
knowledged. Incorporators and Trustees were appointed 
and all the legalities taken necessary to its legal existence. 
Hie labor, hie opus est. The Board notified me that if the 
location was made at Des Moines, it would be imperative 
that I should resign my pastorate and take hold of the 
agency of the school, which was entitled, ^^The University 
of Des Moines". This was apparent to me as a necessity in 
the movement but it was painful to me in the extreme. In 
the first place it was with extreme reluctance that I thought 
of severing my relations with the Church. For as already 
stated, for the first time since I came West I felt that I had 
reached surroundings where I could sit down to maturer 
preparations for the pulpit, to general study, and to a 
further attention to pastoral duties than my busy life had 

2 In a footnote Mr. Nash referred the reader for further details to a work 
prepared by himself and entitled ''Iowa Educational History". 


allowed. Secondly I had a great dislike for the agency busi- 
ness or attempting to raise money. And if I accepted this 
agency, although it might end in a connection as professor 
in the school for some time, it would compel me to a year or 
two of work which my soul abhorred. But the demand 
seemed imperative, and I assented. 

I tendered my resignation to the Church to take effect as 
soon as they could secure a pastor. So I continued in 
charge of the Church until April, 1866. The plan of the 
Board was to raise or attempt to raise $20,000, in and 
around Des Moines, to become collectable when $10,000 was 
subscribed. I was to receive $1000.00 per year for my ser- 
vices. I began work. I found our citizens ready to sub- 
scribe for a college if there were ample assurances of 
success. I found myself in a peculiarly awkward position. 
The Denomination in the state felt that the town favored 
with the location ought to raise enough to pay for the build- 
ing completed, and the grounds. This was acknowledged as 
correct by our citizens. ^^But what have your people in 
money to bring here if we do our part 1 ' ' And what could I 
reply but that at present it was only resolved by an assem- 
blage of our people to do something in the future. This was 
not a foundation of solid rock to stimulate business men to 
lay down their money on call, and so I had a Herculean task 
before me. However, I made some progress. But the ex- 
hausting work of soliciting subscriptions and preaching 
regularly to the Church every Lord's day dragged me down, 
and in July or August I was taken down with typhoid 
fever. And although not confined to my room more than a 
week, still it kept me for two or three weeks so that I was 
unable to do much at the College work, and thereafter for 
some time canvassing for the college hurt me. 

In the Autumn of 1865, in order to aid me the church in- 
vited Rev. J. F. Childs to come up and supply the pulpit 


for some two or three months and aid me incidentally in the 
college work. He came to our aid and a dear faithful man 
he was. Along in the latter part of his stay with us extra 
prayer meetings were appointed, and an effort inaugurated 
to promote a revival. I had engaged Rev. Morgan Edwards 
to hold a meeting with us, and Brother Childs also had en- 
gaged him to hold one with him at his church in Oskaloosa. 
We agreed that Brother Edwards should come first to Des 
Moines. And then he could stop here in the first part of the 
meeting, and then go home and get his church ready for 
Brother Edwards arrival there. So when Brother Ed- 
wards came to Des Moines, as our house of worship was 
small the Old School Presbyterians kindly offered us their 
house of worship, which we accepted. The Methodists had 
been holding a meeting but had abandoned it because of lack 
of interest. The pastor and his people came into our meet- 
ings, and entered heartily into the spirit of the work. About 
this time there came from Winterset an urgent appeal for 
help. The church there was engaged in a revival and the 
pastor was taken with hemorrhage of the lungs. So Bro. 
Edwards, Childs and myself had a consultation and they 
thought I had better go up there and stay a few days until 
expected help should arrive. I went and staid a few days 
and then returned. The revival was then in full develop- 
ment and I regretted my absence exceedingly, as the con- 
verts were not all known to me, and I regretted it the more 
because Bro. Childs felt called upon to leave and set things 
in order at Oskaloosa. But the work under Bro. Edwards 
went on with great power for several weeks. I think about 
four weeks in all. But Mr. Edwards was an eccentric man, 
and one night at the close of service he suddenly announced 
that that was his last sermon. 

My health was not good and we were striving to get the 
college building ready to open school in the following April. 


To this end subscriptions must be collected, material pur- 
chased and delivered on the ground, men hired, and the 
work overlooked and directed. Such were my surround- 
ings and duties, added to the supply of the pulpit on Lord^s 
Day. To continue the meetings seemed to be out of the 
question, and yet so much work had been done and no per- 
sons had been received for Baptism, and we had made no 
move to take in members because we were meeting in a 
Presbyterian house of worship. We felt that we ought to 
keep up meetings for that week in order to gather in some 
of the harvest of the labor expended. So we moved over to 
our place of worship again and there the meetings showed 
no diminution of revival interest. We kept at work every 
evening, and on Wednesday and on Saturday received can- 
didates for baptism. I think we baptized 16 the first Sun- 
day morning succeeding. In the afternoon a special meeting 
was held and such was the power of the spirit that the 
brethren and sisters said we could not close the meeting. 
They must go on, and so we went on another week, and then 
another and so on until perhaps some time in March. 
Commonly we had a special meeting in the afternoon, and 
then preaching with a special meeting in the evening, and 
the sisters often had a meeting at another hour in the day at 
their private houses. The power of prayer at these meet- 
ings was wonderfully interesting, and the results in bring- 
ing unconverted husbands and fathers and acquaintances, 
were glorious from day to day. They were full of faith and 
the Holy Spirit and much people were added to the Lord. 
The Baptisms at the river were very impressive, and in the 
presence of large multitudes, and added largely to the inter- 
est of the meetings. At the Sunday evening service, last 
Lord's day, the hand of fellowship was given to the newly 
received members and in the presence of a congregation 
that packed the house. 


It was wonderful how my strength was kept up. I ran 
on College work during the forenoon, attended meeting in 
the afternoon, and preached every week day night with 
three services on Sunday besides the Baptisms. Besides the 
large numbers received by Baptism, many came in by letter 
and experience, so that the accessions ran up to near one 
hundred. When the meetings closed I found myself weak 
and worn, and almost literally worn out. I whipped myself 
up to the work. I still supplied the church on Sunday until 
Brother Hayhurst ^ arrived and assumed the pastorate. 

I hurried up the college building and got three rooms 
ready for school, which we opened in April and it became 
necessary for me to go in and open the school. We hired 
one lady teacher, and it was expected that we could run the 
school for the spring term. But scholars came in and it be- 
came necessary for us to employ the third teacher. So I 
thought when the care of the church was off my hands, I 
could run the school and with some help look after the fi- 
nances, and I could get well again. This was a delusive 
hope. The Board of Trustees then employed another man 
to look after the finances, and this relief was vain, and I still 
ran down. I often left home in the morning doubting 
whether I could live to get home at night. But at last we 
reached the end of the term. The tuition bills amounted to 
enough to pay oif the two lady teachers, and leave me about 
fifty dollars for my term's work. At the close of the meet- 
ings the church, or rather a few members gave me a private 
present of some sixty dollars. It was a well meant but ill 
advised movement. It was meant as a personal token from 
old long time members, who in the fullness of joy at our un- 
exampled prosperity, wanted to warm my heart with a man- 
ifestation of their love and gratitude. When the new mem- 

3L. W. Hayhurst liad been principal of the Burlington Collegiate Institute 
during the year 1865-1866. 


bers learned of it they were stirred and declared that they 
wanted a hand in that work, and determined to give me a 
free will offering. But ere it took active form and direction, 
the subscription for raising Brother Hayhurst's salary was 
in circulation, and in this work my case was overlooked and 
forgotten. I was sorry. Because I believed the converts 
and new members and the community would have been more 
than glad to do something for me and my family. And in 
the next place we needed it sadly. I had given my first three 
months' salary from the college to the college funds. Of 
course in throwing my energies through these months into 
the church, I could not draw much from the college, and dur- 
ing the spring term another man was running the college fi- 
nances, and my income was the small remnant of tuition 
bills after paying the teachers. But I was too happy in the 
great prosperity of Zion and the hopeful outlook for the 
college notwithstanding my prostrated energies, to feel 
other than joyful. But now early in July or rather the last 
of June my family and friends became alarmed for my 
health and doubtful of my rallying and decided that I must 
take a trip of the upper lakes during the heat of summer, 
which was overpowering me. I collected together about a 
hundred dollars, less than I needed, yet enough to venture 
on. Before I started for Lake Superior I had occasion to 
call on a man who was not a professor of religion, but who 
had been always very friendly to me. I remarked to him 
that I was going to Lake Superior to try and recruit my 
health. He asked me if I thought it would do me any good. 
I told him I thought it would. I thought he spoke rather 
coldly about it. But before I left he inquired if I had money 
enough to make the trip. I told him I had not as much as I 
could wish, but so that I could venture. He asked if $25 
would help me. I told him it would. So he handed me that 
sum. I offered him my note. He spurned the idea, and told 


me never to mention pay to him again and moreover never 
to tell of it to anyone. I mention this to the praise and 
honor of a man widely misunderstood. I refer to Mr. James 
Smith, generally known as Nurseryman Smith. This was 
only one of a great many unselfish acts when unsolicited he 
came to our relief in sickness, destitution and trouble and 
although in after years through a mistake he became of- 
fended at me, I cannot cease to remember him affectionate- 
ly, not only for his kindness to me and my family, but to the 
needy and suffering all around him. With all his peculiar- 
ities, his heart beat responsively to the suffering around 

[At this point in tlie autobiography there follows an extended account of 
Mr. Nash's vacation trip on the Great Lakes, from July 2 to August 18, 1866.] 

I took the evening train at Chicago, Thursday, Aug. 16th, 
and reached home Saturday, Aug. 18th, having been absent 
about seven weeks. I had preached every Sunday, and sev- 
eral times on week days, had married one couple, attended 
one funeral, and organized one church. It had been a sea- 
son of rest and enjoyment. 

When I arrived home I found all well as could be ex- 
pected, and with some privations had got through the hot 
dry summer reasonably well. I had not been home but a 
few hours before I had calls from men who had been em- 
ployed in the college improvements. It was in vain that I 
told them I had been away and that another had charge of 
the work. I could not remain at home and shake it off. Be- 
sides I was without salary, and a family needing day by day 
their daily bread. I took hold of the finances again and 
struggled with the work for a while. 

Had the board of trustees put me in the school at the 
opening of the fall term, I presume I could have attended to 
that work and continued to improve, but the financial work 
was killing. I tried and then slackened off for awhile and 


then returned to it until I began to get so unwell again that 
along in the latter part of the winter of 1867 I was forced to 
abandon the work and hand it to another. I felt sad to be 
out of employment — sad to stand aside and let those who 
were comparatively strangers take the helm in a work to 
which in some way I felt the balance of my life would be con- 
secrated. I felt like a soldier crippled up and unable to be 
at his post when the battle was raging, and help was so 
much needed. And how could I meet the needs of my fam- 
ily! I generally went out to the surrounding neighborhoods 
for Sunday preaching, but I scarcely ever received a cent of 
compensation for it. Some places where I went regularly, 
a small moiety came to me in some form, but it was a sense 
of need to ask day by day for our daily bread. 

[Here follows an account of tlie straightened circumstances in which the 
Nash family found itself at this juncture, and of the manner in which relief 
unexpectedly came.] 

So friends were raised up who, unasked, and whom I sup- 
posed were ignorant of our circumstances became to us a 
present help in trouble. 

In September of 1868 while I was at the Central Asso- 
ciation in Hartford, a gentleman who took a Des Moines pa- 
per informed me that he saw a notice of my appointment by 
the Board of Supervisors as County Superintendent of pub- 
lic schools in place of one who had resigned. This came to 
me so utterly unexpected. I did not know of the resignation 
nor should I have expected such an appointment without so- 
licitation. But it came to me as one of the blessed provi- 
dences of life. I was not able to stand the worry of the 
financial work of the College, but being so very familiar with 
the work of the public schools, I could look after them, at- 
tend to the teachers, and especially as my wife, herself an 
experienced teacher, could help me essentially in the office 
work. The compensation was $3.00 per day and some fees 


for examinations which generally were enough to pay my 
travelling expenses during the visitations of the schools. 
This furnished an income which made my family very com- 
fortable. At the end of the unexpired term or vacancy for 
which I was elected, I was twice re-elected to terms of two 
years each, thus making my connection with the public 
schools extend over a period of between five and six years. 
Combined with addresses to the schools it often furnished 
me opportunity to lecture or preach in the school houses, 
and I generally preached on Sunday in destitute places, and 
this kind of work which took me during portions of the year 
mostly out into active outdoor life, greatly aided me to- 
wards although a gradual yet certain restoration to health. 

The board of trustees had been changing teachers each 
successive year, and the school was doing badly. They 
farmed it out and let the teachers make whatever they could, 
and it was all run down and seemed ready to die. During 
the latter part of the summer of 1872 certain members of 
the college Board came to me and said I must take hold of 
the school. I wanted to know what they expected of me and 
what I might expect in return. They expected that I would 
take the school, do my own advertising, hire my own teach- 
ers, and pay them. The board would grant me the free use 
of the building, but would not be responsible for a dollar of 
expenses and salary. To leave my Superintendency of 
Schools, which was worth about $1000.00 per year with of- 
fice, fuel, lights and stationery furnished and take hold of 
such a forlorn hope seemed anything but tempting. But I 
had spent too much time and money and health on the en- 
terprise, and I could not bear to see it fail. I finally replied 
that I would make the attempt of raising up the school, if 
they would elect me to a full Professorship, and bestow ple- 
nary powers upon me, that I might organize and run the 
school without dictation from the Board. To this they as- 


I then had about four weeks to get out my circulars and 
distribute them and advertise in the papers. The time was 
short and many students who were to attend schools had al- 
ready made arrangements elsewhere, supposing there was 
not to be a reopening of our college. But when the term 
opened in September we had a few scholars. I had em- 
ployed two lady teachers, the one at $60.00 and the other at 
$40.00 per month. We moved into the college building and 
lived there so as to be near our work, and Mrs. Nash on 
needed days went to the office and filled my place in examin- 
ing teachers. 

The winter was a severe one. The amount of coal neces- 
sary to warm the building was very great. The Epizooty 
was a fearful epidemic among the horses, and rendered it 
extremely difficult to get teams at any price. Our large cis- 
tern on which we depended for water became empty, and I 
had to pay $3.00 per load to get ox teams to haul water for 
us, and so our expenses were beyond precedent. But the 
school grew slowly in numbers and especially grew in popu- 
larity among the students and our friends. And a grand 
foundation was laid for the future. At the close of the year 
after paying off the teachers and janitor, fuel and water 
bills, and etc., I found on my books $143 in accounts for my 
year's service, most of which I succeeded in collecting — say 
$100. The help which came to us by the Superintendent's 
office on the days of examinations, Saturdays, and work dur- 
ing our vacations helped us to work through financially. 

Our school was well advertised through our students as 
well as otherwise. The College Board at the June meeting, 
1873, became assured at the success of the school and again 
assumed the responsibility of the teachers. The school 
opened auspiciously and the number of students so rapidly 
increased that our enrollment during the school year of 
1873-74 amounted to about 160 students. A large number 


of our students of both sexes roomed in the building, and 
the care and wakefulness added to the work of teaching, and 
largely the care of the financial work, and preaching Sunday 
for the Church in East Des Moines were too much strain 
for any one man, and so at the beginning of the next school 
year, 1874-5, we removed from the building to our home on 
7th Street, and the government of the college building was 
transferred to Prof. Goldthwaite.^ We again had a large 
attendance of students. Our course of study was now en- 
ergetically pushed and some students coming in and enter- 
ing advanced classes, we now began to see all the college 
classes represented, (and we were graduating small classes 
from college each year). 

At the annual meeting in June at the close of this year, it 
was seen that the school had made such rapid progress in 
the three years under the new administration that some one 
moved that the Board proceed to the election of a president. 
The motion prevailed. I told them that I was not in their 
way, that my resignation was at their disposal. A man was 
agreed on, to whom the offer of the Presidency with a sal- 
ary of $1500 was pledged. To their surprise the gentleman 
did not accept, and they were without a head. I of course 
did not wish to remain amid such circumstances, thinking 
that the hint was strong enough and explicit enough to ad- 
monish me to retire, and so I decided. But what they were 
to do became a grave question. They moved then that Mr. 
Nash be invited to remain for the ensuing year, and it oc- 
curred to them that it would be exceedingly awkward to 
offer me less than they had offered the new man — and so 
they offered me $1500, also. 

I did not choose or prefer to remain, but the matter 
pressed me sore, what will become of the school if I leave it 
at this crisis! Too much of labor and money have been ex- 

4 N. E. Goldthwaite of Boone. 


pended to let it all go to naught. I smothered my feelings 
and agreed to go on. The school year of 1874-5 went on 
with no particular changes in the morals or attendance of 
the school. It was deemed advisable in view of the near ap- 
proach of the Centennial, that there should be a simulta- 
neous movement all over the country to endow our denom- 
inational schools, and the hope was very high that some- 
thing grand could be done. But the prostration of business 
about this time became a serious drawback and in the "West 
almost an insuperable obstacle. Still the school, with per- 
haps a slight falling off in attendance on account of the hard 
times, kept on in the even tenor of its way, growing in the 
confidence of the city and the state. 

At the close of the school year, June, 1875, the Board held 
its annual meeting, and a report from the committee on se- 
curing of a president came to the front. While they had not 
secured a man yet, the name of Judge Mott ^ was suggested. 
A telegram was sent him tendering him the Presidency and 
a salary of $2000, and requesting him to come on at once. 
He came and accepted the position. A minister's meeting 
was also in session. Celebrated ministers and speakers 
were present and made addresses, and a special effort made 
to endow his chair, and great hope was entertained, that 
with his great energy and business talent and his legal ac- 
quaintance over the state that he would be able to swell the 
endowment fund to respectable dimensions. With this hope 
the Board adjourned, June, 1875. Some one of the board 
went to President Mott, and asked him what effect this new 
movement would have on Mr. Nash's relations to the school. 
He replied he had not thought of it, but he supposed of 

5 ' ' With the close of the school in June, 1875, .... Judge F. Mott, of 
Winterset, who had served on the circuit bench in his district for a term or 
more, and was at this time a member of the law faculty of the state university 
at Iowa City, was elected president and took up his work with the beginning of 
the fall term," — Aberncthy's A History of Iowa Baptist Schools, p. 151. 


course that I was expected to stay, but the thought worried 
him and he came to me and asked, suppose of course you 
are going to continue with the school I replied that 
nothing had been said to me about it, but we could leave that 
matter to the future. He replied, * ^ No, I will not leave it to 
the future. If you do not remain, I shall resign immediate- 

I was placed in an awkward position. My family were bit- 
terly opposed to my continuing. I did not like to remain. 
On the other hand, should I refuse and Judge Mott resign, 
I would be censured, and the Board and School greatly em- 
barrassed. Friends came to me and pressed me to go on. 
I consented to do so for the present. The school of 1875-6 
opened well in the Fall term, but the number began to de- 
cline more and more until with the close of the winter term 
there was found but a dozen or so who were certain of the 
old students to be in attendance during the spring term. I 
felt it wrong for so many teachers to be embarrassing the 
school board with salaries, so I asked Prof. De Wolf ^ to 
consult with the others and if they could run the school 
alone, I would step out. That I had a home and could better 
be thrown out of employment than they could. After such 
consultation they decided they could and so I quietly 
dropped out. 

This was in March, 1876. The spring term as expected 
was very small. When I left the school I had not the remot- 
est idea as to what I should do for the support of my family. 
In a financial point of view my way seemed very dark. I felt 
now that finally my back was turned upon our Educational 
work to which I had felt that the balance of my life had been 
consecrated. And I felt that the change was far more dis- 
astrous to the College than to myself/ and that to me was 

6 Professor I. H. De Wolf at that time gave instruction in Latin. He re- 
mained in tlie service of the College for several years. 

7 This statement may sound somewhat egotistical, but it was based on ex- 
perience and was well borne out by subsequent events. 

VOL. xm — 26 


sad in the extreme. But I could say that it came about 
through no fault of my own. And so in every backset the 
school has had for twenty years, after the severest work and 
sacrifice in health and salary to get the school prosperously 
at work, then would be sprung upon us a new movement by 
someone ignorant of the labor and care and the time needed 
to build up such an enterprise and the labor of years be 
worse than thrown away. But more of this anon. 

In a neighboring county a normal Institute was in session 
and a gentleman of our city was engaged in conducting it. 
He had been notified of his appointment to the educational 
department at the centennial, and he requested me to take 
his place in the Institute. I gladly accepted, for the $90.00 
compensation for the three weeks' service was a great boon 
just then. I went and spent the three weeks. Had an open- 
ing to preach on Lord 's day, delivered a temperance lecture 
to the citizens and then returned. When I returned I found 
that Col. Abernethy,^ the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion had called, and left word that his Deputy had resigned, 
and desired me to come to his office immediately on my re- 
turn, as he wanted me to take the vacant place. I went over 
the following morning, talked with him a few minutes and 
then I had a chair and desk assigned me and went to work 
at once on salary. The salary was $1200 per year, and of 
course it was pay down. This was an opening so unex- 
pected and so full of relief that to us it was the clearest man- 
ifestation of providence, and again it was a help to us in 
time of need. For while I had been at work in the college 
nominally on a living salary, yet when I came to settle up, 
the demands against the college were so far in excess of re- 
ceipts and the necessities of others who were teaching were 
so imperative that I felt it best to give a large per cent, of 

8 A brief sketch of the career of the late Col. Alonzo Abernethy may be 
found in the April, 1915, number of The Iowa Journal of History and 
Politics, pp. 304, 305. 


my salary. I entered the State Superintendent's Office in 
April, 1876. \ 

The work here was a great change and for the better. My 
health had never become first rate, and the wear and tear of 
college life pressed heavily upon me, but while the work in 
the office was severe, it only required eight hours of duty 
and when I left the office, I left all work until the following 
day, and so my health began to improve decidedly. Added 
to the ordinary duties of the office, the superintendent had 
to get out a new Edition of the School laws, and revise and 
print a new Edition of the decisions. The preparation of 
these, with all the work of the centennial exhibition for the 
State to superintend and forward, kept us busy. 

During the summer. Col. Abernethy was invited to, and 
accepted the Presidency of Chicago University^ and con- 
sequently designed to retire from the Superintendent's of- 
fice. He had already been renominated for another term. 
He decided to resign before the election, which left the work 
of placing another name on the ticket in the hands of the 
Eepublican State Committee. My name was prominently 
placed before the committee in connection with several 
other applicants. It seemed to the looker-on as if the coast 
was reasonably clear and my prospects fair. There were 
two other applicants, one of them a professor in the State 
University, whom I supposed were the only ones who could 
successfully compete with me. Of the seven members of the 
state committee I knew of three certain who would vote for 
me. Another whom I knew as a warm personal acquaint- 
ance I supposed would be all right, but when the committee 
met, the Chairman insisted that several congressional dis- 
tricts where there was a large German vote were in danger, 
and something ought to be done to save them. So they took 
a German.^^ He received the nomination and of course was 

9 A position which he occupied from 1876 to 1878. 

10 Carl W. Von Coelln. 


elected, as then a nomination was equivalent to an election. 
I was deeply disappointed. 

I could not see from a political standpoint why I should 
have been left behind. I had been an active anti-slavery 
man long before the formation of the Republican party, and 
profoundly and openly in sympathy with the Republicans. 
I had been publicly and actively identified with education in 
Iowa probably before my opponent was known in Iowa. I 
felt that an honest appreciation of my services in the state 
should have given me the position. Nor could I see why an 
over-ruling providence had seen that I should be left out, 
but one thing I knew — that there was a Providence in it 
though I could see no reason for it. I needed the income, 
and I thought I could do good among the thousands of 
teachers and superintendents throughout the state. But I 
had too often learned that God's ways are above our ways, 
and that it is not in man that walketh to direct his footsteps. 

Col. Abernethy told me that he wanted to be absent for 
a time and wished me to run the office in his absence. The 
office work had been unusually severe. If I would go 
through with it, I might take a month and go to the Centen- 
nial. Of course, I would work night and day if necessary to 
accomplish that. So when he had finished the work he had 
marked out he left and I went on with the work. After the 
Committee had put a new name on the Ticket the governor 
appointed him to fill the vacancy after the election. 

When the new appointee arrived and we had arranged 
our plans for the future, he said if I would remain in the 
office until he had run out and made his speeches, he would 
spare me to go to the centennial. I did so. My salary was 
by agreement to go on, as in the case of the other State of- 
ficers. So early in October, Mrs. Nash and I started. We 
took our tickets by New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Washington, and home by Pittsburgh and Chicago. 



[Here follows an account of the visit of Mr. and Mrs. Nash at the Centennial 
Exposition and in other eastern cities.] 

Got home and there I learned of a little political episode 
which was destined to have a small influence on me in the fu- 
ture. To go back a little. After I had failed before the 
State Central Republican Committee, I was waited on by a 
deputation of the Democratic Committee with a very com- 
plimentary letter from its Chairman asking me to accept a 
position on their ticket for the same office. I of course re- 
plied that having been a candidate before the other party, 
all political etiquette as I understood it, forbade my ac- 
cepting a position on another, even if they could assure me 
of an election, and so the matter as I supposed was dropped 
forever. After I went to the Centennial, some of the Demo- 
cratic papers still anxious to put a name on their ticket 
for Supt. of Public Instruction, and without asking, put my 
name on the ticket,^^ stating, however, that it was without 
my consent, and they believed I was absent from home, but 
they believed there was no law to prevent one citizen voting 
for another, if he preferred so to do. 

It was Saturday night when the children told me, and I 
was one and a half miles from newspaper offices. Of course 
had I desired to do so, I would not appear in a Sunday 
morning paper with an article on Political matters. But I 
did not deem it needful. I had no responsibility in the mat- 
ter, and the few votes cast under such circumstances could 
do no one harm, or endanger any one's election. A few 
votes were cast. I do not remember how many. I have only 
mentioned it to say that I was afterwards told that the fact 
of my name being on an opposition ticket so hurt the feel- 
ings of my Republican competitor that it resulted in my 

11 This statement seems to be in error, if it intended to convey the idea that 
Mr. Nash received the of&cial nomination of the Democratic party. As a mat- 
ter of fact, that party made no nomination. Mr. Nash's name, however, did 
appear on the Greenback ticket, and he received 18,298 votes. — Fairall's 
Manual of Iowa Politics, Vol. I, pp. 101, 102, 103. 


being dropped out as Deputy. Although a political gentle- 
man closely allied to the State Central Committee told me 
that the nomination was made on the express condition that 
I be retained as Deputy. The new incumbent was duly in- 
stalled in January, and I was retained until about the first 
of May, as we had a fearful run of sickness in our family, 
and our expenses were great. Three of our children were 
visited by severe and prolonged illness, but their lives 
were mercifully spared and their health restored finally. 

It has long since become obvious to the Executive Board 
and to the friends of Des Moines University, that a perfect 
blunder had been made in the change made in the teachers 
of the school. Again the school had fallen to almost zero, 
but it did not seem to me that they could ever ask me, much 
less dream that I would entertain such a proposition as re- 
turning to the head of the school. But I was called upon 
and talked to again and again. One man who travelled and 
conversed with friends of our educational work told me that 
there was a very strong feeling abroad in the state on the 
subject. As I afterwards learned, the older students had 
united and signed a petition addressed to a prominent mem- 
ber of the Board, demanding my restoration, and saying if 
some movement to that effect was not inaugurated they 
should make arrangements to go elsewhere the next 
autumn. It was proposed to me to call together the Execu- 
tive Board and have them act on the case. I told them I 
would not entertain the proposition if they would make one. 
I had been dismissed from my former position by the Gen- 
eral Board in regular session, and I would not steal back 
again under an act of the Executive Committee. If the 
General Board should convene and submit any proposition, 
I would consider it with all the candor that the subject in- 

A meeting of the General Board was called. At that 


meeting they elected me to the Presidency of the College, 
and they urged upon me the great necessity of my accept- 
ance in order to save the school. My family again opposed 
my return, insisting that my past experience showed me 
how little I could depend on my position should the school 
begin to prosper again under my hand. Members of the 
Board to my objections to the gloomy outlook, attempted 
to flatter me, that as soon as my name again appeared at 
the head of the faculty, the students would rally around 
me as in by-gone days. I told them this was impossible. 
That the school during the two intervening years had re- 
ceived a shock it would take years of hard work to over- 
come. That if at the end of a year of hard work, the ship 
began to obey the helm it was all that I could expect. I 
knew a hard task was before me, with difficulties which 
those without experience could illy comprehend. But I 
finally accepted. Then came the question of fixing my 
salary. They had payed Judge Mott $2,000 per year. I 
told them that it was all in vain to talk about such salaries. 
They could not be paid. So they fixed my salary at $1,200, 
and I told them I would pay $200 towards that. And so 
we settled the question. 

I attempted to travel some during the intervening time 
before opening of school. But I was alarmed to find the 
disaffection towards the school more widespread, and more 
deep-seated and active than I even had anticipated. I 
found the students of the preceding year or two had ad- 
vertised us to our great harm. And that from neighbor- 
hoods whence we had formerly drawn a steady flow of 
students, they had almost entirely stopped. When the fall 
term opened in 1877, while the attendance was not large, a 
good number of the older students who were in regular 
courses were on hand, so that our advanced classes were 
represented. The teachers worked hard, the students were 


industrious, our course of study was matured and getting 
into effect, and while the work was not financially remuner- 
ative, the morale of the school was steadily rising, not only 
in the community but abroad. A course of military drill 
was introduced, and became very popular among the stu- 
dents and in the town. At the time of commencement, 

June, 1878, we graduated and the exercises 

of commencement were pronounced exceptionally good, and 
did us great credit. 

The board was still in debt to the former President, so 
I told the board we had better reduce the teachers' salaries 
until we had paid up old teachers, and they might begin 
with me, I would give one-half of my salary, or $600, until 
we caught up, and then it would be better for us all. But 
I supposed that relief would be afforded by one year thus, 
but this proved a sad mistake. For the want of efficient 
agencies in the field, we found it impossible to catch up. 

The school year of 1878-9 while not greatly increased in 
number, held a goodly number of students in full course, 
and June, 1879, we again graduated a class of three and 
with attractive exercises. In a similar way we went through 
the school year of 1879-80 and in June of 1880 we graduated 
three, and our public exercises illicited great praise from 
visitors from abroad. 

At the annual meeting in June, I became satisfied that 
my continuance with the school must shortly end. A com- 
mittee from the Board, called on me, and while waiting for 
me they were seated in our sitting-room, and unaware of 
the presence of members of my family in the adjoining 
parlor. They unravelled to each other a scheme for my 
displacement. When I arrived they inquired if I had any- 
thing to ask at the hands of the Board? I told them I had 

12 Apparently, two students were graduated in the class of 1878, namely, 
Charles J. Rose and Jennie C. Nash. — See Abernethy's A History of Iowa 
Baptist Schools, p. 153. 


not. They could take a survey of the whole work and act 
entirely independent of me. I knew full well that unless 
the teaching department could be changed and strengthen- 
ed and popularized, the work which fell to my department 
became largely paralyzed, for unpopular teachers in the 
lower departments would scatter our students, long be- 
fore they reached my department, and I was weary of 
seeing my energies largely thrown away. So I would not 
resign, for I was not sure that it might not do harm, for 
I did not see how they could meet the cost of a new presi- 

The Committee returned and as they had no scheme ma- 
tured, it was decided to request me to go on with the 
school. I consented to do so, but with reluctance, as I felt 
that without the co-operation of an active agency in the 
field we could not keep the school running vigorously, 
both for lack of students, and especially for lack of means. 
So the Board adjourned. During the vacation. Rev. Con- 
ger,^ ^ one of the aforesaid committee, concocted a plan 
to farm out the school for five years to a corps of young 
persons of whom Prof. CalP^ was to be president. This 
was pressed upon the attention of the board, to which the 
board assented. But they, the teachers, did not wish to 
enter upon the undertaking until after the close of the 
coming school year. I urged upon the board to inaugu- 
rate the plan with the beginning of the incoming year. This 
they could not do, as the teachers with a single exception of 
one who came and taught to the end of the year, were 
not prepared or willing to come. So I went into the year 
with a shadow over my heart, and as I feared over the pros- 
pects of the school. But one thing cheered me, with that 
year I thought my active responsibility with reference 

13 Kev. Omar T. Conger. • 

14 Professor D. F. Call had previously taught in the Cedar Valley Seminary 
at Osage. 


to the school would be forever at an end. So when the term 
opened in September, I betook myself to my work with zeal 
and with great pleasure in many prospects. With several 
accessions to the senior class from abroad, and all of them 
being fine young people, my class work was unusually 
pleasant. The year completed and commencement exer- 
cises went off with great acceptance to the public. With the 
conclusion of the exercises I announced my retirement with 
the day, introduced the new President to the audience, and 
went to my home feeling freer and with a load off my shoul- 
ders which I felt for the first time for years. For I could 
see no circumstances likely to arise, which could bring me 
into active relations with the School. I had neglected my 
worldly affairs, I had neglected some writing which for 
years I had desired to do, and I now saw the way clear to 
attend to both. I could preach on Lord's day in destitute 
places, and then go on with my other work at home. 

The school year of 1881-2, President Call and his corps 
of teachers were in charge. The school opened auspicious- 
ly in numbers, but for reasons I need not name, turned out 
disastrously. Prof. Call only remained one term and by 
the end of the year the school was again down to zero. The 
teachers all threw up their contract, and gave out that the 
school would never reopen, and then to crown the disaster, 
without consulting the board, closed the school in advance 
of the regular time. Some of the members of the Board 
learned of the condition of affairs, and got up to chapel 
the day, or the day before closing, and to the few students 
still there, announced the reopening of the school at the 
usual time in the ensuing Autumn. Dr. Woodruff, Pastor 
of the First Baptist Church, and Rev. Keith of the East 
Side Church, had labored with all their influence to induce 
the Trustees to sell out the property for the amount of the 
indebtedness and wipe the enterprise out of existence. 


In this appalling state of affairs, the annual meeting of 
the Board transpired. The school, if school it could be 
called, was like the hull of a ship without masts, sails, rud- 
der, or crew — without president, without a single teacher, 
and without money to hire teachers. In this forlorn state 
the Board again turned to me to take the headship of the 
enterprise. It did seem to me that this was the crowning 
act of all cheekiness. To call together a corps of teachers 
without money, to get together students amid such desola- 
tions, how could it be my duty! My family were indignant. 
I hated to leave my loved work, and take again the time 
and work and worry of this payless task! But the case 
was desperate, and I finally assented so far as to tempor- 
arily take the head of the school and to teach some until the 
Board could make other arrangements. 

Dr. Murphy accepted the Financial Agency. The school 
in the Fall opened discouragingly small. Still we went on 
through the year. Dr. Murphy did not succeed in raising 
money enough to ease the expenses of the school, and the 
question arose about the advisability of closing the school 
for the latter part of the year, but we knew it would act 
unfavorably on the Agency work to have it go out that the 
school had closed. I told them that by all means the 
school ought to go on, and to this end I would give my sal- 
ary for the entire year, and so the year passed away, and 
the end of the school year of 1882-3 came, and Kev. I. E. 
Kenney, D. D., having been invited to the Presidency and 
accepted, he entered on his duties in November, 1883, and 
so my pro tempore occupancy of the Presidency ceased. 
The school had opened more auspiciously, though not very 
full. Since Dr. Kenney entered on the Presidency, I have 
sustained no official relation to the school only as a mem- 
ber of the General Board. 



Of long standing was the feud which had existed between 
the allied Sac and Fox Indians and the Sioux. Their war 
parties had made so many sallies and raids into each other's 
territory that the United States government, persuaded 
perhaps by the fur traders whose business was suffering, 
undertook to effect a cessation of hostilities. In 1825 a line 
was accordingly established between the tribes to serve as a 
boundary which they agreed not to cross. When this 
proved to be worthless as a barrier, the government pur- 
chased from the warring tribes a forty-mile strip of terri- 
tory embracing much of what is to-day northeastern Iowa, 
and the combatants promised not to trespass upon the lands 
so set aside.^ 



After the establishment of this Neutral Ground, all ex- 
pectations of peace in the Iowa country were once more 
blasted by the warriors of the Sacs and Foxes: in July, 
1831, they killed two Wahpeton Sioux in the Blue Earth 
River region, one of the murdered men being a brother of 
the principal Sioux chief. A party of Sioux warriors at 
once prepared to retaliate. Joseph M. Street, Indian agent 
at Prairie du Chien, asserted that such very bold and daring 
conduct evinced a determination on the part of the Sacs and 
Foxes to defy the United States government, and the up- 
shot might be an early attack on the whites unless the gov- 

1 Seo tho writer's article on The Neutral Ground, above, pp. 311-348. 




ernment quickly made its strong arm felt. Shortly after- 
ward Street gave the following account of another massacre 
in which the tomahawk, spear, and scalping-knif e played an 
important part :^ 

Two or three hours 'before day, on the morning of the 31st of July 
last, a party of eighty or a hundred Sacs and Foxes, in canoes, 
passed up in front of Fort Crawford, and surprised some Meno- 
monie lodges on the east bank of the Mississippi about one and a 
half miles above the fort, and killed twenty-five of the latter; one 
being found dead after I wrote to the commanding officer at Fort 
Crawford. . . . Most of the Menomonies were drunk, and all 
unarmed but one man, who says he shot and killed two of the as- 
sailants, and then escaped, after seeing all his family killed. Out of 
thirty or forty Menomonies in the lodges, twenty-five were killed 
and seven or eight wounded ; who, I hope, will recover. The killed 
were eight men, six women, and eleven children. 

The whole affair was over, and the assailants in full retreat down 
the river, in front of the fort, within ten minutes from the first 
attack. Four Menomonies, who were in the village, crossed the 
river, just a-head of the retreat, well armed, landed on the island 
and poured a continued fire upon the Sacs and Foxes, until they 
fell too far below. They report that they saw several sink down in 
the canoes, as they fired. 

The hostile Sacs and Foxes who thus murdered their 
enemies within cannon shot of Fort Crawford also called 
upon a small military force making lime on the west shore 
of the Mississippi, a mile above the mouth of the Wisconsin, 
behaved saucily, and objected to the United States making 
lime in their country/'^ 


Thus was broken the treaty of July, 1830, amid the cere- 
monies of which the tribes had buried the tomahawk deep 
in the earth" and smoked the pipe of peace. Circumstances 

2 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, p. 582. 

3 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 515, 516, 517, 
518, and Vol. IX, p. 222; Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. 
II, No. 3, p. 52. 


induced Agent Street to believe that the relatives and 
friends of the Sac and Fox chiefs who had been murdered 
in 1829 had been urged by the traders among them to com- 
mit the outrages above referred to. A trader had said to 
him at the time of the treaty : ' * The Sacs and Foxes wish to 
sell to the United States the whole of their country that 
borders on the Mississippi, but they wont sell unless the 
commissioners will pay to Messrs. Farnham and Davenport 
what the Indians owe them/' The inference would seem to 
be that these traders were indirectly trying to force the gov- 
ernment into some drastic treatment of the Indians which 
would result in the traders collecting their debts.* 

That George Davenport, a member of the American Fur 
Company, had great influence in the councils of the Sacs and 
Foxes there can be no doubt. When in the spring of 1829 
white settlers in eastern Illinois took possession of the Sac 
village and corn fields upon the Rock River while the In- 
dians were away upon their winter hunt in the Iowa coun- 
try, Davenport acted as arbitrator to settle the dispute 
which arose. The Sacs and Foxes demanded that the in- 
truders should be driven out at once. Davenport met this 
crisis by inducing many of the Indians to remove to the west 
side of the Mississippi. Chief Wapello set up a village at 
Muscatine Slough, and Keokuk with the peace faction of the 
Sacs raised lodges upon the Iowa River. But Black Hawk 
and the remainder of the Sacs obstinately refused to with- 
draw from lands which they claimed had never been sold. 

During the year 1830, it is said, Davenport made a jour- 
ney to Washington, D. C, conferred with President Andrew 
Jackson, and recommended that the government pay the 
Sacs and Foxes a few thousand dollars. He asserted that 

4 See the writer's article in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 
Vol. XII, p. 562. 



*^from Ms knowledge of their character, and customs, he 
felt satisfied that they would remove [from Illinois] with- 
out any further trouble '^ Jackson, however, did not ap- 
prove of the plan, declaring that the Indians would be 
forcibly removed to lands west of the Mississippi.^ 


Lewis Cass, Secretary of War, gave strict orders to all 
Indian agents in the West to prevent further war expedi- 
tions and called upon General Clark at St. Louis to summon 
the principal Sac and Fox chiefs to a council and demand 
that the persons concerned in the slaughter near Fort Craw- 
ford be delivered up for punishment. General Atkinson 
was also instructed to aid in carrying out the views of the 
War Department. Of the Indian's ceaseless impulse to- 
ward hostilities Mr. Cass asserted: ^*War parties, when 
once on the march, cannot return without reproach unless 
they bring the trophies of their courage. If, therefore, the 
enemies they seek cannot be found, they strike wherever 
they meet victims, white or red. In this way many of our 
citizens have been murdered, and these border contests will 
continue to expose us to the same evil till we interpose ef- 
fectually to stop them.'' Accordingly, ten of the principal 
Sacs and Foxes being demanded, they promised voluntarily 
to surrender themselves in the spring.^ 


So determined were the aggressions of frontier settlers in 
Illinois in the face of the continuous refusal by Black Hawk 
and his band to abide by the terms of treaties that the In- 
dians were frightened from their village in the spring of 

5 Wilkie's Davenport Past and Present, p. 159. See also The Iowa Journal 
OF History and Politics, Vol. IX, pp. 22'8-230. 

6 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, pp. 323, 324, 341, 
342, and Vol. IX, p. 223. 


1831 by a force of Illinois volunteers. George Davenport, 
who was very much interested financially in the tribes, as 
has already been pointed out, appeared at Washington, 
D. C, early in February, 1832, and in his letter to a member 
of Congress stated that Sac and Fox chiefs had for two 
years been applying for permission to visit their Great 
Father^', and when they understood he (Davenport) was 
going east, they requested him to ask the President for per- 
mission to come on early in the summer, for many reasons, 
among them the following: 

They further complain that the citizens of Illinois and of Mich- 
igan Territory, having crossed the Mississippi, took possession of 
and worked their lead mines, and carried off mineral to the amount 
of several thousand dollars ; at the same time they acknowledge the 
promptness of the United States' troops in removing those tres- 

One officer and six or eight soldiers were stationed at those mines 
during the last summer; but they do not expect the United States 
to keep troops there constantly to defend their mines. As soon as 
the troops are removed, the citizens of Michigan Territory will, 
without doubt, again cross over, and renew their depredations. 

To prevent all difficulties in future, therefore, they propose to sell 
to the United States those mines, with a considerable extent of ad- 
joining country. This will be an advantage to the Sacs and Foxes 
in adding to their annuities, and in removing them further from the 
bank of the Mississippi, and will secure the frontier settlements of 
the State of Illinois and of Michigan Territory. 

They believe that the Government has treated them more harshly, 
and with greater injustice, than any other Indian nation."^ 

That Davenport as a representative of the American Fur 
Company had any business at the national capital other 
than to urge the government to purchase what is now east- 
ern Iowa there are no records to prove. His letter, sent to 
President Jackson and referred to as that of ^^a gentleman 

^Wilkie's Davenport Past and Present, p. 160; Senate Documents, 1st Ses- 
sion, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, p. 223. 



of Mgh standing, and having every means of obtaining cor- 
rect information'',^ emphasized enough facts to show that 
the settlers of Illinois were gradually pushing the frontier 
westward and that the Sacs and Foxes could not longer 
claim, much less occupy, the Eock River country. 


On account of the events which were now rapidly bring- 
ing grievances to a head the Sacs and Foxes split up into 
two factions, one under Keokuk's leadership preferring to 
remain at peace with the government,^ and the other under 
Black Hawk and certain braves who wanted to make a last 
attempt to regain possession of their old village site upon 
the Rock River. With their old men, women, and children, 
the latter departed from the neighborhood of the present 
city of Keokuk, camped near the site of old Fort Madison, 
and crossed the Mississippi on the sixth day of April, 1832. 
Opinion differs as to whether they had hostile intentions 
towards the whites at this time, but shortly afterward in 
June they killed their Indian agent, Felix St. Vrain. Later 
some Winnebagoes committed other murders in Illinois. 
These acts served to hasten the frontier conflict in which 
the Indians were overwhelmingly crushed in Illinois and 

8 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, p. 221. 

9 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. VIII, p.. 856. 

10 One writer has gone so far as to assert that the most reasonable explanation 
of the return of Black Hawk's band to Illinois was that George Davenport, the 
favorite trader of the Sacs and Foxes, advised them to do so. ^'They had not 
been fortunate in hunting," declares this writer, ''and he was likely to lose 
heavily. ... If, therefore, the Indians could be induced to come over, and 
the fears of the military could be sufficiently aroused to pursue them, another 
treaty could be negotiated, and from the payments from the Government the 
shrewd trader could get his pay." Another writer refutes such imputations, 
but not conclusively. See The History of Lee County, Iowa (1879), pp. 158, 
337. The story of Davenport's financial relations with the Sac and Fox Indians 
has been told in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XII, pp. 

VOL. xm — 27 


Wisconsin by United States troops and volunteers in 
August, 1832. 


For this, the last Indian war of Illinois and Wisconsin, 
resulting as it did in the death of two hundred and fifty 
Americans and an expense of nearly two million dollars,^^ 
punishment was meted out to the warring tribes. The 
Winnebagoes gave up all their lands south of the Wisconsin 
and east of the Mississippi in return for an annuity and the 
eastern part of the Neutral Ground in the Iowa country, 
while the Sacs and Foxes signed a treaty which is important 
as a step in the American conquest of the West and espe- 
cially of the Iowa country. 

The treaties concluded with the Winnebagoes and the 
Sacs and Foxes were effected at Fort Armstrong on the 
15th and 21st days of September, 1832, by John Eeynolds, 
Governor of the State of Illinois, and Winfield Scott, Major 
General of the United States Army. The *^Scotf or 
Black Hawk'' Purchase, while not the first purchase of 
Indian lands in the Iowa wilderness, just preceded the first 
general and permanent occupation of the Iowa country by 
the whites: as such it deserves more than passing notice. 
In the language of the treaty itself the United States com- 

iiPelzer's Henry Dodge, p. 65. 

i2Kappler's Indian Affairs, Vol. II, pp. 345-351. 

13 Nearly all writers of Iowa history have given credence to the statement 
that the Sac and Fox treaty took place on the west bank of the Mississippi upon 
the site of the present city of Davenport, Iowa, because Asiatic cholera had 
broken out on Eock Island. The best authority yet discovered in support of 
this claim is John 8. Tilford, a volunteer in the Black Hawk War. See Iowa 
Historical Eecord, Vol. X, p. 2. The words of the treaty, ' ' Done at Fort Arm- 
strong", would convey a different impression, and they find support in Scott's 
letter stating that the cholera had disappeared from Eock Island and therefore 
he would enter upon some important negotiations, namely, the treaty which 
ended in the purchase of eastern Iowa. — Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d 
Congress, Vol. IX, p. 456. 



missioners caused the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox 
Indians to subscribe to the following preamble : 

Whereas, under certain lawless and desperate leaders, a formid- 
able band, constituting a large portion of the Sac and Fox nation, 
left their country in April last, and, in violation of treaties, com- 
menced an unprovoked war upon unsuspecting and defenceless 
citizens of the United States, sparing neither age nor sex; and 
whereas, the United States, at a great expense of treasure, have 
subdued the hostile band, killing or capturing all its principal 
Chiefs and "Warriors — the said States, partly as indemnity for the 
expense incurred, and partly to secure the future safety and tran- 
quillity of the invaded frontier, demand of the said tribes, to the 
use of the United States, a cession of a tract of the Sac and Fox 
country, bordering on said frontier, more than proportional to the 
number of the hostile band who have been so conquered and sub- 

Accordingly the Indians ceded forever all right and title 
in land bounded on the north by the Neutral Ground ; on the 
west by a line connecting three points, fifty, forty, and fifty 
miles from the Mississippi, the middle point being upon the 
Eed Cedar branch of the Iowa Eiver; on the south by the 
northern boundary line of the State of Missouri projected 
eastward to the Mississippi;^^ and on the east by the Great 
Eiver itself. Four hundred square miles in the ceded area 
were reserved ^ ' upon the loway river, in such manner that 
nearly an equal portion of the reservation may be on both 
sides of said river, and extending downwards, so as to in- 
clude Ke-o-kuck's principal village on its eastern right 
bank, which village is about twelve miles from the Missis- 
sippi river. The Sacs and Foxes agreed to leave all 
except '^Keokuk's Eeserve" on or before the first day of 
June, 1833, when their residence, planting, hunting, and 
fishing should cease. 

14 This interpretation of tlie southern line has been questioned. See Mr. Karl 
Knoepfler's monograph on The Half-hreed Tract in possession of the State 
Historical Society of Iowa. 

15 This Sac village was established a couple of years before. 


The United States government agreed to pay the tribes 
$20,000 in specie for thirty years, and to furnish them with 
**one additional black and gun smith shop, with the neces- 
sary tools, iron and steel; and finally make a yearly allow- 
ance for the same period, to the said tribes, of forty kegs of 
tobacco, and forty barrels of salt, to be delivered at the 
mouth of the loway river. At the special request of the 
tribes, the government agreed to grant to Antoine Le Claire, 
a half-breed who served as interpreter at the treaty negoti- 
ations, a patent in fee simple to one section of land opposite 
Eock Island and another at the head of the rapids above 
— both sections being upon the Iowa side of the Mississippi. 
Black Hawk, his two sons, and seven other Indians were to 
be held as hostages for the future good conduct of the hos- 
tile bands. So destitute were the beaten natives that the 
United States, ^ ^ wishing to give a striking evidence of their 
mercy and liberality,'' promised to deliver to them in the 
following spring thirty-five beef cattle, twelve bushels of 
salt, thirty barrels of pork, fifty barrels of flour, and six 
thousand bushels of maize. Thus was completed another 
chapter in the history of Anglo-Saxon territorial expansion : 
to diplomacy, war, and purchase must be ascribed the result. 


No sooner had the news of this Indian purchase reached 
the ears of pioneers in western Illinois and northern Mis- 
souri than they began to enter the Iowa wilderness. While 
Galena miners were establishing themselves in cabins from 

i« It is said that the reservation of a section on the present site of Daven- 
port was made by the Indians out of regard for Mrs. Le Claire. The other 
section of land, where Le Claire now stands, or only a part of it, was sold to 
George Davenport and others either in March, 1833, or in 1835. In the spring 
of ]833 Le Claire is said to have built a small cabin on one of these spots. — 
Annals of Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 43, 146, 147, and Vol. II, pp. 230, 231. 

In April, 1833, the government sent General Clark of St. Louis $1750 with 
which to build shops, buy tools, steel, and iron, pay the blacksmith, and obtain 



which they had once been evicted at the old Dubuque mines, 
other persons congregated on the Flint Hills in the neigh- 
borhood of the present city of Burlington. Marmaduke S. 
Davenport, Indian agent at Fort Armstrong, hurried north- 
ward to command the intruders at the lead mines to depart 
immediately, and then, leaving S. D. Carpenter to see that 
the government 's orders were obeyed, he personally visited 
the little party of persons camped upon the Flint Hills and 
ordered them to withdraw. By February 3, 1833, he could 
report that they had disappeared altogether. The Iowa 
land was accordingly once more rid of known white inhab- 

On the thirteenth of February, 1833, the United States 
Senate ratified the treaty of 1832. Although the Sacs and 
Foxes were entitled to remain in the country a few months 
longer, free from intrusions by the whites, they complained 
of Sioux incursions upon their lands in the north. Ad- 
dressing the Secretary of War upon this violation of their 
boundaries, Keokuk and other chiefs were informed that 
the government intended to send a force of mounted sol- 
diers to the West in the spring to prevent further aggres- 
sions and preserve peace among the tribes.^^ Indian 
encroachments upon each other 's domains or upon the lands 
of their white neighbors were to be repelled by horse troops 
or Mounted Eangers as they were called : only such a force 
could watch and protect the long, exposed western frontier. 

40 kegs of tobacco and 40 barrels of salt. Clark later reported that lie might 
not be able to complete the survey of the western boundary of the Scott Pur- 
chase in 1833. — Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, p, 655. 

For the terms of the treaty see Kappler's Indian A fairs, Vol. II, pp. 349- 

17 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, pp. 2, 69. For a 
complete account of attempts to occupy the lead mines see the writer's article 
in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XIII, pp. 41-44. 

18 Senate Documents, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. IX, p. 586. 



The first of June, 1833, was the signal for a rush of immi- 
grants into the Black Hawk Purchase. It was the day on 
which the eastern Iowa country was supposed to be free of 
Indian inhabitants. This supposition, however, did not en- 
title the whites to take up their abode in the abandoned 
Indian country: it still belonged to the United States gov- 
ernment, and persons who entered upon its acres would be 
dealt with as trespassers according to law. Not until the 
land had been platted by surveyors and formally opened 
to settlement might anyone come into the Iowa wilderness. 
To this rule the government made an exception in the case 
of mines upon public lands : licenses were granted to diggers 
and smelters in return for a certain rent. All other persons 
found upon the national domain would be reported to the 
Indian agents at Prairie du Chien and Rock Island, and 
troops stationed at the forts there might be called upon to 
expel the intruders.^ ^ 

The old Dubuque lead mines were accordingly occupied 
soon after the first of June, 1833; but elsewhere govern- 
ment rules and statutes and troops were generally disre- 
garded by the adventurous pioneers. Law elicited little 
respect from these hardy frontiersmen, nor would they wait 
for the completion of government surveys and government 
land sales. They flocked into different parts of the new 
public domain, impelled by the rare opportunity to acquire 
choice locations for towns and farms. The scene has been 
pictured as follows 

10 Not until November, 1838, were the townships of eastern Iowa surveyed 
and sections of land numbered: the first sales then took place at Dubuque and 
Burlington so that tenants on sufferance became owners in fee simple. The 
Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, pp. 3-82, 383 ; Senate Docu- 
ments, 1st Session, 23d Congress, Vol. X, p. 457. 

20 A Hecord of the Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settle- 
ment of Iowa, p. 30. 



All along the Missouri border and the eastern banks of the Mis- 
sissippi settlers from all quarters gathered and waited impatiently 
for the end of May. At the hour of midnight, when the 1st of June, 
1833, began, the ^'army of occupation'' passed over and took pos- 
session, and the tide of emigration, mightier than the flood waters 
which it crossed, first reached these shores. 

These first invaders^^ felt confident that claims'* staked 
out by them in the wilderness would be just as sacred as 
government patents to particular plots of land. Thus be- 
gun, immigration to the Black Hawk Purchase'' gradually 
gained momentum and could not be stopped. United States 

21 The first permanent settlement of whites in the Iowa wilderness was made 
before 1833 upon the Half-breed Tract in what is now Lee County in south- 
eastern Iowa. See the writer's article in The Iowa Journal of History and 
Politics, Vol. XIII, pp. 151-164. Statements to the effect that troops were 
evaded and that other settlements were made in eastern Iowa before the 1st of 
June, 1833, may be enumerated here with the observation that they can not be 

According to certain Indians and a woman who lived upon the frontier all 
her life, a surgeon of the United States army was found living as a hermit 
upon Old Man's Creek in Iowa or Johnson County as early as 1815 or 1820. 
He never divulged his name to anyone, but simply told the story of his life. He 
had been attached to Zebulon M. Pike on his expeditions of 1805 and 1806 and 
throughout the War of 1812 until his regiment was again sent to the frontier. 
So far as can be ascertained there was no surgeon on Pike's expedition up the 
Mississippi, but Dr. John H. Robinson served in that capacity on the expedition 
to the Southwest. For the account of a romantic career see Howe's Annals of 
Iowa, Vol. II, pp. 76, 77. 

George L. Davenport, son of the well-known Indian trader of Eock Island, is 
reported to have taken a claim in Davenport Township, Scott County: the 
troops did not disturb him because the Indians liked him as archer, swimmer, 
and racer. ' ' — Annals of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 42. 

According to another account, in October, 1832, some twelve or fifteen indi- 
viduals crossed the Mississippi in canoes at the head of Big Island, landed two 
miles below the present site of Burlington, examined the surrounding country, 
and chose claims for future settlements. They built cabins in February, 1833, 
brought over some stock, and commenced making fences and preparing the soil 
for cultivation. ''But," writes the historian, ''to their great annoyance they 
were driven away from their claims by the Government soldiers from Rock 
Island, and they recrossed the river and stopped on Big Island, taking with 
them their implements of husbandry and their stock. All the labor which they 
had performed availed them nothing, for their cabins and fences were set on 
fire by the soldiers and burned up. But notwithstanding these molestations 


troops at Fort Crawford and Fort Armstrong appear to 
have made no effort to check the onrush of squatters. The 
latter took possession of the choicest spots and banded to- 
gether to keep each other in possession until they could 
purchase clear titles from the government. By such means 
was the permanent occupation of the Iowa country assured. 

Jacob Van dee Zee 

The State Historical Society of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 

they resolved to hold on to the sites selected for their homes. They held a 
council and 'agreed to strike their tents and build a flat boat/ so that they 
could cross over the river and improve their claims whenever they had an 

''Some did cross before the extinguishment of the Indian title with their 
families, suffering all the privations and difficulties attending the settlement of 
a wilderness country, which were very great, and not a few of them. ' ' — The 
Iowa Patriot, Vol. I, June 6, 1839. 

Besides these settlers upon the present site of Augusta, others erected two 
or three cabins, it is said, near old Fort Madison and also a few cabins on the 
Flint Hills (on or near the site of Burlington) before June 1, 1833. — The 
History of Lee County, Iowa (1879), p. 378. 


A History of Indiana from its Exploration to 1850. By Logan 
EsAREY, Ph. D. Indianapolis: W. K. Stewart Co. 1915. Pp. x, 
515. Maps. It is perhaps no exaggeration to say that this is the 
most scholarly and satisfactory volume on the history of Indiana 
that has thus far been written. Not only is it more complete than 
any previous work attempting to cover the same period, but it is 
compiled almost entirely from original sources — a task of no mean 
proportions in a State where, as the author indicates in his preface, 
''there is no considerable collection of historical material to draw 
upon. ' ' 

A general idea of the contents of the volume may be gained from 
the following list of the subjects treated in the twenty-one chapters: 
the French in Indiana ; the English period, 17 64-1779 ; the conquest 
'by Virginia, 1778-1779; the closing campaigns of the Revolution; 
Indian wars, 1790-1796; the government of the Northwest Terri- 
tory ; Indiana Territory, 1800-1816 ; Indiana and the War of 1812 ; 
from Territory to State, 1813-1816 ; the State government at Cory- 
don, 1816-1825 ; economic development, 1825-1835 ; religion and 
education in early Indiana ; politics from 1825 to 1840 ; the removal 
of the Indians from the State ; the public lands in Indiana ; system- 
atic internal improvements; the pioneers and their social life; the 
Mexican War; the constitutional convention of 1850; and politics 
from 1840 to 1852. A bibliography and a fairly good index com- 
plete the volume, which is handsomely printed and bound. Some 
persons will no doubt wish that the history had been carried down 
to a much later date. Dr. Esarey would render a real service, not 
only to the people of Indiana but to students of history throughout 
the Upper Mississippi Valley, if he would follow his present book 
with another volume covering the history of that State during the 
last half of the nineteenth century — a field as yet almost un- 



Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association for 
the Years 1913-1914. Edited by Benjamin F. Shambaugh. Cedar 
Rapids: The Torch Press, 1914. Pp. 398. This volume contains 
papers read at the mid-winter meeting of the Association at Co- 
lumbia, South Carolina, on December 31, 1913, and at the seventh 
annual meeting at Grand Forks, North Dakota, in May, 1914. In 
this place it will only be possible to mention by title and author the 
following papers which are perhaps of the widest interest : Explora- 
tions and Surveys of the Minnesota and Bed Rivers^ by "Warren 
Upham; Some Phases of the History of the Northwest, 1783-1786, 
by James Alton James; Stephen A. Douglas and the Split in the 
Democratic Party, by 0. M. Dickerson ; The Westward Movement in 
the Upper Mississippi Valley During the Fifties, by Dan E. Clark; 
The Organization of the Jacksonian Party in Indiana, by Logan 
Esarey; The Verendrye Plate, by Doane Robinson; The Hudson's 
Bay Company's Monopoly of the Fur Trade at the Bed Biver Settle- 
ment, 1821-1850, by Chester Martin ; American Opinions Begarding 
the West, 1778-1783, by Paul C. Phillips ; and A Critical Analysis 
of the Work of Beuhen Gold Thwaites, by Clarence W. Alvord. 
There are also papers of special interest to teachers of history and 
to students of social problems, past and present. 

The French in the Heart of America. By John Finley. New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1915. Pp. x, 431. This fascinating 
volume by the Commissioner of Education and President of the 
University of the State of New York presents no new material, nor 
is any such claim made for it. Most of the chapters, some of which 
have already been published in Scrihner's Magazine, were written 
and delivered as lectures in Paris and other French cities for the 
purpose of bringing to the minds of the people of that country the 
part which their forefathers played in the discovery and develop- 
ment of the Great Valley. ''But it was my hope that what was 
spoken in Paris might some day be read in America," says the 
author, ''and particularly in that valley which the French evoked 
from the unknown, that those who now live there might know before 
what a valorous background they are passing, though I can tell 
them less of it than they will learn from the Homeric Parkman, if 
they will but read his immortal story." 



Dr. Finley was born in Illinois and spent most of his early life 
in a region where transpired some of the most romantic adventures 
of the French explorers. Hence, he writes, as he says, with a '4ove 
for the boundless stretch of prairie and plain whose virgin sod I 
have broken with my plough; of the lure of the waterways and 
roads where I have followed the boats and the trails of French 
voyageurs and coureurs de bois; and of the possessing interest of 
the epic story of the development of that most virile democracy 
known to the world. ' ' 

It is natural to find, therefore, that the volume is interpretative 
and stimulating, rather than the work of an investigator seeking to 
present new material. Besides the introduction there are eighteen 
chapters, bearing the following headings: from Labrador to the 
lakes ; the paths of the gray friars and black gowns ; from the Great 
Lakes to the Gulf ; the River Colbert, a course and scene of empire ; 
the passing of New France and the dream of its revival; the peo- 
pling of the wilderness ; the parcelling of the domain ; in the trails 
of the coureurs de hois; in the wake of the ''Griffin"; western cities 
that have sprung from French forts ; western towns and cities that 
have sprung from French portage paths ; from La Salle to Lincoln ; 
the valley of the new democracy; Washington, the union of the 
eastern and the western waters; the producers; the thought of to- 
morrow; ''the men of always"; and the heart of America. There 
is also an epilogue containing a tribute to Francis Parkman. A 
good index closes the volume. It is a book which layman and critical 
student alike may read with interest and profit. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology has issue a list of its publica- 
tions and an index to authors and titles. 

A plan adopted at Hampton, Iowa, to bring the town and the 
surrounding country into closer business relations is described by 
S. B. Maynard in an article entitled Where Farmer and Merchant 
Meet — And How, which appears in The American City for June. 

The Houghton Mifflin Company has brought out a volume on The 
Life of Thomas BracJcett Beed, written by Samuel B. McCall. 


Political Safeguards and Judicial Guaranties is the subject of a 
paper by W. F. Dodd, which appears in the April number of the 
Columbia Law Review. 

The Bureau of the Census has published a pamphlet containing 
The Story of the Census, 1790-1915, which gives a very good idea of 
this work which has developed into such a great undertaking. 

A brief paper on The Swedes, Governor Printz and the Beginning 
of Pennsylvania, by Thomas Willing Balch ; and a discussion of The 
Bights and Duties of Neutralized Territory, by Charlemagne Tower, 
are among the contents of the January- April number of the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 

A booklet entitled Some Views on the Threshold of Fourscore, by 
Chauncey M. Depew, contains a number of addresses delivered on 
various occasions during the last two or three years. 

Nationality and the New Europe, by Archibald C. Coolidge; 
Neutralization in Theory and Practice, by George G. Wilson; and 
The Railroad Crisis: A Way Out, by Ray Morris, are among the 
articles in the April number of The Yale Review. 

The papers in the June number of the American Labor Legisla- 
tion Review are devoted to various phases of the subject of Un- 

Some Constitutional Amendments Relating to Labor Legislation 
and Brief in their Defense, submitted to the constitutional conven- 
tion of New York State by a committee of the American Association 
for Labor Legislation, have been published in pamphlet form. 

Part one of a series of studies of the Administration of Child 
Labor Laws has been issued by the Children's Bureau of the United 
States Department of Labor. In this part will be found a mono- 
graph on the Employment Certificate System of Connecticut, by 
Helen L. Sumner and Ethel E. Hanks. 

Beginnings of American Life, by Carl Becker of the University of 
Kansas; Union and Democracy, by Allen Johnson, formerly of 
Grinnell College, now at Yale University; Expansion and Conflict, 



by W. E. Dodd of the University of Chicago ; and The New Nation, 
by Frederic L. Paxson of the University of Wisconsin, are the four 
volumes in a History of the United States which is being brought 
out by the Houghton Mifflin Company. 

Two of the articles which appear in Americana for February are : 
Commemorative Tablets of Historic Sites of the Revolution and 
Some Revolutionary Relics^ by Edward Hale Brush ; and a continu- 
ation of Arthur W. H. Eaton's study of Rhode Island Settlers on 
the French Lands in Nova Scotia in 1760 and 1761, another install- 
ment of which appears in the March number. 

The Helper and American Trade Unions, by John H. Ashworth, 
is a monograph which constitutes a recent number of the Johns 
Hopkins University Studies in HiMorical and Political Science. 
Following the introduction there are four chapters dealing with the 
uses of the helper, the hiring and compensation of the helper, the 
organization of the helper, the helper and the trade-union policy. 

Among the papers in the Proceedings of the First Conference for 
Better County Government in New York State are the following: 
Some Needs to he Considered in Reconstructing County Govern- 
ment, by Otho Grandford Cartwright; Administration of County 
Charities, by V. Everit Macy ; Taxation and County Government in 
New York State, by Henry J. Cookinham; The County Auditor, by 
George S. Buck; The County Judiciary, by Herbert Harley; The 
Sheriff and a State Constabulary, by Ernest Cawcroft; The County 
Manager Plan, by Richard S. Childs. 

Red Patriots in the Revolution, by Alnoba Waubunaki; Indus- 
trial and Vocational Education in Indian Schools, by Arthur C. 
Parker; Higher Standards in Civil Service for the Indian School 
Employee, by Emma D. Goulette ; and The Value of Higher Aca- 
demic Training for the Indian Student, by Evelyn Pierce, are 
among the articles in the April-June number of The Quarterly 
Journal of the Society of American Indians. 

A Century of Peace, by Charles Arthur Higgins; Mrs. James T. 
Fields: The Passing of the Last of a Group of Famous Bostonians, 


by Agnes Edwards; a continuation of Beminiscences of Four-Score 
Years, by Francis M. Thompson, who in 1862 made a journey up 
the Missouri River and thence to the Pacific coast and who was con- 
nected with the early development of Montana ; and a list of Mich- 
igan pioneers from Massachusetts, compiled by Charles A. Flagg, 
are among, the contents of the January number of The Massachu- 
setts Magazine. 

Workmen 's compensation is the general topic of discussion in the 
American Lahor Legislation Review for March. Among the papers 
are the following : Workmen's Compensation for Federal Employees, 
by D. J. McGillicuddy ; Operation of the New York Workmen's 
Compensation Law, by John Mitchell; and Administration hy 
Courts or hy Commission?, by W. D. Yaple. 

The American Industrial Opportunity is the general subject dis- 
cussed in the May number of The Annals of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science. The various papers are grouped 
under the headings of resources, employment and unemployment, 
necessary readjustment, and foreign trade. The supplement to 
this number contains a study of The Total Disability Provision in 
American Life Insurance Contracts, by Bruce D. Mudgett. 

Among the articles which appear in The South Atlantic Quarter- 
ly for April are the following : Some Effects of the European War 
Upon American Industries, by William H. Glasson; Armageddon 
and the Peace Advocate, by Roland Hugins ; Recent Federal Trust 
Legislation, by George A. Stephens ; and The Peahody Fund and its 
Early Operation in North Carolina, by Edgar W. Knight. 

The restoration of white dominion in the South; the economic 
revolution; the revolution in politics and law; parties and party 
issues, 1877-1896; federal legislation, 1877-1896; the growth of 
dissent; the campaign of 1896; imperialism; the development of 
capitalism; the administrations of Theodore Roosevelt; the revival 
of dissent; Mr. Taft and Republican disintegration; and the cam- 
paign of 1912 are the subjects discussed by Charles A. Beard in the 
thirteen chapters of a volume on Contemporary American History, 
1877-19:13, published by the Macmillan Company. The volume 



should prove very acceptable as a text-book for the study of the 
period covered. 

America in the Making — Illinois and Iowa is the title of an 
article by Frederick M. Davenport which appeared in the Outlook 
for April 16th. The writer pointed out in a general way the chief 
characteristics of the history and present status of politics and gov- 
ernment in the two States indicated. The article was one of a series 
entitled On the Trail of Progress and Reaction in the West, in which 
there were papers dealing in a similar way with Wisconsin, Kansas, 
Nebraska, Colorado, and other Commonwealths in the Middle "West. 

The first number of a new annual publication known as the 
Richmond College Historical Papers, published at Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, has appeared. The editor is D. R. Anderson, head of the 
Department of History and Political Science in Richmond College. 
Over half of the initial number is taken up by the following bio- 
graphical essays: John Minor Botts, Anti-secessionist, by Clyde C. 
Webster; Richard Henry Lee, by Ethel Smither; William Cahell 
Rives, by Russell S. Wingfield; and John Moncure Daniel, by A. N, 
Wilkinson. The remaining pages are occupied by some interesting 
Letters of Colonel William Woodford, Colonel Robert Howe and 
Major-General Charles Lee. 

Three articles in the French language and an equal number in 
English are to be found in the Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Canada for December, 1914. The following are especially of inter- 
est from an historical standpoint : The First Land Grants at Mon- 
treal under M. de Maisonneuve, 1648-1665 (in French), by E. Z. 
Massicotte; France and Canada: Dieppe-Quebec, 1639; Quebec- 
Dieppe, 1912 (in French), by M. I'Abbe Augusta Gosselin; An 
Organization of the Scientific Investigation of the Indian Place- 
nomenclature of the Maritime Provinces of Canada (in English), by 
W. F. Ganong; and Railroad Construction and National Prosperity: 
An Historic Parallel (in English), by Adam Shortt. 

Revenues and taxation, royal collectors, naval officers, comptrol- 
lers of the customs, surveyors-general of the customs, searchers, the 
auditor, the receiver-general, collectors of the duty on skins and 


furs, collectors of the duty on liquors, collectors of the duty on ser- 
vants, the treasurer, inspectors of tobacco, pilots, the postmaster, 
English merchants, governmental expenses, and the efficiency of 
the financial system are the topics discussed by Percy Scott Flippin 
in a monograph on The Financial Administration of the Colony of 
Virginia which constitutes a recent number of the Johns Hopkins 
University Studies in Historical and Political Science. 

A volume of over six hundred pages on The Scotch-Irish in 
America, written by Henry Jones Ford, has been issued from the 
Princeton University Press. The Ulster plantation, Scotch migra- 
tion to Ulster, formative influence, emigration to America, Scotch- 
Irish settlements, on the New England frontier, in New York and 
the Jerseys, Pennsylvania — the Scotch-Irish center, the Indian 
wars, the source of American Presbyterianism, expansion South 
and West, some pioneer preachers, Scotch-Irish educational insti- 
tutions, the spread of popular education, the Revolutionary period, 
the birth of the nation, and a survey and an appreciation are some 
of the headings of chapters. As can be seen, the volume contains 
almost nothing concerning the Scotch-Irish in this country after 
the close of the Revolutionary period. Furthermore, there are no 
citations to sources, although at the close of the volume there is a 
list of the authorities consulted. 


Volume eleven, part eight of the Anthropological Papers of the 
American Museum of Natural History consists of a monograph on 
Societies of the Arikara Indians, by Robert H. Lowie. 

The town of Braham is discussed in a Social and Economic Sur- 
vey of a Community in Northeastern Minnesota, by Gustav P. 
Wai^ber, published in March by the University of Minnesota. 

Story of the Lost Trail to Oregon is the title of a little pamphlet 
by Ezra Meeker, in which are to be found a number of interesting 
addresses by this well-known pioneer, who a few years ago retraced 
with ox-team and ''prairie schooner" the long journey across the 
continent which he first made in 1852. 



R. N. Baskin, formerly Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Utah, is the author of a volume of Beminiscences of Early Utah 
which give a non-Mormon view of the political history of that State 
during the years of the author's residence there. 

John Boss and the Cherokee Indians is the title of a volume by 
Rachel Caroline Eaton, which has been published by the George 
Banta Publishing Company of Menasha, Wisconsin. 

Among the papers in the Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Con- 
vention of the League of Washington Municipalities are the follow- 
ing: Some Phases of the Home Bule Question^ by J. Allen Smith; 
Municipal Budgets and their Disposal, by James F. Leghorn; and 
Bevision of Election Laws, by Charles B. Wood. 

The Municipal University is the subject of an address by Charles 
William Dabney, President of the University of Cincinnati, which 
has been printed in pamphlet form. 

The Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency has issued a second 
edition of its report entitled The Nineteen Local Governments in 
Chicago. A number of very effective charts are included, and the 
conclusions reached are that ' ' Chicago 's greatest needs are the uni- 
fication of its local governments and a short ballot. ' ' 

A University of Chicago doctor's dissertation by Isaac Lippincott 
is entitled A History of Manufactures in the Ohio Valley to the 
Tear 1860. The four chapters deal with the resources of the Ohio 
Valley, industry during the period of exploration, the pioneer 
period, and the mill period. The fur trade and lead mining are 
subjects the discussion of which is especially interesting for com- 
parison with conditions in the Iowa country during the early period. 

A useful bulletin on State Documents for Libraries, compiled by 
Ernest J. Reece, has been published by the University of Illinois. 
The field of State documents, the selection of State documents for 
libraries, description of State departments and documents, the 
treatment of State documents in libraries, the distribution of State 
documents, and bibliographical matter are the headings of the 
various sections in the bulletin, which contains over one hundred 

VOL. XIII — 28 


and sixty pages. Mr. Reece has brought together a mass of ma- 
terial of value to any person desiring to use State documents. 

Among the papers in the Proceedings of the Second Annual Con- 
vention of the League of Minnesota Municipalities are the following : 
Taxation of Abutting Property for Local Improvements in Minne- 
sota, by Charles P. Hill; The Charter Situation, by William A. 
Schaper; The Practical Operation of Commission Government in 
St. Cloud, by P. J. Seberger; The City Manager Commission Form 
of Government and its Practical Operation in Morris, by S. 0. 
Siverts, Jr. ; and The Minnesota Law Concerning Uniformity in 
Municipal Accounting and Reporting, by Thomas W. Mitchell. 

Narrative of Geo. J. Kellogg from 1849 to 1915 and Some History 
of Wisconsin Since 1835 is the title of a small privately-printed 
pamphlet, the author of which lives at Alvin, Texas. As is stated 
in the brief introduction, it is a narrative of "the early and his- 
torical events in the life of George Josiah Kellogg, a native of York 
State, a pioneer of Wisconsin, and one of the gold hunters who 
crossed the plains to California in 1849; returned and settled in 
Wisconsin, putting in the best years of his life developing the hardy 
fruits adapted to the Northwest". Especially interesting is the 
writer's account of his journey to California which in his case in- 
cluded a trip across Iowa. 

A study of Waterways versus Railways, by Harold G. Moulton, 
submitted to the faculty of the University of Chicago in 1914 as a 
doctor's dissertation, is of current interest besides containing con- 
siderable historical material. The fifth chapter is entitled a Brief 
History of Water Transportation in the United States. The con- 
clusion of the writer is that ' ' it is only in rare instances that river 
transportation can be made as economical as transportation by 
rail ' ' — a statement which is clearly opposed to the general belief on 
the subject. Special attention is given to the agitation for a "Lakes- 
to-Gulf" canal and the improvement of the navigation of the Ohio 

The eighth installment of Lansing B. Bloom's study of New 
Mexico Under Mexican Administration is to be found in the April 



number of Old Santa Fe. The chapters here published deal with 
the closing months of Mexican administration and the passing from 
Mexico to the United States. The next article is one by Charles 
Wilson Hackett on The Location of the Tigua Puehlos of Alameda, 
Puaray, and Sandia in 1680-81. Under the heading of Santa Fe in 
1846 are some recollections of Francisco Perea, related by W. H. H. 
Allison. Texas Haiders in New Mexico in 1843, arranged by E. B. 
Burton, is the concluding contribution. 

Volume eleven, part nine of the Anthropological Papers of the 
American Museum, of Natural History contains three monographs 
by Alanson Skinner. The first, dealing with the Societies of the 
Iowa, is of special interest to the student of Iowa history. ''The 
principal habitat of the tribe was principally in the state which 
now bears its name, but now they occupy two reservations, one, on 
the Cimarron River, near Perkins in central Oklahoma, the other, 
on the Kansas-Nebraska border. ' ' The other two monographs deal 
with Kansa Organizations and Ponca Societies and Dances. Part 
ten of this same volume consists of a study of the Dances and Soci- 
eties of the Plains Shoshone, by Robert H. Lowie. 

Volume four, number one of the University of Illinois Studies in 
the Social Sciences, published in March, consists of a monograph of 
one hundred and sixty-five pages on The Illinois Whigs Before 1846, 
by Charles Manfred Thompson. The genesis of the Illinois Whigs, 
1809-1834; the emergence of the Whig party, 1834-1839; Har- 
rison and Tyler, 1839-1841; sectionalism and State issues, 1841- 
1845 ; and the Illinois Whigs and national politics, 1841-1845, are 
the subjects discussed in the five chapters. ''This study", says the 
author in the preface, "is intended to be but preliminary to a his- 
tory of the Illinois Whigs, which will consider not only the origin 
and development, but also the decline and decay of that party. It 
has seemed advisable, therefore, to defer the slavery agitations of 
the thirties and early forties to the more complete discussion." A 
hurried examination of the volume reveals the fact that the history 
of the Whigs in Illinois from 1834 to 1846 did not differ materially 
from the history of that party in the Territory of Iowa during the 
same period so far as success in political campaigns is concerned. 



An article of considerable historical interest is one on The Finari- 
cial Growth of Davenport which appears in the June number of 
The Northwestern Banker. 

Volume four, number two, of the Studies in Sociology , Economics, 
Politics and History published by the State University of Iowa 
contains a monograph on The Property Concepts of the Early 
Hebrews, by Martin John Laure. 

In the June number of Midland Schools may be found some 
reminiscences of the Iowa State Teachers' Association, written by 
L. M. Hastings, who was president of the Association in 1873. 

Industrial Democracy Viewed Under Side-lights from the Farm 
is the title of a paper read by Arthur M. Judy before the Contem- 
porary Club of Davenport, which has been printed in pamphlet 

The Public and its Utilities, by William G. Raymond ; City Plan- 
ning for Iowa Towns, by Ray F. Weirick; and brief biographical 
sketches of Charles Francis, James MeClure, and Barnabas Schrein- 
er are among the contents of the Proceedings of the Twenty -seventh 
Annual Meeting of the Iowa Engineering Society. 

Henry W. Dunn, former Dean of the College of Law of the State 
University of Iowa, discusses the Federal Control of Navigable 
Rivers in the May number of the Iowa Law Bulletin. In the edi- 
torials there is a statement concerning the semi-centennial of the 
College of Law, and among the notes may be found a brief dis- 
cussion of procedure under the Workmen 's Compensation Act. 

D. S. Fairchild is the compiler of a valuable history of Medicine 
in Iowa from its Early Settlement to 1876 which has been reprinted 
from The Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society. 

Among the contents of The Alumnus of Iowa State College for 
April are biographical sketches of Paul E. Stillman and the late 
Charles E. Bessey ; a discussion of A Memorial to Former Professor 
Barrett; and an oration on Arbitration and Industrial Peace, by 
Glenn H. Campbell. 



Assessing Cost of Street Improvements, by M. 0. Hall ; Fire Pre- 
vention, by John Grady; Essex, ''The City Beautiful'', by W. D. 
Gay; and Electric Bates, by Percival R. Moses, are articles in the 
May number of American Municipalities. 

Under the title The Pioneer Road Boosters in Iowa there appear 
in the April number of The Road-Maker some reminiscences of the 
hard roads agitation in this State before the days of the automobile. 
In the June number Edgar White discusses the history and present 
conditions of The Romantic and Scenic Highway Across Missouri. 

An unsigned article on the Progenitors of Oliver Cowdery occu- 
pies the opening pages of the April number of the Journal of 
History published at Lamoni by the Reorganized Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints. Then follow some recollections by 
Louis E. Hills entitled With General George A. Custer on the 
Northern Pacific Surveying Expedition in 1873. The remaining 
pages are occupied with continuations of biographical and auto- 
biographical material. 

Baseball Stars in the Seventies, and a brief sketch of the life of 
Dr. John Barrett are among the contents of The Iowa Alumnus for 
April. Iowa City's Springtime Charms, by Julia Ellen Rogers; 
Crum, the Great Sprinter, an Example of Right Living, by Levi H. 
Fuller; and The Baptist Frat are articles in the May number. In 
the June issue Jacob Van der Zee discusses Wartime Commence- 
ments, and Horace E. Deemer is the writer of a tribute to the late 
Emlin McClain. 

In the Proceedings of the Sixteenth Iowa State Conference of 
Charities and Correction there may be found, among others, the 
following papers: Constructive Charity and the Crisis, by Horace 
S. Hollingsworth ; Widows' Pensions: Their Good and Bad Fea- 
tures, by Mrs. Sam Weinstock ; A Working Plan for the More Ef- 
fective Administration of Relief Funds, by Miss Hollyce D. Brown; 
Needed Changes in the Iowa Juvenile Court Laws, by Horace L. 
Houghton; The Need for Improving Iowa's Child Labor Act, by 
Herschel H. Jones; Social Legislation in Iowa, by John E. Briggs; 
Sanitation and the Health of the People, by Lafayette Higgins ; A 


New Day in Social Worh^ 'hY William T. Cross; and The Misapplica- 
tion of Benevolent Funds, by W. T. Graham. 

The second part of Samuel Twomhly's paper on The Clijf Buins 
appears in the April number of Autumn Leaves, Among the arti- 
cles in the May number are : The Evolution of the State, by Walter 
W. Smith; A Mighty Kill (an Indian story), by Remington Schuy- 
ler; and Putnam and the Wolf: A True Story of Colonial Times, by 
Herbert Spencer Salisbury. The June number contains, among 
other things, the first part of a discussion of Industrial Cooperation 
— Its Value and Meaning, by John W. Rushton. 


Beal, Foster Ellenborough Laiscelles, 

Food of the Bohins and Bluebirds of the United States. Wash- 
ington, D. C. : Government Printing Office. 1915. 
Some Common Birds Useful to the Farmer. Washington, D. 
C. : Government Printing Office. 1915. 
Betts, George Herbert (joint author), 

Agriculture — A Text for the Farm. Indianapolis : The Bobbs- 
MerrillCo. 1915. 
Brewer, Luther A., 

About a Great Book, With Some Literary Autographs. Cedar 
Rapids : The Torch Press. 1915. 
Byers, S. H. M., 

The Bells of Capistrano. Los Angeles : Grafton Publishing Co. 

Carver, Thomas Nixon, 

Essays in Social Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University. 
Clark, Dan Elbert, 

The Westward Movement in the Upper Mississippi Valley Dur- 
ing the Fifties (Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley His- 
torical Association, Vol. VII). 
Devine, Edward Thomas, 

The Normal Life. New York: The Survey Associates. 1915. 
Civilization's Hope (Survey, March 6, 1915). 



Downey, Ezekiel Henry, 

Report on Old Age Pensions. Madison : Industrial Commission 
of Wisconsin. 1915. 
Emerson, Willis George, 

The Treasure of Hidden Valley. Chicago : Forbes & Co. 1915. 
Ficke, Arthur Davison, 

The Man on the Hilltop, and Other Poems. New York : Mitch- 
ell Kennerley. 1915. 
Fitch, George, 

Eternal Senator (Colliers, March 6, 1915); Bryan — Democ- 
racy's Goat (Colliers, April 17, 1915) ; Homehurg's Leisure 
Class (American Magazine, April, 1915) ; Cupid vs. Geog- 
raphy (American Magazine, May, 1915). 
Garver, Frank Harmon, 

Montana as a Field for Historical Research (Proceedings of the 
Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Vol. VII). 
Gillin, John Lewis, 

Sociology and Community Welfare Work (Proceedings of the 
Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Vol. VII ) . 
Glaspell, Susan, 

Fidelity: A Novel. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co. 1915. 
Gregory, Charles Noble, 

Should Neutrals Refuse to Sell Arms to Warring Nations? 
(Outlook, March 3, 1915). 
Hebard, Grace Raymond, 

Wyoming's Gain in Social Legislation (Survey, March 27, 
Hughes, Rupert, 

Empty Pockets: A Novel. New York: Harper Bros. 1915. 
Hutchinson, Woods, 

Children Who Never Grew Up (Good Housekeeping, April, 
1915) ; Sleep for the Sleepless (Good Housekeeping, May, 

Jackson, Charles Tenney, 

John the Fool. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1915. 
Johnson, Allen, 

Union and Democracy. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 1915. 


King, "William Fletcher, 

Beminiscences. New York: Abingdon Press. 1915. 
Lazell, Frederick J., 

The Bobin Family in Photographs (Outing, May, 1915). 
Raymond, William Gait, 

Bailroad Field Manual for Civil Engineers. New York : Wiley 
&Sons. 1915. 
Richardson, Anna Steese, 

Mrs. Larry's Adventures in Thrift (Woman's Home Compan- 
ion, April and May, 1915) ; Safety First for Mother (Mc- 
Clure, May, 1915). 
Ross, Edward Allsworth, 

South of Panama. New York: The Century Co. 1915. 
Shambaugh, Benjamin F. (editor). 

Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association 
for the Year 1913-1914. Cedar Rapids: The Torch Press. 

Steiner, Edward Alfred, 

Herr Director Meets the American Spirit (Outlook, April 7, 
1915) ; What Should be the Attitude of the Christian Church 
Toward the Synagogue (Biblical World, March, 1915). 
Ward, Duren James Henderson, 

Boy with a Wonderful Memory (American Magazine, May, 

Welliver, Judson Churchill, 

Poland's Story (Century, May, 1915). 
Willsie, Honore, 

Still Jim. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co. 1915. 


The Begister and Leader 

Uncle Billy Moore Eighty-three Years Old, April 1, 1915. 
Robert D. Miller, Who Was With Morgan on his Raid, April 4, 1915. 
Strange Things in Des Moines Colonel Johnston Has Seen, April 4, 

Famous Bank Robbery at Adol, April 6, 1915. 



How Cleveland Came to Appoint William Desmond of Iowa as 

United States Marshal, April 11, 1915. 
Frank Clarkson's Reminiscences, April 13, 1915. 
General Dodge at Eighty-four, April 15, 1915. 
Primitive Days Amid the Beauties of the ''Switzerland of Iowa", 

April 18, 1915. 
John Krout, Des Moines Criminal of 1894, April 18, 1915. 
Fifty Years Ago in the Upper Mississippi Valley, April 20, 1915. 
Summary of Acts of Thirty-sixth General Assembly, April 20, 1915. 
When Des Moines Got its Start — Men who did the Starting, May 2, 


When Harper's Wrote up Old Indian Agency Building in Fort Des 

Moines, May 2, 1915. 
One of Old Guard Writes of Early Days of Newspapering in Des 

Moines, May 2, 1915. 
On the Trail of Progress, by Frederick M. Davenport, May 10, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of Mrs. Barlow Granger, May 11, 1915. 
Iowa Pioneer Suffragists, May 12, 1915. 

The Spirit of the Woman Movement, by Marie J. Howe, May 23, 

Sketch of the life of Judge Emlin McClain, May 26, 1915. 

When a Real Flood Smote Des Moines, May 30, 1915. 

Stories of the Early Struggles of Successful Italians in Des Moines, 

June 6, 1915. 
Des Moines Half Century Ago, June 11, 1915. 

History of Living Lake Church in Washington County, June 13, 

Sketch of the life of Charles W. Flint, June 16, 1915. 
One of Oldest Episcopal Churches in Iowa, June 18, 1915. 
William Burgess, Veteran Stage Driver, June 18, 1915. 
Services of Charles G. Patten as a Horticulturist, June 20, 1915. 
Early Farming in Iowa, by C. B. Hutchins, June 20, 1915. 
Revisiting Iowa City after Fifty Years, by Al. Moore, June 20, 1915. 

The Burlington Hawk-Eye 

Sketch of the life of Andrew F. Wall, April 3, 1915. 

Old Martin Dwelling, Built in Indian Days, April 3, 1915. 


Port Louisa Coming to Her Own, April 11, 1915. 
A Civil War Adventure, April 11, 1915. 

Fugitive Slave Case Tried at Burlington in 1850, April 11, 1915. 
Public Outdoor Relief, by Gertrude Vaile, April 15, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of Samuel Lee, April 22, 1915. 
Presentation of Portrait of James W. Grimes, April 24, 1915. 
A Contrast of Generals Grant and Lee, by W. P. Elliott, April 25, 

Frank Taylor Saw Booth Captured, April 25, 1915. 

The Grand Review at Washington Fifty Years Ago, May 23, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of Major J. R. Muhleman, May 23, 1915. 

Early Church History at Fort Madison, June 6, 1915. 

Six Great Military Geniuses, and a Seventh Greater Than Them All, 

by W. P. Elliott, June 6, 1915. 
Story of Trip of Frederick Schmieg and John S. Parkes Across 

Plains to California in 1850, June 13, 20, 27, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of Anton Vorwerk, June 20, 1915. 
Governor Clarke's Tribute to Iowa, June 27, 1915. 


Old 'Coon River Covered Bridge, in the Des Moines Tribune, 
March 31, 1915. 

Old Marion County, running in the Knoxville Express. 

War Reminiscences, by J. I. Holcomb, running in the Nashua Re- 

Hiram D. Wood, Veteran of Mexican War, in the Waterloo Courier, 
April 1, 1915. 

Boyhood Memories, in the Burlington Post, April 3, 1915. 

Reminiscences of Pioneer Days, by Lee Massure, in the BedfiM 
Review, April 8, 1915. 

How Des Moines Received the News of Lee's Surrender, in the Des 
Moines Tribune, April 9, 1915. 

Anniversary of Lee's Surrender, in the KeoJmk Constitution-Demo- 
crat, April 10, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of ex-Senator Benjamin R. Vale, in the Ottumwa 
Courier, April 10, 1915. 



Sketch of the life of Michael Hileman, in the Waterloo Courier, 
April 12, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of Jonathan Wax, in the Shenandoah Sentinel- 
Post, April 13, 1915. 

Cade Eogers^ First Buffalo, in the Glenwood Tribune, April 15, 

The Pioneer Settlers who Have Seen Jasper County Transformed, 

in the Kellogg Enterprise, April 16, 1915. 
The Last of our Indians, in the Lacona Ledger, April 16, 1915. 
The Frontier Sketches, running in the Burlington Post. 
Mr. and Mrs. John H. Lee, who Came to Iowa in Prairie Schooner, 

in the Shenandoah Sentinel-Post, April 20, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of Washington Galland, in the Fort Madison 

Democrat, April 22, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of George L. Godfrey, in the Des Moines Tribune, 

April 24, 1915. 

Anniversary of Birth of General Grant, in the Dubuque Telegraph- 
Herald, April 25, 1915. 

Another Story of the Early Days, in the Exira Journal, April 29, 

Historical Incidents — Reminiscences of P. M. Casady, in the Des 

Moines Plain Talk, April 29, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of Malcolm Smith — Prohibition Leader, in the 

Cedar Bapid^ Times, May 3, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of Samuel Druet, in the Anamosa Eureka, May 6, 


Sketch of the life of J. 0. Beebe, in the Burlington Post, May 8, 

Early History of Buena Vista County, in the Storm Lake Vidette, 
May 14, 1915. 

Some Trials of Pioneer Days, in the Lansing Mirror, May 21, 1915. 
Names of Iowa Streams, in the Keokuk Gate-City, May 23, 1915. 
Sketch of the life of Judge Emlin McClain, in the Iowa City Citizen, 
May 25, 1915. 

Bronze Tablet from Battleship Maine Unveiled by Jean Espy 
Chapter of D. A. H., in the Fort Madison Democrat, May 31, 


Abel Adams, Pioneer who was at Fort Dearborn before Name was 
given to Chicago, in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, May 25, 1915. 

Henry Vogeli, Dubuque's Oldest Resident, in the Dubuque Tele- 
graph-Herald, May 27, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of Cyrus S. Ranck, in the Iowa City Independent, 
May 27, 1915. 

Dedication of Soldiers' Monument at Le Mars, in the Le Mars Sen- 
tinel, June 1, 1915. 

Henry Clay Dean, in the Leon Reporter, June 3, 1915. 

James S. Clarkson Proposes Monument to Uncle Tom Mitchell, in 
the Mitchellville Index, June 3, 1915. 

Three Pioneers of Plymouth County, in the Le Mars Sentinel, June 
8, 1915. 

Rare Old Papers Found by J. L. Twining, in the Corning Union- 

Repuhlican, June 9, 1915. 
The Early Days of Tama County, in the Tama Herald, June 10, 


Early Days in Giard, in the Monona Leader, June 10, 1915. 
Relic of Old Firemen Days, in the Independence Journal, June 10, 

Early History of Iowa, in the Waterloo Times-Tribune, June 13, 

Sketch of the life of Jacob Altwegg, in the Algona Advance, June 
16, 1915. 

Pioneer Farming, by C. B. Hutchins, in the Algona Advance, June 
16, 1915. 

Some Local History, in the Tama Herald, June 17, 1915. 

Mr. and Mrs. Treloar, who came to Iowa in an Ox-cart, in the Ogden 
Reporter, June 17, 1915. 

Mrs. E. J. Reynolds — Sixty-three Years a Resident of Panora, in 
the Panora Vedette, June 17, 1915. 

Three Old Time River Steamers, in the Keokuk Constitution-Demo- 
crat, June 22, 1915. 

Unique Forty-niners Meeting at North Liberty, in the Iowa City 
Citizen, June 22, 1915. 

Civil War Reminiscences, by C. B. Hutchins, in the Algona Ad- 
vance, June 23, 1915. 



John McNally, a Sioux County Pioneer, in the Hawarden Inde- 
pendent, June 24, 1915. 

Sketch of the life of Robert Wharton, in the Bussey Record, June 
24, 1915. 

New Book on Father Mazzuchelli, in the Iowa City Citizen, June 24, 



Two articles in The Wisconsin Archeologist for April are : Fond 
du Lac County Antiquities, by William A. Titus; and Wisconsin 
Indian Models, by Charles E. Brown. 

In the April number of The Medford Historical Register there 
may be found, among other things, a discussion of Pine and Pasture 
Hills and the Part They Have Contributed to the Development of 
Medford, by John H. Hooper ; and a paper on Romance in History, 
by Helen T. Wild. 

Besides continuations of documentary material The Virginia 
Magazine of History and Biography for April contains an article 
on The Virginia Frontier in History — 1778, by David I. Bushnell, 

The J anuary- April number of the German American Annals con- 
tains two articles, namely: The German Drama in English on the 
New York Stage to 1830, by Louis Charles Baker; and Robert 
Reitzel as Poet, by Adolf E. Zucker. 

Among the articles which appear in the Records of the American 
Catholic Historical Society for June are the following : Preservation 
of Catholic Documents, by Lawrence P. Flick; A Visit to the 
Loretto of America, by Virginia Hardy; The Columbus Light, by 
Grace Pulliam; and a continuation of the Life of Bishop Conwell, 
by Martin I. J. Griffin. 

Three monographs, dealing with various phases of a large subject, 
are to be found in the October-December number of The Journal of 
American Folk-Lore, namely : Religion of the North American In- 
dians, by Paul Radin; Mythology and Folk-Tales of the North 
American Indians, by Franz Boas ; and The Social Organization of 
the Indians of North America, by A. A. Goldenweiser. 




Following the policy established in 1909, the North Carolina His- 
torical Commission has issued, for the use of the members of the 
General Assembly at the session of 1915, A Manual of North Caro- 
lina, compiled and edited by R. D. W. Connor. 

Besides a bibliography of the publications of the Society, the 
Annals of the Georgia Historical Society for the year ending Febru- 
ary 18, 1915, is devoted to reports of various officers and the annual 
report of the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

A brief biographical sketch of Thomas Minns, by Henry H. Edes; 
and a continuation of the Extracts from the Diary of James Parker 
of Shirley, Mass., are among the contents of the April number of 
The New England Historical and Genealogical Register. A supple- 
ment contains the proceedings of the annual meeting of the Society 
held on February 3, 1915, together with memoirs of deceased mem- 

A biographical sketch of William Nelson, by Joseph Fulford 
Folsom, and the proceedings of the annual meeting of the Society 
on October 28, 1914, make up the contents of the July-October, 
1914, number of the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical 

Old Charles Town and its Vicinity: Accahee and Wappoo where 
Indigo was First Cultivated, by Henry A. M. Smith ; A List of Non- 
commissioned Officers and Private Men of the Second South Caro- 
lina Continental Regiment of Foot, by John Bennett; and a con- 
tinuation of the Order Book of John Faucheraud Grimke, August, 
1778, to May, 1780, are among the contributions in the January 
number of The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Maga- 

The Missouri Historical Review for April opens with a biograph- 
ical sketch of Nathaniel Patten, Pioneer Editor, by F. F. Stephens. 
Francis A. Sampson is the compiler of a Bibliography of the Mis- 
souri Press Association and the writer of another article on Books 
of Early Travel in Missouri dealing with John Bradbury's volume 
describing his travels in the interior of America from 1809 to 1811. 


There are also some notes, taken from various sources, relative to 
Harmony Mission. 

Among the contents of the Journal of the Presbyterian Historical 
Society for March are the following: Report of the Committee on 
Historical Materials, Synod of New Jersey, for the Year 1914, by 
George H. Ingram ; A Catalogue of Manuscript Records in the Pos- 
session of the Presbyterian Historical Society, by Joseph Brown 
Turner; and part three of The Diaries of the Rev. Seth Williston, 
D. D., edited by Rev. John Quincy Adams. 

Some Remarks Upon the New Vancouver Journal, by F. W. 
Howay ; The Organization and First Pastorate of the First Congre- 
gational Church of Walla Walla, Washington, by T. C. Elliott; 
From Salem, Oregon, to Seattle, Washington, in 1859, by Dillis B. 
Ward; Washington Mail Routes in 1857, by Thomas W. Prosch; 
and Rights of the Puget Sound Indians to Game and Fish, by 
Charles M. Buchanan, are articles which appear in the April num- 
ber of The Washington Historical Quarterly. 

Filson Club Publications numbers twenty-six and twenty-seven 
consist, respectively, of a monograph on The Kentucky Mountains 
Transportation and Commerce, 1750 to 1911: A Study in the Eco- 
nomic History of a Coal Field, by Mary Verhoeff; and a volume 
devoted to Petitions of the Early Inhabitants of Kentucky to the 
General Assembly of Virginia, 1769 to 1792, with an introduction by 
James R. Robertson. Especially interesting and valuable in the 
first named study are the discussions of the early trails, roads, and 
routes of travel to Kentucky. 

Under the heading of Steam-boating on the Ohio and Mississippi 
Before the Civil War in the June number of the Indiana Magazine 
of History may be found some memoirs of Captain Wilson Daniels, 
of Troy, Indiana, edited by Preston A. Barba. Then follow some 
reminiscences of the Civil War and Andersonville Prison, by David 
S. Whitenack and Henry Devillez. Two other contributions are: 
County Seminaries in Indiana, by Walter Jackson Wakefield; and 
Judge John M. Johnson: An Appreciation of a Citizen, by Mrs. S. 
S. Harrell. 



The Acts and Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Federation of 
Historical Societies at the tenth annual meeting held at Harrisburg 
on January 21, 1915, are printed in pamphlet form. A perusal of 
the eighty-five pages of this report furnishes the reader with a very 
good idea of the work done by the many local, patriotic, and other 
historical societies in Pennsylvania during the preceding year. 

The May number of The Register of the Kentucky State His- 
torical Society opens with the proceedings at the unveiling of the 
restored portrait of Washington in the capitol building at Lexing- 
ton on February 22, 1915. Ella Hutchison Ellwanger is the writer 
of a sketch of the life of General John Breckinridge Castleman. 
Two other contributions are: Some Early Industries of Mercer 
County, by Mary A. Stephenson; and Old Times in Warren: 
Beminiscences of the Green River Section of Kentucky, by George 

An address entitled The New North State, by Archibald Hender- 
son, is the principal historical paper in the Proceedings of the Fif- 
teenth Annual Session of the State Literary and Historical 
Association of North Carolina. There is also much that is interest- 
ing in the following papers read at a conference on county history : 
A New Type of County History, by William K. Boyd; The Vital 
Study of a County, by E. C. Branson; and How Can We Secure the 
Writing of County Histories?, by Miss Adelaide Fries and W. C. 

A third installment of Selections from the Follett Papers, edited 
by L. Belle Hamlin, may be found in the January-March number 
of the Quarterly Puhlication of the Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio. The correspondence here printed consists chiefly 
of letters from Joshua R. Giddings to Oran Follett, scattered 
through the years from 1843 to 1847. 

Among the contents of the Proceedings of the American Anti- 
quarian Society at the annual meeting held in Worcester on October 
21, 1914, are the following : an article on Early Harvard Broadsides, 
by William Coolidge Lane ; a monograph on The Swedish Beginning 
of Pennsylvania and Other Events in Pennsylvania History, by 

VOL. xm — 29 


Thomas Willing Balch; a scholarly discussion of The Boyal Dis- 
allowance, by Charles M. Andrews; and a Bibliography of Amer- 
ican Newspapers, 1690-1820, Part II: Kentucky to Maine, by Clar- 
ence S. Brigham. 

The Historical Collections of the Essex Institute for April con- 
tains, among other things, a continuation of the article on The 
Governor of New Providence, West Indies, in 1702, by G. Andrews 
Moriarty; another installment of Newspaper Items Relating to 
Essex County, Massachusetts; and an article on The Woods, Salem, 
in 1700, by Sidney Perley. 

The Aaron Burr Conspiracy in the Ohio Valley, by Miss Leslie 
Henshaw, is an article which occupies the opening pages in the Ohio 
Archaeological and Historical Quarterly for April. Basil Meek 
traces The Evolution of Sandusky County. There is a paper by 
John Lee Webster on The West in American History. Byron R. 
Long presents a biography of Isaac Newton Walter, Pioneer Preach- 
er of Ohio. And finally, there is a brief statement concerning the 
First Catholic Church in Ohio, by M. B. Archer. 

A sketch of the life of Hon. Robert Goldshorough, Barrister, 
1733-1788, by Henry F. Thompson and A. S. Dandridge, is the first 
contribution in the June number of the Maryland Historical Maga- 
zine. Clayton C. Hall is the writer of a discussion of The Great 
Seal of Maryland, a replica of which has recently been discovered in 
London and presented to the State of Maryland. There is a contin- 
uation of the Letters of Rev. Jonathan Boucher, and there also 
appear some Extracts from the Carroll Papers. Finally, there is an 
article by Bernard C. Steiner on John J. Crittenden's Maryland 

A monograph on the case of Texas versus White, by William W. 
Pierson, Jr., occupies the opening pages of The Southwestern His- 
torical Quarterly for April. New York and the Independence of 
Texas is the subject which James E. Winston discusses. Frederic 
L. Paxson is the writer of a brief article on The Constitution of 
Texas, 1845. Part three of the study of Harris County, 1822-1845, 
dealing in this instance with local administration, is contributed by 



Adele B. Looscan. And finally, there is another installment of 
British Correspondence Concerning Texas, edited by Ephraim 
Douglass Adams. 

The April number of the Annals of Iowa is a ''Public Archives 
Number", the opening contribution being a paper by Ethel B. 
Virtue on the Principles of Classification of Archives, which was 
read at the Conference of Archivists in Chicago last winter. 
Lawrence J. Burpee briefly discusses Reciprocity in Historical 
Materials; and there is a third article by C. C. Stiles on the Public 
Archives of Iowa, consisting chiefly of a detailed outline of the 
classification of the archives from the office of Auditor of State. In 
the editorial department may also be found much interesting mate- 
rial relative to the preservation, use, and administration of archives, 
together with a brief sketch of the life of Edward F. Winslow, by 
Wm. Forse Scott. 

The April number of The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and 
Biography opens with an article on Johan Classon Rising, the Last 
Director of New Sweden, on the Delaware, by Amandus Johnson. 
Then follows the Narrative or Journal of Capt. John Ferdinand 
Dalziel Smyth, of the Queen's Rangers, dated New York, December 
25, 1777, and written for the purpose of making known the poor 
treatment received by "those unhappy people who had the mis- 
fortune to fall into the hands of the rebels". Another interesting 
document is the prospectus of The First Coal Mining Company of 
the Lehigh Region. Among the remaining contributions may be 
mentioned a diary of Captain Jacob Morgan telling of Life in a 
Frontier Fort During the Indian War; and a reprint of a document 
entitled The Case of the Proprietor of Pensilvania, &c., About the 
Appointing a New Deputy -Governor. 

The April number of The American Historical Review opens with 
a detailed account of The Meeting of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation in Chicago. In the following paper Guy Stanton Ford 
discusses Boy en's Military Law, by which universal military service 
was established in Prussia in 1814. The first installment of a study 
of Anglo-French Commercial Rivalry, 1700-1750: The Western 


Phase, is presented by Charles M. Andrews. The last article is one 
on The Cotton Factorage System of the Southern States, by Alfred 
Holt Stone. The "Notes and Suggestions" in this number include 
a discussion of the reform of Josiah and its secular aspect, a brief 
note on James I and witchcraft, and an extended statement con- 
cerning the casting votes of the Vice Presidents of the United States 
from 1789 to 1915. Under the headings of "Documents" there is a 
second installment of Letters from Lafayette to Luzerne, 1780- 
1782, edited by Waldo G. Leland. 

Leslie M. Scott is the writer of a History of Astoria Railroad 
which is the initial contribution in The Quarterly of the Oregon 
Historical Society for December. A paper by T. C. Elliott on The 
Fur Trade in the Columbia River Basin Prior to 1811 is of special 
interest in that it shows clearly that there were several trading posts 
in the Oregon country before the establishment of Astoria. Some 
Recollections of General E. L. Applegate are presented by George 
Stowell ; while some Personal Reminiscences of Samuel L. Simpson 
are written by William W. Fidler, who lived in Iowa for several 
years before he removed with his father to Oregon in 1853. The 
remaining articles are: The Influence of Canadian French on the 
Earliest Development of Oregon, by John Minto; and Champoeg, 
Marion County, the First Grain Market in Oregon, by the same 
writer. Finally, there is reprinted from The Iowa Journal of 
History and Politics of July, 1912, some material relative to Emi- 
gration from Iowa to Oregon in 1843. 

The June number of The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 
opens with an article by Frederic L. Paxson entitled A Constitution 
of Democracy — Wisconsin, 1847, a subject of much interest to the 
student of Iowa history because of the close connection between 
Wisconsin and Iowa during the early period. A paper on the 
Settlement of Michigan Territory, by George N. Fuller, is a con- 
tribution to the history of the westward movement. Archer B. 
Hulbert presents a second installment of his study of The Methods 
and Operations of the Scioto Group of Speculators. The last long 
article is a survey of Historical Activities in the Old Northwest, 
1914-1915, by Solon J. Buck. A separate survey of historical activ- 



ities in Canada will hereafter be made in the Review. The ''Notes 
and Documents" include a discussion of Some New-found Records 
of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, by Milo M. Quaife; a note on 
The Underwood Journal, by Louise Phelps Kellogg ; a letter relative 
to Detroit During the Revolution, with an introduction by Clarence 
M. Burton; a note concerning Work on the Cumberland Road, by 
Earl G. Swem; and a letter dealing with The French Settlers at 
Gallipolis, contributed by Mrs. Charles P. Noyes. 

Volume fourteen of the Jahrhuch der Deutsch-Amerikanischen 
Gesellschaft von Illinois, edited by Julius Goebel, is a book of nearly 
seven hundred pages. The first contribution consists of some Follen- 
Briefe, or letters of Karl FoUen and his relatives during the time 
of his sojourn in Switzerland and North America, edited by Her- 
man Haupt. Deutschamerikanische Dichter und Dichtungen des 17 
und 18 Jahrhunderts is the subject of a lengthy article by H. A. 
Rattermann. Following this there is a paper entitled German- 
American Jews, by Herman Eliassof ; after which Otto Lohr dis- 
cusses Das Deutschamerikanertum vor hundert Jahren und der 
Krieg von 1812-15. Then comes a one hundred and seventy page 
contribution to the political history of Iowa, namely, a study of The 
Germans in the Gubernatorial Campaign of Iowa in 1859, by Pro- 
fessor F. I. Herriott of Drake University. This was the campaign 
in which Samuel J. Kirkwood defeated Augustus Caesar Dodge for 
the office of Governor and in which Kirkwood had for his running 
mate Nicholas J. Rusch of Scott County, one of the leading Germans 
of the State. The last paper is one by Viola E. Knoche on The 
Early Influence of Richard Wagner in America. 

Under the editorship of St. George L. Sioussat, there appeared in 
March the first number of a new quarterly publication called the 
Tennessee Historical Magazine, published at Nashville by the Ten- 
nessee Historical Society. ''The venture is not altogether a new 
one, ' ' says the editor, ' ' for we look back with gratification and en- 
couragement to the nine volumes of the American Historical Maga- 
zine, which, beginning in 1896 under the auspices of the Peabody 
Normal College, was later continued until 1904, as the organ of the 
Tennessee Historical Society." Two interesting articles are to be 


found in the initial number, namely; Colonel Burr's First Brush 
with the Law: An Account of the Proceedings Against Him in Ken- 
tucky, by W. E. Beard; and the first section of a study of The 
Indian Policy of the Federal Government and the Economic Devel- 
opment of the Southwest, 1789-1801, by Donald L. McMurry. 
Under the heading of "Documents'' appear The Journal of General 
Daniel Smith, one of the Commissioners to Extend the Boundary 
Line Between the Commonwealths of Virginia and North Carolina, 
August, 1779, to July, 1780, with introduction and notes by St. 
George L. Sioussat; and a brief diary of Lieutenant McKenzie's 
Beconnoissance on Mohile Bay, January 5-14, 1815. A department 
devoted to historical notes and news completes the contents. All 
students of Mississippi Valley history will welcome the appearance 
of this new and promising publication. 


The "Wisconsin Archeological Society held its annual meeting at 
Milwaukee on Monday evening, March 15th. 

A conference of the Superintendents of State historical societies 
in the Upper Mississippi Valley was held in Chicago on June 24th. 
Plans for cooperation along various lines were discussed. 

The sixteenth annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical 
Society was held at Springfield on May 13 and 14, 1915. The prin- 
cipal address was delivered by Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch. 

The Harrison County Historical Society is making an effort to 
induce the early settlers of that county to write reminiscences and 
donate to the Society papers, letters, relics, and other historical 

Henry Van Dyke was reelected president of the Presbyterian 
Historical Society at the annual meeting held on January 14, 1915. 

A special meeting of the American Historical Association will be 
held at San Francisco, Berkeley, and Palo Alto on July 21, 22, 23, 
respectively. The papers read at these sessions will relate almost 
entirely to Pacific Coast history. 



On February 16, 1915, a tablet in memory of the pioneers of 
Missouri was unveiled by the Missouri Historical Society in the 
Jefferson Memorial Building at St. Louis. 

At the annual meeting of the Missouri Valley Historical Society 
of Kansas City held on January 12, 1915, the following officers were 
elected : John B. White, president ; W. L. Campbell, vice president ; 
Henry C. Flower, treasurer; and Mrs. Nettie C. Grove, secretary. 

Among the recent acquisitions of the Department of Archives and 
History of Mississippi are the original records, letters, and papers 
of the Bank of Mississippi from 1809 to 1835. 

The following officers were elected at the annual business meeting 
of the Texas State Historical Association on March 2, 1915 : Mrs. 
Adele B. Looscan, president; Charles W. Ramsdell, secretary- 
treasurer; and George W. Brackenridge, Miss Katie Daffan, R. C. 
Crane, and Mrs. Cornelia B. Stone, vice presidents. 

At the annual meeting of the Virginia Historical Society held on 
February 25, 1915, the officers who served during the preceding 
year were reelected. 

The Biennial Report of the Trustees of the Illinois State His- 
torical Library for the two years ending November 5, 1914, reveals 
progress in the work of the library during the period indicated. 
Nearly six thousand books and pamphlets were added to the library, 
and two valuable volumes of Collections were published. 

The Maryland Historical Society, through the generosity of its 
former president, Mr. Mendes Cohen, has recently come into the 
possession of a large collection of Carroll Papers, including letters 
from the correspondence of Charles Carroll of CarroUton and 
Charles Carroll of Annapolis, together with many other papers and 

The Annual Report of the Essex Institute for the year ending 
May 3, 1915, contains the plans and a description of the proposed 
addition to the building of the Institute. Additional stack room, a 
large museum room, portrait galleries, and a spacious auditorium 
are features of the plan. The librarian's report reveals the fact that 



nearly 1500 volumes and over 9000 pamphlets and serials have been 
added to the library during the past year. 

The Seventh Biennial Report of the executive committee of the 
State Historical Society of Missouri contains an account of the 
progress of the Society during the two years ending on December 
31, 1914. The most conspicuous activity of the Society during the 
period in question was in the development and expansion of its 
exchange department by which its collection of the publications of 
the other States was more than doubled. The total membership of 
the Society when the report was issued was thirteen hundred and 

At a meeting held at Santa Fe on March 27th there was organized 
"The Southwestern Anthropological Society", the object of which 
is to study and investigate the Indians of the Southwest and the 
folklore of the Spanish colonists. Dr. Livingston Farrand was 
chosen president ; Dr. F. E. Mera, vice president ; Paul Radin, secre- 
tary; and Justice Richard H. Hanna, treasurer. The home of the 
president is in Denver, while the other three officers reside in Santa 
Fe. A committee of research, consisting of a number of prominent 
ethnologists, was also chosen. 

The Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society held its forty-first 
annual meeting at Lansing on June 2 and 3, 1915. Among the 
papers and addresses on the program were the following : Menasseh 
Cutler's Relations to Higher Education in the Northwest, by John 
Cutler Shedd; Historic Sites in Detroit, by Clarence M. Burt,on; 
Story of the Government Operations in Surveying and Charting the 
Great Lakes from the Beginning of the Work in 1841 to the Present, 
by John Fitzgibbon ; and The Michigan Fur Trade, by Mrs. Ida A. 
Johnson. There was also a conference on ''Methods of co-operation 
on the part of public libraries, patriotic societies and county his- 
torical societies with the Michigan Historical Commission in gather- 
ing and publishing materials relating to the history of the State." 

During the year 1914 the Department of Historical Research of 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington published two valuable vol- 
umes. One, prepared largely by Charles 0. PauUin and Frederic 



L. Paxson, is a guide to the materials for United States history 
since 1783 to be found in London archives; while the other, compiled 
by Charles M. Andrews, is a guide to similar materials for the 
period before 1783 located in the Public Record Office of Great 
Britain. Progress was made in the investigations in the archives in 
Paris, Seville, Switzerland, Austria, Scotland, the Netherlands, and 
Russia, but most of this work was interrupted by the outbreak of 
the European war. Work was also continued along various other 
lines, such as the gathering and editing of letters of delegates to the 
Continental Congress, the collection of treaties between European 
powers having a bearing on American history, and the compilation 
of the proceedings and debates of Parliament concerning North 
America from 1585 to 1783 — all of which will eventually be pub- 

The eighth annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association was held at New Orleans on April 22-24, 1915. Among 
the papers on the program were the following: Spanish Reaction 
Against the French Advance Toward New Mexico, by "William E. 
Dunn; The Indian Policy of Bernardo de Galvez, by Elizabeth 
West ; Early Louisiana Justice, by Henry L. Griffin ; The Invasion 
of the Gothst and Vandals, by Isaac J. Cox; New Orleans and the 
First Years of the American Revolution, by James Alton James; 
The West in the Treaty of Peace in 1763, by Clarence W. Alvord; 
Yankee Shipbuilding on the Ohio Before the Embargo, by Archer 
B. Hulbert ; Rural Life in the Lower Mississippi Valley About 1803, 
by William 0. Scroggs ; Memphis as a Gateway of the West, by St. 
George L. Sioussat; Looking Backward to La Salle, by John Lee 
Webster ; and Some Geographic Influence in Mississippi Valley His- 
tory, by Frederick V. Emerson. At the business session Dunbar 
Rowland was elected president for the ensuing year ; St. George L. 
Sioussat, first vice president; Charles E. Moore, second vice presi- 
dent ; Clarence S. Paine, secretary and treasurer ; and M. J. White 
and James P. Willard, members of the executive committee. 

The library of the Minnesota Historical Society contained on 
January 1, 1915, a total of 117,922 books and pamphlets, which 
represented an increase of nearly nine thousand during the pre- 


ceding biennium. The most important accessions of manuscript 
materials during that period were the papers of Ignatius Donnelly, 
Franklin Steele, and William Pitt Murray. The Society is also 
assisting in an investigation of the public archives of Minnesota. 
Volume fifteen of the Collections of the Society, containing a large 
number of short papers, will soon be ready for distribution. Here- 
after, the Collections will be reserved for the publication chiefly of 
documentary material ; while the papers read at meetings and other 
historical articles will be printed in the new quarterly known as the 
Minnesota History Bulletin. Beginning early in 1916 the Society 
plans to bring out a three-volume history of Minnesota, written by 
Professor William W. Folwell ; and a volume of Collections contain- 
ing the papers of Alexander Ramsey is now being prepared. The 
appointment of Dr. Solon J. Buck as Superintendent and Secretary 
has already been mentioned in these pages. 


Dr. Fred E. Haynes has practically completed a monograph on 
the minor party movements in Iowa political history, which will be 
published by the Society. 

Paul Walton Black, a member of the Society, who spent several 
years as a student at Drake University and at the University of 
Iowa, is the writer of an article on Community Needs and the Com- 
munity Institute, published in the May number of The American 
City. Mr. Black is now Community Institute Organizer for the 
extension division of the University of Wisconsin. 

Dr. Louis Pelzer, whose writings are well known to the readers of 
the publications of the Society, is offering instruction at the Iowa 
State Teachers' College during the present summer session. 

At the regular, biennial business meeting of the Society held on 
Monday, June 28, 1915, the nine elective Curators who have served 
during the past two years were unanimously reelected, namely, 
Mr. Geo. W. Ball, Mr. J. W. Rich, Mr. Euclid Sanders, Mr. Arthur 
J. Cox, Mr. Marvin H. Dey, Mr. Henry G. Walker, Mr. Henry 
Albert, Mr. S. A. Swisher, Mr. Charles M. Dutcher. 



Mr. Lorin Stuckey, a member of the Society, received the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy at the State University of Iowa in June, 
his dissertation being a history of the Iowa Federation of Labor. 

Professor Louis B. Schmidt of Ames, a member and contributor 
to the publications of the Society, is the writer of an excellent 
article on The Activities of the State Historical Society of Iowa 
which appears in the March number of The History Teacher's 

Dr. E. H. Downey, formerly a member of the research staff of 
The State Historical Society of Iowa and the author of several of 
the publications of the Society, has written a scholarly Report 
on Old Age Pensions which has been published by the Industrial 
Commission of Wisconsin. Dr. Downey at present occupies the 
position of Statistician for the Commission. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society : Mr. Grover H. Alderman, Walker, Iowa ; Mr. S. C 
Bammer, Estherville, Iowa; Miss Lenore Beauchamp, Bedford, 
Iowa; Mr. R. J. Bixby, Edge wood, Iowa; Mr. H. B. Blackmun, 
West Union, Iowa; Mr. Sudhindra Bose, Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. 
W. C. Campbell, Harlan, Iowa; Mr. M. E. Clapp, Shelby, Iowa; 
Mr. R. F. Clough, Mason City, Iowa ; Mr. Wm. Cochrane, Red Oak, 
Iowa; Mr. W. E. Cooper, Harlan, Iowa; Mr. Samuel H. Crosby, 
Orinnell, Iowa; Mr. Shelby Cullison, Harlan, Iowa; Mrs. M. J. 
Dannatt, Clinton, Iowa; Mr. Austin Dowling, Des Moines, Iowa; 
Mr. H. P. Dowling, Harlan, Iowa; Mr. R. F. Eldridge, Dawson, 
Iowa; Mr. Carl Evans, West Union, Iowa; Mr. C. C. Gardner, 
Wellman, Iowa; Mr. Chas. A. Herring, Fairfield, Iowa; Mr. Philo 
C. Hildreth, Fairfield, Iowa; Mr. J. E. Howe, Greenfield, Iowa; 
Mr. R. D. Hughes, Webster City, Iowa; Mr. Geo. L. Kelly, Pella, 
Iowa; Mrs. W. H. Lepley, Union, Iowa; Miss Eleanor Lonn, Grin- 
nell, Iowa; Mr. Geo. L. Lovell, Monticello, Iowa; Miss Bessie A. 
McClenahan, Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. J. E. E. Markley, Mason City, 
Iowa ; Mr. Edgar F. Medary, Waukon, Iowa ; Mr. Justus A. Miller, 
Cherokee, Iowa; Mr. George Mueller, Van Meter, Iowa; Mr. R. L. 
Osborn, Harlan, Iowa; Mrs. Rose M. Parker, Harlan, Iowa; Mr. 
R. M. Pomeroy, Shelby, Iowa; Mr. R. G. Popham, Marengo, Iowa; 


Mrs. H. R. Reynolds, Clinton, Iowa ; Mrs. H. T. Rollins, Des Moines, 
Iowa; Mrs. Eleanor Strawman, Anamosa, Iowa; Mr. Lloyd 
Thurston, Osceola, Iowa ; Mr. Joseph S. Wade, Wellington, Kansas ; 
Miss Lenore Ash, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. C. C. Bradley, Le Mars, 
Iowa; Mr. W. C. Burrell, Oskaloosa, Iowa; Mr. L. H. Bush, Des 
Moines, Iowa; Mr. H. C. Chappell, Independence, Iowa; Mrs. 
Benjamin B. Clark, Red Oak, Iowa; Mr. Byron M. Coon, Esther- 
ville, Iowa; Mr. James A. Devitt, Oskaloosa, Iowa; Mr. H. H. 
Dorland, Lake Mills, Iowa; Mr. Chris Eriekson, Inwood, Iowa; 
Mr. E. K. Greene, Reinbeck, Iowa; Mr. W. S. Hamilton, Fort 
Madison, Iowa; Mr. Virgil M. Hancher, Rolfe, Iowa; Mr. C. S. 
Harper, Ottumwa, Iowa; Mr. 1. C. Hastings, Garner, Iowa; Mr. 
Chas. C. Helmer, Carroll, Iowa; Mr. Charles C. Heninger, Sigour- 
ney, Iowa; Mr. N. E. Hessenius, Lone Tree, Iowa; Mr. B. J. 
Horchem, Dubuque, Iowa; Mr. Geo. G. Hunter, Des Moines, Iowa; 
Mr. Thomas L. James, Fairfield, Iowa; Mr. Henry Jayne, Mus- 
catine, Iowa; Mr. Charles M. Junkin, Fairfield, Iowa; Mr. Joseph 
Kelso, Jr., Bellevue, Iowa; Mr. William G. Kerr, Grundy Center, 
Iowa ; Mr. H. H. Kildee, Ames, Iowa ; Mr. A. Conn Klinger, Indian- 
ola, Iowa; Mr. George Lueders, New Liberty, Iowa; Mr, Edward 
M. McCall, Nevada, Iowa; Mr. Thos. L. Maxwell, Creston, Iowa; 
Mr. Wier R. Mills, Pierson, Iowa; Mr. D. J. Murphy, Waukon, 
Iowa; Mr. Maurice O'Connor, Fort Dodge, Iowa; Mr. J. M. Over- 
baugh, Goldfield, Iowa; Mr. H. H. Petersen, Lowden, Iowa; Mr. 
Herbert B. Pierce, Rock Rapids, Iowa; Mr. Ivan L. Pollock, Liberty- 
ville, Iowa; Mr. Clyde D. Proudfoot, Indianola, Iowa; Mr. H. S. 
Rand, Burlington, Iowa; Mr. T. J. B. Robinson, Hampton, Iowa; 
Mr. Wm. Schultz, Marengo, Iowa; Mr. Henry Silwold, Newton, 
Iowa; Mr. J. J. Snell, Boone, Iowa; Mr. John L. Stevens, Boone, 
Iowa; Mr. Emmet Tinley, Council Bluffs, Iowa; Mr. Fred G. 
Turner, North English, Iowa; Mr. W. E. Van Buren, Tipton, 
Iowa; Mr. U. S. Vance, Laurens, Iowa; Mr. E. W. Weeks, Guthrie 
Center, Iowa; Mr. L. T. Bosworth, Manly, Iowa; Mr. A. B. Bowen, 
Maquoketa, Iowa; Mr. Joseph J. Clark, Mason City, Iowa; Mr. 
E. W. Cutting, Decorah, Iowa; Mr. Albert M. Fellows, Lansing, 
Iowa; Mr. Theodore G. Garfield, Humboldt, Iowa; Mr. N. E. Gold- 
thwait, Boone, Iowa; Mr. M. W. Herrick, Monticello, Iowa; Mr. 



A. M. May, Waukon, Iowa ; Mr. Floyd W. Paul, Mt. Vernon, Iowa ; 
Mr. D. A. Peterson, Dayton, Iowa; Mr. Sherman I. Pool, Waverly, 
Iowa; Mr. Fred W. Sargent, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. H. Jeptha 
Sealey, H'arlan, Iowa; Mr. Milton A. Smith, Independence, Iowa; 
Mr. R. W. Smith, Centerville, Iowa; Mr. E. B. Stillman, Clear Lake, 
Iowa; Mr. L. L. Taylor, Centerville, Iowa; Mr. Hubert Utterback, 
Des Moines, Iowa ; and Mr. E. T. Wickham, Washington, Iowa. 

Mr. W. C. Brown, Chicago, Illinois, and Mr. Parker K. Holbrook, 
Onawa, Iowa, have been elected to life membership in the Society. 


The Thirty-sixtli General Assembly of Iowa made provision for 
the marking of the site of the old State Fair Grounds at Fairfield. 

The annual meeting of the Old Settlers' Association of Bremer 
County was held on June 16, 1915, at Denver, Iowa. 

An effort is being made to revive interest in the Lyon County 
Pioneers Association organized about ten years ago, but which has 
not held meetings for several years. 

Washington Galland, a veteran of the Mexican and Civil Wars 
and a son of Isaac Galland, one of the earliest settlers of Lee 
County, died on April 22, 1915. He was eighty-seven years old at 
the time of his death. 

A newspaper item states that a biography of Chief Keokuk, in 
story form suitable for children's reading, is being written by 
Everett T. Tomlinson. 

The twenty-first annual meeting of the Iowa State Bar Associa- 
tion was held at Fort Dodge on June 24 and 25, 1915. 

The fifth annual conference of the Society of American Indians 
will be held at Lawrence, Kansas, from September 28th to October 

Under an act of the General Assembly of Indiana two commis- 
sioners have been appointed to ascertain and mark the route fol- 
lowed across the State by the Lincoln family on their way from 
Kentucky to Springfield, Illinois. 

The Missouri Society of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion is making plans for the marking of the El Camino Real — the 
road connecting the principal settlements in Missouri during the 
period of the Spanish regime. 




Lorenzo Frank Andrews, a pioneer newspaper man of Des 
Moines, passed away at his home in that city on July 8th. During 
his later years Mr. Andrews spent much time in historical writing, 
and from his pen came a large number of articles concerning the 
early history of Des Moines and the lives of the pioneers of the 
capital city. He was born in Massachusetts in 1828, and came to 
Des Moines on December 31, 1863. 

On March 20, 1915, at Washington, D. C, occurred the death of 
Charles Francis Adams, whose historical writings are widely known. 
He was bom in 1835, served with distinction during the Civil War, 
was interested in railway administration and regulation, and during 
the last twenty-five years, devoted himself largely to research and 
writing in American history. In 1901 he was president of the 
American Historical Association, and from 1895 to the time of his 
death he was president of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

A bronze statue of James Shields, mounted on a granite base, has 
been erected in the court house yard at CarroUton, Missouri, in ac- 
cordance with an act of the legislature appropriating $10,000 for 
that purpose. General Shields, who died at Ottumwa, Iowa, in 1879, 
had a distinguished career. Besides his military services as Briga- 
dier General during the Mexican and Civil Wars, he was Commis- 
sioner of the United States Land Office, Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois, and United States Senator at different times from 
Illinois, Minnesota, and Missouri. 

An automobile accident which occurred on March 30th resulted in 
the death of four pioneers of western Washington, all of whom 
have been greatly interested in the preservation of the history of 
that region, namely: Mr. Thomas W. Prosch, one of the pioneer 
journalists on Puget Sound and a man whose historical writings are 
numerous; Mrs. Prosch, whose father was Morton M. McCarver, 
one of the founders of Burlington, Iowa, and of Tacoma, Wash- 
ington; Miss Margaret Lenora Denny, whose father was a leader 
in the colony which founded Seattle; and Mrs. Harriet Foster 
Beecher, who lived for many years at Port Townsend and who was 
the painter of many portraits of early settlers. 



An excellent oil portrait of Theodore Sanxay, one of the pioneers 
of Iowa City, has recently been placed in the rooms of The State 
Historical Society of Iowa by his son, T. F. Sanxay of New York 
City. The portrait is the work of George H. Yewell, who has long 
been known in this State because of his numerous portraits of Iowa 

Theodore Sanxay was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, on March 12, 
1819, and he died at Iowa City on December 15, 1892. After re- 
ceiving an education in the schools of Cincinnati he spent some time 
in New York City studying the art of engraving. About 1841, 
however, he came to Iowa City with a little colony of people from 
Cincinnati, including Dr. Henry Murray and his brother, Malcolm. 
With the latter Mr. Sanxay embarked in the general merchandise 
business on Iowa Avenue, in a building believed to have been the 
first brick store building in Iowa City. Later he engaged alone in 
the hardware and iron business which he conducted at the northeast 
corner of Clinton and Washington Streets in buildings erected by 
him for that purpose. These buildings are still standing — one 
facing on Clinton and the other on Washington Street. The latter 
occupies, in part, the site of a large, frame building erected for the 
use of the Territorial legislature and officers when Iowa City be- 
came the capital of the Territory. This old building, known as 
Butler's Capitol, was purchased by Mr. Sanxay, and for a time was 
used by him until it was removed to another site when the erection 
of the new building above mentioned was begun. 

Mr. Sanxay continued in the hardware and iron business until 
about 1870, when he retired from mercantile and practically all 
active business. 

During the period of his business activity the bank which is now 
known as the Johnson County Savings Bank was organized; and 
for many years Mr. Sanxay was connected with this bank, either as 
director, vice president, or acting president. He never accepted the 
presidency of the bank, however, although he was repeatedly solic- 
ited to do so. He was the local authority on the genuineness of 
bank notes or bills in those days when such issues by banks in 
various States constituted the currency of the country, even in 



sections remote from the place of issue, and the "Bank Note Re- 
porter" was everywhere a necessity until the establishment of a 
national currency. At the outbreak of the Civil War, at the request 
of the business community, Mr. Sanxay gave his notes, issued on 
pasteboard, in denominations representing fractional parts of a 
dollar, in order to supply the need for small change occasioned by 
the withdrawal of the silver coin from circulation. 

Mr. Sanxay was married at Iowa City in 1842 to Hetty A. Perry, 
a native of Delaware. To them were born three sons, one of whom 
is still living. About 1876 he went to Brooklyn, New York, where 
he lived until 1880. Returning at that time to Iowa City he passed 
the remainder of his days in the old family home at the corner of 
Clinton and Market Streets. He was a member of the Presbyterian 
Church of Iowa City almost from the time of its organization. In 
politics he was first a Whig and later a Republican, but he was 
never a candidate for political office. 


Emlin McClain was born at Salem, Ohio, on November 26, 1851 ; 
and died suddenly at his home in Iowa City on the morning of 
May 25, 1915. His father, William McClain, was a teacher of wide 
reputation who established and conducted secondary schools, first in 
Ohio and later in Iowa. 

Judge McClain entered the State University in 1866, graduating 
in 1871 with the degree of B. Ph. In 1872 he received the degree of 
B. A., and one year later he graduated from the law department 
with the degree of LL. B. Thereafter, for about eight years he 
practiced law in Des Moines where he met and married (in 1879) 
Ellen Griffiths, daughter of Capt. H. H. Griffiths of that city. In 
1881 he returned to his alma mater and began his long career as a 
teacher of law — a work in which he found his greatest pleasure 
and for which doubtless he will longest be remembered. In 1887 he 
became Vice Chancellor and three years later Chancellor of the 
College of Law, a position which he held for ten years, until he 
entered upon his twelve-year period as Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Iowa. Retiring from the bench in January, 1913, he 
taught for one year at Leland Stanford University, and then re- 


turned to tlie work nearest his heart — becoming once more Dean of 
the College of Law of the State University of Iowa. He had nearly 
completed a year in this position at the time of his death. 

Judge McClain was widely known as a code-maker and as a com- 
piler and writer of volumes and articles on legal topics. Especially 
was he an authority on constitutional law. His name will go down 
in history among those of Iowa's greatest jurists. As a man he was 
kindly, broad in his sympathies, democratic, and tolerant. 


Jacob Vait der Zee, Eesearch Associate in The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa, and Instructor in Political Science in 
the State University of Iowa. (See The Iowa Journal of 
History and Politics for January, 1913, p. 142.) 

John Ely Beiggs, Research Assistant in The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa. Born near Washburn, Iowa, on July 
30, 1890. Graduated from the Eagle Grove High School in 
1909 ; received the degree of A. B. from Morningside College in 
1913; and the degree of M. A. from the State University of 
Iowa in 1914. Author of the History of Social Legislation in 



Established by La-w in tes^ 1857 

iNCOEPOftATED: 186T AN) 18 92 

LooATisp AT Iowa Ctty Iowa 

F. H. LEE 

JAMES W, <5EIMES, First Fmlent 



BENJAMIN F, SHAMBAUGH . . Supeeintendent 

EUCLID SANDEES . . . , .President 

PAUL A. KOEAB • . . ..Tbeasubee 

PEANK E. HOEACK, .Secretary 


Elected "by the Society 
Geo. W. Ball Marvin H. Dey 

J. W. EiCH Henry G. Walker 

Euclid Sanders Henry Albert 
Arthur J. Cox S. A. Swisher 

Charles M. Butcher 

Appointed by the Governor 
Marsh W. Bailey Byron W, Newberry 
M. F. Edwards A. C. Savage 
J. J. McConnell E. W, Stanton 
John T, Moffit W. H. Tedfoed 
J. B. Weaver 


Any person may become a member of The State Historical Society of Iowa uoou 
election by the Board of Curators and the payment of an entrance fee of $3.00, 

Membership in this Society may be retained after the first year upon the payment of 
$3.00 annually. 

Members of the Society shall be entitled to receive the quarterly and all other publications 
of the Society during the continuance of their membership. 

Any public, school, or college library in the State of Iowa may be enrolled as a library 
member upon appHcation and the payment of a fee of $1.00. Such Hbrary memberBhip may be 
retained after the first year upon the payment of $1.00 annually. Libraries enrolled as library 
members of The State Historical Society of Iowa shall be entitled to receive the quarterly 
and all other publications of the Society issued during the period of their membership. 

Address all Communications to 
The State Historical Society Iowa City Iowa 


Iowa Journal 



Published Queo^erlyby 


lowet City low^a. 

Enured BMcnabcr 26 1902 ftt leva Oity Iowa as second-cIasB matter under aet of CoDgreas of July 16 1394 

Assistant Editor, DAN E. CLARE: 



No 4 


The Legislation of the Thirty-sixth General Assembly of 
' . . . Fkank Edward Hokack 

History of Presbyterianism in Iowa City 

Jacob Van der Zee 

Some Publications 
Western Americana 

Historical Societies 

Notes and Comment 






Copyright 1915 ly The State Historical Society of Iowa 



BuBBCBiPTioN Pbice: $2.00 SiNOLl Numbbb: 60 Cents 

Address all Communieati<yne to 
The Stati Hibtobioal SoontTT Iowa City 



VOL. xni — 30 


With the American people the berating of legislative 
bodies has become a habit which is the result of repeated 
disappointments. In legislation conflicting interests, which 
are always at work, lead to many compromises. Thus the 
legislative product often falls far short of clear-cut and 
effective enactments. Frequently none are more disap- 
pointed than the members themselves at the unsatisfactory 
outcome of months of labor. Moreover, it is the habit of 
newspapers to freely advise the legislative body as to what 
it ought to do and then roundly denounce it for not follow- 
ing the advice thus gratuitously offered. During the recent 
session of the Illinois legislature The Chicago Daily Tribune 
editorially made the following suggestions ^'for legislative 

We suggest that the house of representatives of the Illinois gen- 
eral assembly round out its career by passing bills : 

To prohibit the employment of children under 5 years of age. 

To limit the hours of employment of women to ninety-eight in a 
week, no more than fourteen in any one day thereof. 

To persuade each male citizen of the state of 18 years and over to 
drink at least three glasses of whisky and six bottles of beer daily. 
(Brands may be specified at the discretion and in the wisdom of the 
legislature. ) 

To require that intoxicating liquors shall be sold in dance halls. 

To increase the salaries of members of the legislature to $10,000 
per annum, with mileage allowance of 25 cents a mile whenever and 
wherever the legislator may travel, inclusive of travel on street cars. 

To prohibit the location of a church within two miles of a saloon 
except upon the written consent of three-fourths of the saloonkeep- 
ers within the ward or, in counties not containing a city of over 



200,000 population, in the township in which it is proposed to locate 
such church. 

To make it a misdemeanor to accept membership in any league or 
any association having for its purpose the prevention of the estab- 
lishment of saloons. 

To make it a criminal offense, punishable by imprisonment, for 
any grower of corn to feed corn to stock or otherwise dispose of it 
except upon the written consent of the secretary of the state board 
of agriculture, which consent shall be given only upon the condition 
that the requirements of the various distilleries in the state shall 
have been met. 

To make it an offense punishable by fine and imprisonment to 
suggest the enactment of any laws by the legislature or to criticize 
any acts of the legislature or any legislator therein or thereof. 

We further suggest that each bill so passed shall carry the clause : 
''Whereas, an emergency exists this act shall take effect upon and 
after its passage.*'^ 

Such sarcasm is a fair indication of the esteem in which 
The Tribune held the work of the Illinois legislature. More- 
over, from other neighboring States come charges of ex- 
travagant, hasty, ill-considered, and special legislation. It 
will be recalled that in this State the Thirty-fourth General 
Assembly was frequently designated as a ''do-nothing 
legislature'', while the Thirty-fifth General Assembly was 
as severely criticised for having done too much. And the 
numerous attempts made in the Thirty-sixth General As- 
sembly to repeal the legislation of preceding sessions gained 
for it the reputation of being " reactionary ''.^ 

The Thirty-sixth General Assembly of Iowa was in actual 
session seventy-six days.^ During this legislative period 

1 The Chicago Tribune, May 28, 1915. 

2 The failure of the Senate to confirm the appointment of Mr. Gardner 
Cowles, publisher of The Eegister and Leader, for a position on the State Board 
of Education, was generally conceded to have been due to the fact that many 
members of the General Assembly resented the vigorous criticisms which ap- 
peared in the columns of his paper. 

8 The session began on January 11, 1915, and ended on April 17, 1915. 


1279 bills and 35 joint resolutions were introduced, of which 
638 were House bills and 641 were Senate bills — there 
being 12 House resolutions and 23 Senate resolutions. Of 
these 1279 legislative propositions less than a fourth were 
enacted into law.^ And of the more than 300 enactments 
the Governor vetoed but one.^ 

In outlining the work of the Thirty-sixth General Assem- 
bly the writer has considered only those acts which in his 
opinion seemed to be of prime importance. While the legis- 
lation has been classified under general headings, no at- 
tempt has been made to make these headings correspond 
with the Code headings. 


It will be recalled that the Thirty-fifth General Assembly 
made provision for the compilation of the laws known as the 
Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1913,^ The delay in issu- 
ing this Supplement (the Thirty-sixth General Assembly 
had been in session over a month before the volume ap- 
peared and then without an index) seems to have opened up 
the question of how to make the laws more available for 
public officers and attorneys. Heretofore the session laws 
have been issued by the Secretary of State, who published 
them in the language of the enrolled bills, each act being 
designated and numbered as a chapter; but the Thirty- 
sixth General Assembly repealed the act providing for the 
publication of the laws on this plan,"^ and authorized the 

^Numerical History and Classified Index of House and Senate Bills of the 
Thirty- Sixth General Assembly of Iowa, 1915, published by the Law Depart- 
ment of the State Library, gives the total number of House bills passed as 154 
and the total number of Senate bills passed as 178. The writer has been unable 
to count more than 152 House bills passed as given in the Index referred to. 

5 This was Senate File No. 264 by Hilsinger and related to the area that may 
be placed under quarantine by the Commission of Animal Health. 

6 Laws of the Thirty-fifth General Assembly, Ch. 1. 

7 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 133, p. 4. 


issue of a volume styled the Supplemental Supplement to 
the Code of Iowa, 1915. In this volume all laws of a general 
and permanent nature enacted by the Thirty-sixth General 
Assembly appear without their enacting clauses. The 
volume follows the plan of the Code of 1897 and its Supple- 
ments; and wherever an act amends, repeals, or expands an 
existing section of the Code of 1897 or the Supplement to 
the Code of Iowa, 1913, the chapter or section appears in 
full as the law now stands. The session laws are thus com- 
piled and adjusted to their proper places in the general laws 
of the State. In the future we are promised but two vol- 
umes of statute law: (1) the Code, and (2) a biennial cumu- 
lative Supplement which shall also contain annotations of 
all decisions not appearing under the particular section in 
the then existing Code and Supplement.^ Under this new 
arrangement as to the publication of the laws the Supreme 
Court Reporter becomes ex officio editor of the Code and 
the Supplement thereto.^ 


Public printing is always a topic of interest in legislative 
bodies, and during the session of the Thirty-sixth General 
Assembly there was considerable discussion within the As- 
sembly, as well as without, as to the cost of the public print- 
ing. A prominent Des Moines publisher made a proposition 
to the Assembly to do the public printing at a greatly re- 
duced rate if he were given the job. The final outcome of 
the agitation was a revision of the schedules for State print- 
ing and binding without material change.^^ 

Provision was made for the printing of the House and 
Senate journals and for their distribution by the Secretary 

8 See explanatory note to Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, 
p. xi, also Sec. 224-i, p. 17. 

8 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec, 224-h, p. 17. 
if^ Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec, 138, p. 5. 


of State at the price of $1.00 for each or $1.50 for both 
journals. The Secretary of State was also directed to make 
application for the privilege of sending the journals as 
second class mail matter.^^ 

Chapter 4, Title III, of the Supplement to the Code of 
Iowa, 1913 relative to the Supreme Court Eeporter and the 
manner of issuing reports was repealed and a new chapter 
enacted with a view to putting the office on a better business 

A more liberal provision was made for the printing of 
the proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences.^^ 


In the matter of suffrage and elections, the activities of 
the Thirty-sixth General Assembly were, with one impor- 
tant exception, concerned with proposed constitutional 
amendments which had been transmitted from the Thirty- 
fifth General Assembly. The woman's suffrage amendment 
was cordially endorsed in each house and special pro- 
vision was made for its submission to the voters at the 
primary election in June, 1916,^^ so that if the amendment 
is adopted the women of the State will have an opportunity 
to vote at the presidential election in the following No- 

The amendment proposed and adopted by the Thirty- 
fifth General Assembly providing for the holding of the 
general election in 1916 in the same month and on the same 
day as the presidential election, and thereafter permitting 
the General Assembly to prescribe the time of holding such 

11 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 132-a, p. 3. 

12 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec, 224-a to 224-ii, 
pp. 15-19. 

13 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 136, p. 4. 

1* See Numerical History and Classified Index of House and Senate Bills of 
the Thirty-Sixth General AssemWy of Iowa, 1915, p. 283. 

15 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 1106-a, p. 100. 


election was also approved.^^ But the initiative and refer- 
endum amendment after passing the House was killed in 
the Senate.!"^ 

The most important act of the Thirty-sixth General As- 
sembly relative to suffrage and elections concerns the so- 
called absent voter's ballot. This is a long act of fourteen 
sections providing that any qualified elector of the State of 
Iowa, who is registered where registration is required and 
who on account of the nature of his business is absent or 
expects in the course of his business to be absent from the 
county in which he is qualified to vote, may vote at any 
election by making an application to the county auditor or 
to the city or town clerk for an official ballot. This applica- 
tion is made on a form prescribed by law, with proper safe- 
guards against abuse or fraud. The absent voter must 
mark his ballot in the presence of an officer authorized by 
law to administer oaths, but with no other person present. 
The absent voter must first exhibit the ballot to the officer 
that he may testify that it was unmarked, then in the pres- 
ence of such officer, but without his knowing how it is 
marked the absent voter marks his ballot, folds it, seals it, 
and sends it by registered mail to the county auditor of the 
county of his residence. On election day these ballots are 
cast by the judges of election in the regular ballot box.^^ 

An act entitled ^^Of Offenses against the Eights of Suf- 
frage'' makes it a penal offence for any one to write, print, 
or distribute any literature or advertisement designed 
either to promote or defeat the nomination or election of 
any candidate for public office or to influence the voters on 

16 Appropriation Acts and Joint Resolutions Passed at the Begular Session of 
the Thirty-Sixth General Assembly of the State of Iowa, 1915, p. 34. 

17 Numerical History and Classified Index of Mouse and Senate Bills of the 
Thirty-Sixth General Assembly of Iowa, 1915, pp. 22, 285. 

18 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 1137-b to 1137-0, 
pp. 100-104. 


any constitutional amendment, or to influence the vote of 
any member of the legislature, unless there appears upon 
the same in a conspicuous place either the name of the 
chairman or secretary or of two officers of the organization 
issuing the same, or of the person who is responsible there- 
for with his name and address''. Editorial or news ad- 
vertisements in any magazine or newspaper, and cards, 
posters, lithographs, or circulars issued by a candidate 
advertising his own candidacy are exempt from the pro- 
visions of the act.^^ This act may properly be classed as 
corrupt practices legislation. 

Three acts were passed increasing the pay of registers 
and election officials.^^ A change was also made in the num- 
ber of days prescribed for the filing of certificates of nom- 
ination papers.^ ^ 


It will be recalled that the Thirty-fifth General Assembly 
authorized the Joint Committee on Eetrenchment and Re- 
form to employ expert accountants and efficiency engineers 
and to institute such changes in the administration of 
public affairs as would promote efficiency and economy in 
the administration of the affairs of the State in its various 
departments. Under this authority the committee em- 
ployed the firm of Quail, Parker & Co. to make a survey of 
the offices and departments of the State government located 
at Des Moines. By this firm there was issued a lengthy 
report which dealt chiefly with the executive offices and in 
which a reorganization of the executive department of the 
State within the existing provisions of the Constitution was 
recommended. The chief responsibility in the proposed 
plan centered in the Governor. 

19 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 4931-a, p. 330. 

20 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 1076, 1087-a5, 
1093, pp. 96-98. 

21 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 1104, p. 99. 


With some modifications the Committee on Retrench- 
ment and Reform accepted the recommendations of the 
expert accountants and efficiency engineers and framed a 
bill with a view to enacting these recommendations into 
law. Bnt the bill was not well received : it was indefinitely 
postponed in the Senate^^ and soon afterwards was with- 
drawn from consideration in the House.^^ The committee 
was rewarded for its efforts to reorganize the executive 
department of the State government by the introduction of 
a bill to abolish the committee.^* 

The work of the committee, however, was not altogether 
in vain; since an act was passed for the establishment of a 
budget system. This act provides that all departments, in- 
stitutions, or undertakings which receive annual appropri- 
ations from the State treasury, must biennially on or before 
November 15th, prior to the convening of the General As- 
sembly, submit to the Governor financial statements in 
detail of receipts and expenditures '^with an explanation of 
the reason for any increased appropriation". The Gov- 
ernor is required to submit along with his official message 
* ' a budget which shall contain in detail general information 
and in general form his recommendations to the general 
assembly for appropriations for all the different depart- 
ments and boards and state officials, together with such 
explanation thereof as he may desire to present. There 
is nothing, however, in the act which requires the General 
Assembly to accept the recommendations of the Governor, 
and it is easy to believe that the legislature will feel free to 

22 Journal of the Senate of the Thirty-Sixth General Assembly, pp. 1467, 

23 Journal of the House of Bepresentatives of the Thirty-Sixth General As- 
sembly, p. 1680. 

24 This bill failed of enactment. See Journal of the Senate of the Thirty- 
Sixth General Assembly, p. 1441. 

zr> Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 191-a, 191-b, 
pp. 13, 14. 


increase or decrease the appropriation items recommended 
in the budget. 

The Governor was given power to appoint not more than 
four special agents whose duty it shall be, under the direc- 
tion of the Governor, to aid in the capture, detention, arrest 
and prosecution of persons committing crime or violating 
the laws of the State. Such agents are to have all the pow- 
ers of peace officers and county attorneys anywhere within 
the State, but they in no way relieve such officers of any 
duty now or hereafter required by law.^^ This is one of 
the law enforcement measures which no doubt is intended 
to make effective the liquor legislation enacted. 


While there seems to have been no demand in this session 
for the recall of judges or the recall of judicial decisions, 
there was a very determined but unsuccessful attempt to 
repeal the non-partisan judiciary act passed by the Thirty- 
fifth General Assembly. 

The juvenile court law was amended making more spe- 
cific the provisions for the procedure to be followed in 
juvenile courts for the disposition of dependent, neglected, 
or delinquent children.^^ 

Provision was made for an additional district judge in 
the J ohnson-Iowa county district, the first selection to take 
place at the general election in 1916. This will give the 
district two judges, who may not be residents of the same 
county. They are, however, directed to alternate as nearly 
as practicable at the places for holding terms of court, and 
terms may be held simultaneously at both places.^^ 

26 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 65-a to 65-d, 
p. 3. 

27 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 254-al5 to 254- 
al6, pp. 23, 24. 

^^Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 227-8ab and 
227-8ae, p. 21. 


The judges of the district courts and their shorthand 
reporters were given traveling expense allowances not to 
exceed $200 per year.^^ 


The chief acts affecting State officers relate, as two years 
ago, to increases in salaries, but this time the legislation 
affects only appointive officers. The Secretary of the Board 
of Control had his salary raised from $2000 to $2500 per 
year;^^ and the salary of the Secretary of the Board of 
Educational Examiners was increased from $100 to $125 
per month.^^ The compensation of the Chief Oil Inspector 
was placed at $1800 and that of other inspectors at $1200 
per year, instead of being on a fee basis as heretofore.^^ 
The bond of the Chief Oil Inspector was raised to twice that 
of other oil inspectors, being now fixed at $10,000.^^ 

The Chief Oil Inspector will hereafter make his reports 
of all inspections, receipts, and expenditures to the Gov- 
ernor. Heretofore such reports were made to the Secre- 
tary of State.34 

The term of Mine Inspectors was reduced from six to four 
years and the Dairy and Food Commissioner was author- 
ized to appoint two additional assistants at $1400 each.^^ 

Hotels are now classified according to the number of 
rooms, and the fees which the Hotel Inspector may charge 
for inspection are thus classified.^^ 

29 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 253 and 253-a2, 
p. 22. 

30 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2726-a3, p. 253. 

31 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2634-a, p. 244. 

32 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2507, p. 214. 

33 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2503, p. 212. 

34 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2509-a, p. 215. 

35 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2478, p. 210. 
30 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2515, p. 217. 
37 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2514-s, p. 216. 


The custody of the public archives is now vested in the 
Curator of the Historical Department of Iowa, instead of 
jointly in the State Library and Historical Department as 

The office of Custodian of Public Buildings was abolished, 
and the duties of that office were assigned to the Adjutant 
Greneral.^^ Heretofore the civil engineer member of the 
State Board of Health was ex-officio Hotel Inspector; but 
now the State Board of Health will appoint the Hotel In- 
spector who shall have no other official business.^^ 


The Governor was authorized to appoint, on July 1, 1915, 
a Document Editor for a term of two years at a salary of 
$2000 per year. Subsequent appointments must be con- 
firmed by the Senate. The duties of this officer are to re- 
ceive and receipt for all reports, documents, and publica- 
tions received from the State Binder, and to certify all bills 
for the same to the Executive Council. All reports will be 
delivered to the Document Editor, and he is authorized **to 
edit, revise and prepare such manuscripts for the printers 
use'\ He is authorized to condense and eliminate when in 
his judgment such action will not lessen the value of the 
documents, reports, or publications. He has supervision of 
the printing and indexing of the House and Senate journals 
and files, and has charge of the distribution of all such re- 
ports, documents, and publications.^^ The Document Edi- 
tor relieves the Secretary of State of much work which 
formerly fell upon him. 

38 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 2881-0 to 2881-t, 
pp. 268, 269. 

39 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 145-147, p. 9. 

40 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2514-p, p. 216. 

41 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 144-e to 144-p, 
pp. 7-9. 


The Eeporter of the Supreme Court was made ex-officio 
editor of the Code and the supplemental supplements. The 
printing, indexing, and binding of such publications is to be 
in charge of the Code Editor under the direction of the 
Supreme Court.^^ 

A State Board of Audit was created consisting of the 
Auditor of State, the Attorney General, or one of his as- 
sistants designated by him, and the Secretary of the Exec- 
utive Council or his first assistant. This board will audit 
all claims, except salaries fixed by law, and must certify 
the same before warrants are drawn. The power heretofore 
vested in the Executive Council, the Board of Trustees of 
the State Library and Historical Department, and other 
officers, boards, and commissions to certify claims is now 
transferred to the State Board of Audit."*^ 

A Board of Accountancy was created, consisting of three 
persons appointed by the Governor. It is the duty of this 
board to hold examinations and issue certificates to success- 
ful candidates to be Certified Public Accountants, who are 
then entitled to use the abbreviation C. P. A. after their 
names under the provisions of the statutes and the rules 
adopted by the board.^* 


The terms of county supervisors will hereafter begin on 
the second secular day in January instead of the first Mon- 
day in January.^ ^ The procedure to be followed where the 
number of members of the board of supervisors has been 
reduced by a vote of the people is defined.^^ 

*2 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 224-h to 224-ii, 
pp. 17-19. 

43 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 170-r to 170-w, 
pp. 10, U. 

44 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 2620-a to 2620-k, 
pp. 240-24.3. 

4-''' Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 411, p. 34. 
40 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 410, p. 34. 


The board of supervisors is now required to submit for 
bids any repairs or buildings the cost of which exceeds 
$2000.^^ Nor may they erect a court house or jail, the prob- 
able cost of which exceeds $10,000, without submitting the 
proposition to a vote of the people.^^ This board may now 
levy a tax of not to exceed one mill on the dollar for the 
erection or maintenance of monuments or memorial halls in 

In cases where the county or State is a party the duties 
of the county attorney are made more specific.^^ Where the 
district court is held at two places in the county the board 
of supervisors may allow the county attorney $500 addi- 
tional compensation.^^ 

The clerk of the district court may with the consent of 
the board of supervisors appoint one or more deputies not 
holding a county office.^^ A new scale of compensation for 
county auditors was established, which will no doubt oper- 
ate to increase the salaries of such officers in many counties. 
The sums remain as heretofore, but population limits were 
reduced.^^ In counties of 25,000 or over, and in those where 
the district court is held in two different places in the same 
county the salary of the first and second deputy auditors is 
placed at one-half that of the auditor.^^ The same pro- 
vision was enacted relative to deputy county treasurers.^^ 

The compensation of sheriffs and county treasurers'*^ 

47 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 422, Par. 5, p. 35. 

48 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 423, p. 37. 

49 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 430, p. 38. 

50 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 301, p. 29. 

51 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 308, p. 30. 

52 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 298, p. 28. 

53 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 479, p. 40. 

54 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 481, p. 41. 

55 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 491, p. 42. 

56 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 510-a, p. 43. 

57 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 490, p. 41. 


was fixed at definite sums which depend upon the popula- 
tion of the county. It was also provided that the sheriff, 
treasurer,^® and auditor should turn all official fees into 
the county treasury — the sheriff's mileage being excepted. 


That the township as a unit of local government is falling 
into decay is evidenced by the lack of legislation affecting 
it. One act relating to the duties of the township clerk was 
passed which requires that officer to post a statement of the 
receipts and disbursements of his office for the preceding 
two years instead of for the preceding year only as hereto- 


Probably the most important municipal legislation en- 
acted by the Thirty-sixth General Assembly was that pro- 
viding for the adoption of the city manager plan. In fact 
two different manager plan acts were passed. The first 
provides that cities and towns, except those under the com- 
mission form of government and those of over 25,000 in- 
habitants, may by ordinance create the office of city 
manager and fix his duties, powers, and compensation. The 
manager is to be appointed by a majority vote of the council 
at a regular meeting and shall hold his office at the pleasure 
of the council. After the manager has been appointed the 
council may provide by ordinance that he shall perform 
any or all of the duties incumbent upon the street commis- 
sioner, or manager of public utilities, cemetery sexton, city 
clerk and superintendent of markets, and that he shall 
superintend and inspect all improvements and work upon 

68 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 510-b, p. 44. 
f'O Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 490-a, p. 42. 

60 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 479-a, p. 40. 

61 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 578, p. 44. 


the streets, alleys, sewers, and public grounds of the city or 
town, and to perform such other and further duties as may 
be imposed upon him''.^^ rpj^jg j^^s sometimes been called 
the Clarinda plan. 

The other city manager plan, which may be adopted by 
any city or town, has sometimes been designated as the 
Waterloo plan and is modelled more closely upon the man- 
ager plan as found in operation at Dayton, Ohio. Twenty- 
five percent of the voters of the city or town petition the 
council for an election to vote upon the adoption of the plan. 
If adopted in cities of 25,000 or more inhabitants, five coun- 
cilmen are elected, and in cities and towns having less than 
25,000 inhabitants three councilmen are elected; the terms 
of office are so arranged that all councilmen will not go out 
of office at the same time. The council when organized se- 
lects one of its own members as chairman, who is designated 
as mayor and recognized as the official head of the city or 
town, although he is limited in his activities. The members 
of the council, who serve without compensation, are re- 
quired to meet at least once a month, and their meetings are 
open to the public. This council appoints a city manager, 
who must be a competent person and **who shall be the ad- 
ministrative head of the municipal government of the city 
or town in which he is appointed. ' ' Appointed without re- 
gard to political affiliations, the manager need not be a resi- 
dent of the city or town at the time of his appointment. In 
the powers and duties of the manager there are found the 
essential provisions for a successful city manager plan.^^ 

Another important municipal act authorizes any city of 
20,000 or over to establish a municipal court upon the peti- 
tion of not less than fifteen percent of the qualified electors. 

62 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 679-la to 679-4a, 
p. 46. 

63 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 1056-b to 1056- 
b26, pp. 86-95. 

VOL. xm — 31 


If adopted all minor courts, such as the police court, the 
mayor's court, the justice of the peace court, and the supe- 
rior court in and for the territory within the municipal 
court district shall be abolished. There shall be one munic- 
ipal judge for every 30,000 inhabitants or major fraction 
thereof; and the judge or judges as well as the clerk and 
bailiff are to be nominated at a non-partisan city primary 
and elected at a non-partisan city election for a term of 
four years. The judges of the municipal court must be 
qualified electors and residents of the municipal court dis- 
trict, and they must be practicing attorneys at law. The 
same person may act as judge and clerk of the municipal 
court ; and a member of the police force may act as bailiff. 
Such courts will have no special term, but must be open for 
business the whole year round. 

The jurisdiction of this municipal court is concurrent 
with the district court in all civil matters where the amount 
in controversy does not exceed $1000, except in matters of 
probate, actions for divorce, alimony, separate maintenance, 
and those cases directly affecting the title to real estate and 
juvenile proceedings. But this court has no power to 
grant injunctions, except where the issuance of the writ is 
auxiliary to the other relief which is demanded and over 
which the court has jurisdiction. The criminal jurisdiction 
of the court is the same as that of the justice of the peace, 
mayor's, and police courts. It is a court of record. Ap- 
peals in civil actions may be taken directly to the Supreme 
Court; but in criminal actions the defendant has the right 
of appeal to the district courts the same as he would have 
from the justice of the peace and the police courts. This 
act contains fifty-one sections and occupies twelve printed 
pages in the Supplemental Supplement.^^ 

Commission-governed cities of the second class, where the 

«4 {Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 694-el to 694- 
c51, pp. 47-58. 


census enumerator's report to the county auditor shows a 
population of 15,000 or more, may proceed to elect a police 
judge the same as if the Executive Council had canvassed 
the census and certified the same as official.^^ Vacancies oc- 
curring in the council of cities under special charter can no 
longer be filled by the remaining members unless such 
vacancy occurs within sixty days of a regular election. In 
all other cases a special election must be held to fill the 

Again, cities of 15,000 or over acting under the commis- 
sion plan must provide for civil service commissioners; 
while cities of over 2000 and less than 15,000 operating 
under this plan may provide for civil service commission- 

Cities and towns were given authority to regulate and 
license jitney busses and all motor vehicles operating on the 
streets and carrying passengers for hire. The owners or 
operators of such jitneys may be required to file with the 
city a proper indemnity bond for the protection of the city 
or public against damages resulting from negligence in the 
operation of such vehicles. 

Cities of 5000 or over, if traversed by a stream two hun- 
dred feet wide, are given full control of the bridge fund 
levied and collected by law. The city is made liable for the 
defective construction of such bridges, and the county is 
relieved from liability. 

Towns are now given authority to issue bonds for the 
construction of a town hall.'^^ Municipal bonds may be is- 

65 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 1056-a26, p. 82. 

66 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 937 to 937-b, pp. 
79, 80. 

67 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 1056-a32, p. 83. 

68 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of loiva, 1915, Sec. 754-a, p. 64. 

69 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 758, p. 64. 
"^^^ Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 741-f, p. 62. 


sued in sums of not less than $20 nor more than $1000. The 
minimum limitation has heretofore been $100.'^^ 

The publication of the proceedings of the city or town 
council is now required. Heretofore the clerk published 
them only when ordered to do so by the council.'^^ 

In addition to the municipal legislation mentioned above, 
numerous legalizing acts were passed for the benefit of par- 
ticular cities; and there was considerable legislation 
couched in general terms that in fact applies to but one city. 


Public utility legislation fared no better in the Thirty- 
sixth General Assembly than at previous sessions. Numer- 
ous proposals for the regulation of public utilities were 
introduced, but most of them were defeated or lost in the 
sifting committee. 

Towns were permitted to levy a tax of not over five mills 
in any one year for gas and electric light or power plants."^^ 
The limit of the indebtedness of companies manufacturing 
gas, heat, steam, or electricity, or constructing or operating 
interurban or street railways was placed at twice the paid- 
up capital.'^^ Moreover, the power of the board of super- 
visors was extended in granting permission to lay water 
mains or pipes in the public highway to any source of water 


Iowa is still struggling for good roads, and the belief is 
growing that permanent good roads will be built only under 
the supervision of the State government. In 1913 the 

71 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 726, p. 61. 

72 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 687-a, p. 47. 

73 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 894, Par. 8, p. 77. 

74 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 1611, p. 133. 

75 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 1527-b, p. 115. 


TMrty-fifth General Assembly reorganized the State High- 
way Commission, gave it important powers, and supplied it 
with adequate funds. The activities of this Commission 
aroused considerable opposition among county and town- 
ship officers, who objected to being told by a State authority 
what to do and how to do it. The result was that when the 
Thirty-sixth General Assembly met in J anuary, 1915, there 
developed a strong movement to abolish the State Highway 
Commission, led by Eepresentative James F. Johnston of 
Lucas County.^ ^ The Johnston Bill passed the House by a 
vote of 64 to 43, but was indefinitely postponed in the Sen- 
ate."^^ The friends of the State Highway Commission were 
not only able to save the legislation of 1913, but they in- 
sisted that they had put more teeth'' into it before the 
close of the session of 1915. 

The members of the State Highway Commission were 
each put under $5000 bond, and in addition to the compen- 
sation allowed them by law they will now be given their 
necessary traveling expenses — but they shall not incur any 
expense to the State by sending out road lecturers. 

Additional power was given this Commission to make 
plans for and estimates of the cost of the elimination of 
danger at railroad crossings and to assist the county board 
of supervisors and the Attorney General in the defense of 
patent suits relative to road and bridge construction. 

The powers of the Commission to remove county engi- 
neers was amended so that this officer may now be removed 
by the board of supervisors for cause and by the State 
Highway Commission for incompetency only. The term of 
the county engineer is now fixed at one year. 

The State Highway Commission is made the final arbiter 

76 See House File No. 282. 

77 See Journal of the House of Representatives of the Thirty-Sixth General 
Assembly, pp. 982, 985, 986; also Journal of the Senate of the Thirty-Sixth 
General Assembly, p. 1414. 


between the city and the connty where they can not agree 
npon the improvement of roads located on the corporate 

The board of supervisors may make application to the 
Highway Commission for changes in the established county 
road system when such changes are proposed for the pur- 
pose of eliminating dangerous crossings or curves or where 
such changes would decrease the cost of maintenance. 
Moreover, the board of supervisors is required to construct 
and maintain permanent culverts as well as bridges, all of 
which will now be paid for out of the county bridge fund. 
The same authority may add to the county road system 
from the township road system such roads as will material- 
ly shorten the direct lines of travel between market towns. 
Nor are the supervisors any longer required to publish a 
resolution of necessity in order to build bridges or culverts 
the cost of which exceeds $300. 

Township trustees in designating the township roads to 
be dragged are now required to include all roads in con- 
solidated school districts and all mail routes. 

The State Highway Commission can not refuse to ap- 
prove plans and specifications for cuts and fills if such plans 
propose to decrease the hills or inclines at least twenty per- 
cent of the existing incline. 

The right of the board of supervisors to purchase or con- 
demn land where necessary to prevent streams from en- 
croaching upon a public highway was repealed but the 
supervisors may provide for the drainage of public high- 
ways,^^ and on the petition of ten freeholders of any county 
or the recommendation of the county engineer they may 

78 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 1527-s to 1527- 
sl6, pp. 118-] 25. 

70 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 1527-a, p. 115. 
80 Supplem,cntal Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 1989-b to 1989- 
bl3, pp. 171-174. 


change the course of any part of any road or stream within 
the county in order to avoid unnecessarily expensive 
bridges, grades, or railroad crossings or to cut off danger- 
ous corners.^^ 

Cities of 2000 or more population may pave such streets 
as in the judgment of the council constitute main traveled 
ways into and out of such cities.^^ Cities and towns of less 
than 8000 inhabitants may levy a tax of not more than one 
mill on the dollar to be used for dragging the roads or 
streets of such city or town and for no other purpose.^^ 

Weeds along the highways and in other places are now 
required to be cut two weeks earlier than heretofore.^^ 
They will probably be allowed to go to seed as usual. 


The general use of motor vehicles is largely responsible 
for good roads legislation ; and so the motor vehicle legis- 
lation and good roads legislation may well be considered 
under the same heading. Eegistration of motor vehicles 
seems to be a universal practice, and State legislatures 
have been obliged to enact considerable legislation that will 
prevent evasion and at the same time inconvenience the 
owner as little as possible. In Iowa the application for 
the registration of motor vehicles will no longer need to be 
verified, and when a car has once been registered future 
applications only need to contain the name of the owner, 
with postoffice address and residence, former registration 
number, factory number, and number of the car.^^ 

81 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 1527-rl to 1527- 
r7, pp. 115-118. 

82 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 840-li to 840-i, 
pp. 69, 70. 

83 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. '887-a, p. 75. 

84 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 1565-a, p. 125. 

85 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 1571-m2, p. 126. 


Unpaid fees for registering a motor vehicle are made a 
lien against the motor vehicle until paid with accrued pen- 
alties. On May 1st of each year the Secretary of State is 
directed to send to the county attorney of each county a list 
of delinquent fees in his county ; and it is made the duty of 
the county attorney to collect the same and all penalties 
provided by law. The county attorney is entitled to keep 
ten percent of the fees and penalties so collected. The 
sheriff is also given power to seize cars not properly regis- 
tered and for which the fees have not been paid for the 
purpose of enforcing the lien against such cars.^^ 

The Executive Council is required to buy automobile 
number plates under contract let to the lowest bidder or 
have them made at a State institution under the Board of 
Control but after January 1, 1916, all motor vehicles are 
to have permanent number plates for a period of three 

In order that no one should escape registration, the auto 
dealers are required to notify the Secretary of State of each 
car sold, giving the name and address of the purchaser, date 
when sold, make of the car, and factory number.^^ 

Ninety percent of the motor vehicle license money will 
now be apportioned among the several counties of the State 
in the same ratio as the number of townships in the several 
counties bears to the total number of the townships of the 
State. The county treasurer must pay a portion of the 
county's share of this motor vehicle money to the cities 
within the county, but not exceeding ten percent, for im- 
proving the unimproved streets and roads connecting di- 

88 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 1571-m7, pp. 127, 

87 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 1571-m5, pp. 126, 

88 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 1571-ml2, p. 129. 

89 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 1571-ml4, pp. 
129, 130. 


rectly with the county or township road systems. The 
State Highway Commission will hereafter receive but five 
instead of eight percent of the motor vehicle tax for its 


The Bacteriological Laboratory of the College of Medi- 
cine at the State University of Iowa is required to make all 
analyses of water, when so requested, without charge except 
for transportation and actual cost of examination, not to 
exceed two dollars. The laboratory is also authorized to 
determine the source of epidemics of disease and to suggest 
methods of overcoming such epidemics and report thereon 
to the Secretary of the State Board of Health.^^ The ap- 
propriation of $5000 for the Epidemiology Laboratory" 
was transferred to the Bacteriological Laboratory, and all 
the laboratory work of the State Board of Health must now 
be done at or through the Bacteriological Laboratory at 
Iowa City.92 

Whooping cough, measles, mumps, and chickenpox must 
now be reported to the local board of health, and a warning 
card bearing the name of the disease must be placed on the 
house of the patient. This is declared not to be a quaran- 
tine but only a warning.^^ 

Cities and towns are allowed to levy an extra two mills 
for sewer outlets and purification plants they are also 
given the right to control streams and surface waters flow- 
ing into sewers.^ ^ They may likewise provide for the estab- 

90 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 1571-in32, pp. 
131, 132. 

91 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2575-a7, p. 235. 

92 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2575-a9, p. 235. 

93 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 2571-la to 2571- 
Sa, p. 234. 

94 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 840-g, p. 69. 

95 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 881, p. 75. 


lishment of sanitary districts for the collection and disposal 
of garbage, for oiling and sprinkling, and for flushing and 
cleaning streets.^® 


A number of provisions in addition to and intended to 
strengthen the law relative to protection against fire were 
enacted providing a schedule of fire escapes based on the 
average number of persons occupying or using the building 
and on the character of the construction of the building. 
Fire escapes are classified, and the construction and loca- 
tion of each class is prescribed according to the construction 
of the building. The doors of practically all buildings 
where people assemble are required to open outward and 
must not be fastened against exit or so they can not be easily 
opened from within. The chief of the fire department, the 
mayor, and the chairman of the board of supervisors are 
required to inspect the fire escapes within their jurisdiction, 
except such buildings as hotels and factories which are 
especially inspected.^^ 

Fire escapes must now be placed on all hotels even if less 
than three stories in height,^^ and additional fire escapes 
must be provided for on hotels of three or more stories 
hereafter constructed.^^ Additional fire escapes are like- 
wise provided for in hotels having rooms opening into a 
court or light-well. ^''^ 


The park and playground movement is rapidly invading 
even the rural communities. Townships are now authorized 

06 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 696-b, p. 59. 

07 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 4999-a6 to 4999- 
all, pp. 336-341. 

08 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2514-i, p. 215. 
00 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2514-0, p. 216. 
100 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2514-n, pp. 215, 



to levy a tax for the necessary improvement and mainte- 
nance of public parks acquired by gift, devise, or bequest.^*^^ 

Cities and towns may permit soldiers' monuments or 
memorial halls to be erected in any public park or public 
ground of the city or town;^^^ such monuments or halls 
may be erected upon grounds held in trust by a river front 
improvement commission.^^^ 

Public squares or plats of ground may be given over to 
school purposes in towns which have discontinued organ- 
ization or failed to exercise their municipal powers for a 
period of more than ten years.^^* 

An act intended no doubt for the benefit of Davenport, as 
the bill was introduced by a representative from that city, 
provides that cities under special charter now or hereafter 
having a population of 25,000 or over (there are but two 
such in the State) shall have power to place by ordinance 
the exclusive charge, custody, and control of all property 
outside the lot or property lines and inside the curb lines in 
the hands of park commissioners. Power may also be con- 
ferred upon the park commissioners in such cities to deter- 
mine the location of permanent sidewalks outside of the 
property lines. The park commissioners in such cities may 
also be given charge and control of all trees, shrubbery, 
flowers, and grass outside the property lines and they may 
plant, cut, prune, remove, transplant, spray, and care for 
the same.^^^ 


All cities in Iowa are authorized to provide one or more 
playgrounds and may issue bonds for the purchase of such 

101 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 586, p. 44. 

102 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 850-O, p. 72. 

103 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 879-ol, p. 73. 

104 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 932, pp. 78, 79. 

105 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 997-a to 997-e, 
p. 81. 


grounds ; and the city council shall appoint a woman pecu- 
liarly fitted for such work, who shall be known as Play- 
ground Superintendent ' and who shall have charge of the 
playgrounds and control over the children playing thereon. 
The council may also adopt rules and regulations for such 
playgrounds.^^ ^ 

Another important playground act reads as follows : 

The school board in cities including cities under special charters 
and commission form, having a population of twenty thousand or 
more, is hereby empowered to purchase or lease for educational 
purposes a tract of land outside of the boundaries of such city, for a 
school garden or school farm in like manner and under the same 
restrictions as in the case of school property in the said city and to 
erect suitable buildings thereon, and to furnish the same, and to 
appoint managers in a suitable manner. The said tract of land to 
be maintained for the purpose of providing a summer home for 
pupils of the city who may desire to continue their study all the 
year round, and for supplying to them an opportunity to perform 
productive work in such vocational lines as agronomy, olericulture, 
viticulture, apiculture, pomology, agriculture, and the auxiliary 
arts, carpentry, masonry, and any other wholesome and voluntary 
employment, and to diversify such work with open air exercises and 
recreations of both physical and intellectual character ; also for en- 
abling the pupils of the elementary schools and of the high school 
opportunities for visitation and observational study at all seasons in 
connection with their school work; it being the intent and purpose 
of this statute to develop in the state of Iowa the educational prin- 
ciple and work commonly comprised in the name ''Park Life", as 
exemplified experimentally and discussed educationally and socio- 
logically in this state. 

Where such school garden or school farm is maintained, the said 
school board shall seek to correlate its functions with the regular 
work of the schools in the most practical and efficient manner. 

An act which seems to have been passed for the benefit of 
Council Bluffs states that any city which prior to July 1, 

100 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees, 879-r to 879-w, 
pp. 73, 74. 

lor Supplemental Supplement to the Codo of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2823-u7, p. 267. 


1880, received from the United States a grant to the title of 
a meandered lake within its corporate limits for recreation 
and park purposes and has devoted the lake to such uses 
for more than twenty years, may by so certifying to the 
county auditor cause to be collected for the ensuing five 
years an additional tax not exceeding one-half mill on the 
dollar for the purpose of improving such lake.^^^ Another 
act relating to meandered lakes with a view to retaining 
them for recreation purposes is of more importance. It 
provides for a survey of such lakes by the State Highway 
Commission and for the classification of those which should 
be preserved, drained, and retained by the State, and those 
which should be drained and sold.^^^ 


Cities and towns are authorized to levy a tax of not over 
one mill on the dollar in any one year for the purchase of 
land for cemetery purposes.^ For the purpose of perma- 
nently marking and designating certain graves for memo- 
rial purposes, the soldiers' relief commission in any county 
may furnish appropriate metal markers to be placed on the 
grave of each soldier, sailor, or marine buried within the 
county, who served with honor in the forces of the United 

Again, the record-keeping officer of any cemetery within 
the State is required to make and keep a permanent record 
of all interments made in such cemetery, which record is to 
be open to public inspection at all times. The record kept 
must consist of a copy of the certificate of death and a 

108 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 850, p. 72. 

109 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 2900-b to 2900- 
e, pp. 272, 273. 

110 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 880, p. 75. 

111 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 434-a, p. 38. 


record of the exact location of each grave on the cemetery 



The conservation movement has rather tardily taken in 
the children. Considerable legislation relating to child 
labor was enacted by the Thirty-sixth General Assembly, 
but the so-called child welfare bill which proposed to main- 
tain a child welfare station at the State University failed to 

Children nnder fourteen years of age are prohibited from 
working in a livery stable, garage, place of amusement, or 
in the distribution or transmission of merchandise or mes- 
sages, unless such establishment or occupation is owned or 
operated by their parents.^ 

No person under sixteen years of age can be employed at 
any of the places or in any of the occupations in which chil- 
dren under fourteen years of age are forbidden to work, 
before seven A. M. nor after six P. M. nor for more than 
eight hours in any one day, nor for more than forty-eight 
hours in any one week. The exemption in favor of canning 
factories, provided for in Sec. 2477-c of the Supplement to 
the Code of Iowa, 1913, is now withdrawn.^ Nor shall any 
person under the age of eighteen years be employed in the 
transmission, distribution, or delivery of goods or messages 
between the hours of ten P. M. and five A. M. in any city of 
10,000 or more inhabitants.^ 

In addition to the occupations prohibited to persons 
under sixteen years of age, such persons are not allowed to 
work ^'in or about any mine during the school term, hotel. 

Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees, 587 to 587-b, p. 


113 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2477-a, p. 206. 

114 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2477-c, p. 207. 
ii!"^ Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2477-c, p. 207. 


bowling alley, pool or billiard room, or in occupations dan- 
gerous to life or limb ' Women under twenty-one years of 
age can not now be employed where they must remain con- 
stantly standing.^ 

No boy under eleven nor girl under eighteen shall be em- 
ployed, permitted, or suffered to work at any time in any 
city of 10,000 or more inhabitants in or in connection 
with the street occupations of peddling, boot-blacking, the 
distribution or sale of newspapers, magazines, periodicals, 
or circulars, nor in any other occupation in any street or 
public place. Upon recommendation of the superintendent 
of public schools, the judge of the superior or municipal 
court may grant a work permit under certain conditions, 
and one having such work permit must wear a badge show- 
ing that he is licensed.^^^ 

No one is permitted to be employed who is under sixteen 
years of age, unless the employer keeps on file a work per- 
mit and two complete lists of the names and ages of such 
children under sixteen years of age, one of which lists shall 
be conspicuously posted near the principal entrance of the 
place where such children are employed.^^^ 

As a part of the legislation dealing with the juvenile court 
an act was passed which should perhaps be considered 
under child welfare. It provides for a hearing v/here it is 
alleged that a child under sixteen years is afflicted with 
some deformity or suffering from some malady that can 
probably be remedied; and if the parents or guardian are 
unable to provide the proper surgical and medical treat- 
ment and hospital care, then the judge may enter an order 
with the consent of the parents or guardian directing that 
the child be taken or sent to the hospital of the Medical 

116 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2477-b, p. 207. 

117 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2477-al, pp. 206, 

118 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 2477-d, p. 207. 


College of the State University for free medical and sur- 
gical treatment and hospital care. The Board of Control 
may send any inmate of any institution under its care to 
the hospital without a court order. Children so sent can not 
be treated for any ailment except such as is described in the 
order of the court without the parents' consent.^^^ 


The most important piece of labor legislation enacted by 
the Thirty-fifth General Assembly was the so-called Em- 
ployer's Liability and Workmen's Compensation Actj^^o 
which overthrew the doctrine of contributory negligence if 
the employer refused to accept the provisions of the statute ; 
while he is entitled to plead contributory negligence on the 
part of the employee if the employee rejects the provisions 
of the act. 

An act of the Thirty-sixth General Assembly declares 
**that in all actions brought in the courts of this state to 
recover damages caused by the negligence of the defendant, 
the burden of proving contributory negligence shall rest 
upon the defendant." The act applies only to actions 
brought by an employee against his or her employer, or by 
a passenger against a common carrier in which cases of 
contributory negligence may be pleaded in mitigation of 

A State Free Employment Bureau was established and 
placed under the Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. It is the duty of this bureau to send classified 
lists of applicants for work as well as those desiring to 
employ labor to the auditors of the several counties and to 
the clerks of all cities or towns having a population of over 

110 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 254-b to 254-1, 
pp. 24-28. 

120 Laws of the Thirty-Fifth General Assemhly, Ch. 147. 

121 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 3593-a, p. 306. 


five hundred. Such lists are to be sent out at least once 
each month and must be posted in an accessible and con- 
spicuous place.^^^ 

The Commissioner of Labor is also authorized, with the 
consent of the Executive Council, to issue bulletins contain- 
ing information of importance to the industry of the State 
and to the safety of wage-earners.^^^ 

After November 1, 1916, all motor cars used for the 
transportation of passengers must be equipped with vesti- 
bules enclosing front and rear platforms on all sides, be- 
tween November 1st and April 1st. Such vestibules must 
be heated and provided with seats for the use of the motor- 
men and conductors. 

Railways are required to pay their employees at least 

The law relative to safety appliances in factories was 


The act of the Thirty-fifth General Assembly relative to 
the care of patients in advanced stages of tuberculosis was 
repealed and a new law enacted by which the approval of 
the State Board of Control is necessary before the county 
supervisors can provide for the care and treatment of such 
persons. ^2 

The per capita support for each child in the Soldiers' 
Orphans ' Home was raised from twelve to fourteen dollars 
per month; and the counties are now made liable to the 

Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sees. 2477-gl to 
2477-g3, pp. 209, 210. 

'^^^ Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 2470, pp. 205, 

124 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 768-li, p. 65. 

125 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 2110-bl, p. 182. 

126 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 4999-a5, p. 336. 

127 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, See. 409-t3, p. 33. 

128 Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1915, Sec. 2691, p. 246. 

VOL. xni — 32 


extent of seven dollars per month, instead of six, for each, 
child, except the children of soldiers, supported in the Sol- 
diers' Orphans' Home.^^^ 

The so-called omnibus appropriation bill sets aside the 
sum of $5000 for the purpose of defraying the expenses in- 
curred for medical attention and treatment of friendless 
girls in maternity cases when such girls are patients in 
certain homes for friendless women in lowa.^^*^ Four in- 
stead of three State agents are now authorized to find suit- 
able homes, positions, and employers for inmates of the 
Soldiers' Orphans' Home, the Industrial School, and the 
Iowa Industrial Eeformatory for Females. The appropria- 
tion for the salaries and expenses of these agents was in- 
creased to $7000.^^^ Finally, a chaplain was provided for 
the Soldiers ' Home.^^^ 


The act of the Thirty-fifth General Assembly providing 
for a State colony for epileptics was expanded, and further 
provision was made for the regulation, management, and 
discipline of the patients at this institution, which will here- 
after be known as **The State Hospital and Colony for 
Epileptics ".133 

The board of supervisors is authorized to pay $150 per 
year to blind male persons twenty-one years of age and to 
blind fema